# The American Cyclopædia (1879)/United States of America

The American Cyclopædia
United States of America by J. W. Hawes (geography and history), T. Sterry Hunt (geology), S. Kneeland (zoölogy), John J. Knox (finance), and George Thurber (botany)

Edition of 1879. See also United States on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, a federal republic in North America, comprising the central portion of the continent and the territory of Alaska, separated from the rest by British Columbia. (See Alaska.) The main portion lies between lat. 24° 30′ and 49° 24′ N. (at the lake of the Woods, W. of which the boundary follows the 49th parallel), and lon. 66° 50′ and 124° 45′ W. It is bounded N. by British America, from which it is in part separated by Lakes Superior, Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario, with their connecting streams, and the river St. Lawrence (see Canada, vol. iii., p. 672); E. by New Brunswick and the Atlantic ocean; S. by the gulf and republic of Mexico, from which it is partly separated by the Rio Grande; and W. by the Pacific ocean.

 Obverse ⁠ Reverse Great Seal of the United States [The device for the great seal of the United States, as adopted by act of the continental congress on June 20, 1782, and readopted by the new congress, Sept. 15, 1789, provided for an obverse and a reverse, substantially as here depicted; but there is no evidence that the reverse was ever made. In the obverse as originally adopted, the eagle held in his sinister talon a bundle of thirteen arrows, and the first seal was thus made; but when, in 1841, a new seal was made to take the place of the old one, which had become worn, only six arrows were put into the eagle's talon. Whether this change, which was unauthorized by law, was made by design or by accident, is not known.]

 STATES. Date. Order. Area in squaremiles. Relative size. CAPITALS. .mw-parser-output .wst-rule{background-color:black;color:black;width:auto;margin:2px auto 2px auto;height:1px} Alabama 1819 9 50,722 16 Montgomery. Arkansas 1836 12 52,198 15 Little Rock. California 1850 18 188,981 2 Sacramento. [1]Connecticut 1788 5 4,750 35 Hartford. [1]Delaware 1787 1 2,120 36 Dover. Florida 1845 14 59,268 9 Tallahassee. [1]Georgia 1788 4 58,000 10 Atlanta. Illinois 1818 8 55,410 12 Springfield. Indiana 1816 6 83,809 28 Indianapolis. Iowa 1846 16 55,045 13 Des Moines. Kansas 1861 21 81,318 6 Topeka. Kentucky 1792 2 37,680 25 Frankfort. Louisiana 1812 5 41,346 22 New Orleans. Maine 1820 10 35,000 26 Augusta. [1]Maryland 1788 7 11,124 30 Annapolis. [1]Massachusetts 1788 6 7,800 34 Boston. Michigan 1837 13 56,451 11 Lansing. Minnesota 1858 19 83,531 5 St. Paul. Mississippi 1817 7 47,156 18 Jackson. Missouri 1821 11 65,350 8 Jefferson City. Nebraska 1867 24 75,995 7 Lincoln. Nevada 1864 23 104,125 3 Carson City. [1]New Hampshire 1788 9 9,280 32 Concord. [1]New Jersey 1787 3 8,320 33 Trenton. [1]New York 1788 11 47,000 19 Albany. [1]North Carolina 1789 12 50,704 17 Raleigh. Ohio 1802 4 39,964 23 Columbus. Oregon 1859 20 95,274 4 Salem. [1]Pennsylvania 1787 2 46,000 20 Harrisburg. [1]Rhode Island 1790 13 1,306 37 .mw-parser-output .nowrap,.mw-parser-output .nowrap a:before,.mw-parser-output .nowrap .selflink:before{white-space:nowrap} Newport and Providence. [1]South Carolina 1788 8 34,000 27 Columbia. Tennessee 1796 3 45,600 21 Nashville. Texas 1845 15 274,356 1 Austin. Vermont 1791 1 10,212 31 Montpelier. [1]Virginia 1788 10 38,348 24 Richmond. West Virginia 1868 22 23,000 29 Wheeling. Wisconsin 1848 17 53,924 14 Madison. Total states . . . . . . 1,984,467 TERRITORIES. Arizona 1863 7 113,916 4 Tucson. Colorado 1861 5 104,500 5 Denver. Dakota 1861 6 148,932 1 Yankton. Dist. of Columbia[2] 1801 1 64 11 Washington. Idaho 1863 8 86,294 7 Boisé City. Indian Territory . . . . . . 68,991 10 . . . . . . . . Montana 1864 9 145,776 2 Helena. New Mexico 1850 3 121,201 3 Santa Fé. Utah 1850 2 84,476 8 Salt Lake City. Washington 1853 4 69,994 9 Olympia. Wyoming 1868 10 97,883 6 Cheyenne. Total territories . . . . . . 1,042,027 . . Total U. S., exclusive of Alaska . . . . . . 3,026,494 . . Alaska 1867[3] . . 577,390 . . Sitka. Total United States . . . . . . 3,603,884 . . Washington.

 STATES. POPULATION AS RETURNED BY THE CENSUS OF 1870. Aggregatepopulation,including tribal Indians. White. Rank inwhite population. Colored. Rank incolored population. Born in the United States. Rank innative population. Born inforeign countries. Rank inforeign population. Total, includingChinese and non-tribal Indians. Rank intotal population. Population per square mile. Rank indensity of population. Alabama 521,384 21 475,510 3 987,030 14 9,962 32 996,992 16 19.66 23 996,992 Arkansas 362,115 26 122,169 12 479,445 24 5,026 35 484,471 26 9.30 29 484,471 California 499,424 22 4,272 29 350,416 27 209,831 9 560,247 24 2.96 34 582,031 Connecticut 527,549 20 9,668 26 423,815 26 113,639 14 537,454 25 113.15 3 537,454 Delaware 102,221 34 22,794 21 115,879 34 9,136 33 125,015 34 58.97 9 125,015 Florida 96,057 35 91,689 14 182,781 32 4,967 36 187,748 33 3.17 32 188,248 Georgia 638,926 16 545,142 1 1,172,982 10 11,127 31 1,184,109 12 20.42 22 1,184,109 Illinois 2,511,096 4 28,762 19 2,024,693 4 515,198 3 2,539,891 4 45.84 11 2,539,891 Indiana 1,655,837 5 24,560 20 1,539,163 5 141,474 13 1,680,637 6 49.71 10 1,680,637 Iowa 1,188,207 8 5,762 27 989,328 13 204,692 10 1,194,020 11 21.69 21 1,192,092 Kansas 346,377 28 17,108 23 316,007 28 48,392 21 364,399 29 4.48 31 373,299 Kentucky 1,098,692 10 222,210 10 1,257,613 7 63,398 16 1,321,011 8 35.33 12 1,321,011 Louisiana 362,065 27 364,210 7 665,088 22 61,827 18 726,915 21 17.58 27 726,915 Maine 624,809 17 1,606 31 578,034 23 48,881 20 626,915 23 17.91 26 626,915 Maryland 605,497 18 175,391 11 697,482 20 83,412 15 780,894 20 70.20 7 780,894 Massachusetts 1,443,156 7 13,947 24 1,104,032 11 353,319 6 1,457,351 7 186.84 1 1,457,351 Michigan 1,167,282 9 11,849 25 916,049 15 268,010 7 1,184,059 13 20.97 19 1,187,234 Minnesota 438,257 23 759 34 279,009 31 160,697 12 439,706 28 5.26 30 446,056 Mississippi 382,896 25 444,201 4 816,731 16 11,191 30 827,922 18 17.56 28 827,322 Missouri 1,603,146 6 118,071 13 1,499,028 6 222,267 8 1,721,295 5 26.34 17 1,721,295 Nebraska 122,117 33 789 33 92,245 35 30,748 23 122,993 35 1.62 35 129,322 Nevada 38,959 37 357 36 23,690 37 18,801 26 42,491 37 0.41 37 58,711 New Hampshire 317,697 30 580 35 288,689 29 29,611 24 318,300 31 34.30 13 318,300 New Jersey 875,407 13 30,658 18 717,153 18 188,943 11 906,096 17 108.91 4 906,096 New York 4,330,210 1 52,081 17 3,244,406 1 1,138,353 1 4,382,759 1 93.25 5 4,387,464 North Carolina 678,470 15 391,650 6 1,068,332 12 3,029 37 1,071,361 14 21.13 18 1,071,361 Ohio 2,601,946 3 63,213 16 2,292,767 3 372,493 4 2,665,260 3 66.69 8 2,665,260 Oregon 86,929 36 346 37 79,323 36 11,600 29 90,923 36 0.95 36 101,883 Pennsylvania 3,456,609 2 65,294 15 2,976,642 2 545,309 2 3,521,951 2 76.56 6 3,521,890 Rhode Island 212,219 32 4,980 28 161,957 33 55,396 19 217,353 32 166.43 2 217,353 South Carolina 289,667 31 415,814 5 697,532 19 8,074 34 705,606 22 20.75 20 705,606 Tennessee 936,119 12 322,331 8 1,239,204 8 19,316 25 1,258,520 9 27.60 16 1,258,520 Texas 564,700 19 258,475 9 756,168 17 62,411 17 818,579 19 2.98 33 818,899 Vermont 329,613 29 924 32 283,396 30 47,155 22 330,551 30 32.37 14 330,551 Virginia 712,089 14 512,841 2 1,211,409 9 13,754 28 1,225,163 10 31.95 15 1,225,163 West Virginia 424,033 24 17,980 22 424,923 25 17,091 27 442,014 27 19.22 25 442,014 Wisconsin 1,051,351 11 2,113 30 690,171 21 364,499 5 1,054,670 15 19.56 24 1,064,985 Total states 33,203,128 . . 4,835,106 . . 32,642,612 . . 5,473,029 . . 38,115,641 . . 19.21 . . 38,203,210 TERRITORIES. Arizona 9,581 9 26 9 3,849 10 5,809 6 9,658 9 0.08 10 41,710 Colorado 39,221 4 456 2 33,265 4 6,599 5 39,864 4 0.38 4 47,164 Dakota 12,887 7 94 7 9,366 7 4,815 9 14,181 8 0.09 8 40,501 Dist. of Columbia 88,278 2 43,404 1 115,446 1 16,254 2 131,700 1 2,057.81 1 131,700 Idaho 10,618 8 60 8 7,114 8 7,885 4 14,999 7 0.17 6 20,583 Indian Territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68,152 Montana 18,306 6 183 4 12,616 6 7,979 3 20,595 6 0.14 7 39,895 New Mexico 90,393 1 172 5 86,254 2 5,620 7 91,874 2 0.76 3 111,303 Utah 86,049 3 118 6 56,084 3 30,702 1 86,786 3 1.03 2 99,581 Washington 22,195 5 207 3 18,931 5 5,024 8 23,955 5 0.34 5 37,432 Wyoming 8,726 10 183 4 5,605 9 3,513 10 9,118 10 0.09 9 11,518 Total territories 386,249 . . 44,903 . . 348,530 . . 94,200 . . 442,730 . . 0.42 . . 649,539 Total U. S., exclusive of Alaska 33,589,377 . . 4,880,009 . . 32,991,142 . . 5,567,229 . . 38,558,371 . . 12.74 . . 38,852,749 Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,461 Total United States 33,589,871 . . 4,880,009 . . 32,991,142 . . 5,567,229 . . 38,558,371 . . 10.70 . . 38,923,210

A state census was taken in Michigan in 1874, and censuses were taken by 14 states in 1875. The population according to these enumerations, except in Florida, from which the returns have not (June 1, 1876) been received, was as follows: Iowa, 1,350,544; Kansas, 528,437; Louisiana, 857,039 (404,916 white and 452,123 colored); Massachusetts, 1,651,652; Michigan, 1,334,031; Minnesota, 597,407; Nebraska, 246,280; Nevada, 52,540; New Jersey, 1,019,413; New York, 4,705,208; Oregon, 104,920; Rhode Island, 258,239; South Carolina, 925,145 (350,754 white and 574,391 colored); Wisconsin, 1,236,729. According to the census of 1870, there were 52 cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants each, of which 8 had upward of 200,000, 6 from 100,000 to 200,000, 11 from 50,000 to 100,000, and 27 from 25,000 to 50,000. Besides these there are 9 cities which, according to the state censuses named above, contained upward of 25,000 inhabitants each in 1874 or 1875. The table on the next page contains a list of these 61 cities with their population as returned by the United States census in 1870, and the population in 1874 or 1875 of such as are contained in the state censuses.

 CITIES. POPULATION. 1870. 1875. New York, N. Y. 942,292 1,046,037 Philadelphia, Pa. 674,022 . . . . . . . . Brooklyn, N. Y. 896,099 484,616 St. Louis, Mo. 310,864 . . . . . . . . Chicago, Ill. 298,977 . . . . . . . . Baltimore, Md. 267,354 . . . . . . . . Boston, Mass. 250,526 341,919 Cincinnati, Ohio 216,239 . . . . . . . . New Orleans, La. 191,418 203,439 San Francisco, Cal. 149,473 . . . . . . . . Buffalo, N. Y. 117,714 134,573 Washington, D. C. 109,199 . . . . . . . . Newark, N. J. 105,059 123,310 Louisville, Ky. 100,753 . . . . . . . . Cleveland, Ohio 92,829 . . . . . . . . Pittsburgh, Pa. 86,076 . . . . . . . . Jersey City, N. J. 82,546 109,227 Detroit, Mich. 79,577 [4]101,255 Milwaukee, Wis. 71,440 100,775 Albany, N. Y. 69,422 86,013 Providence, R. I. 68,904 100,675 Rochester, N. Y. 62,386 81,673 Allegheny, Pa. 53,180 . . . . . . . . Richmond, Va. 51,038 . . . . . . . . New Haven, Conn. 50,840 . . . . . . . . Charleston, S. C. 48,956 56,540 Indianapolis, Ind. 48,244 . . . . . . . . Troy, N. Y. 46,465 48,821 Syracuse, N. Y. 43,051 48,315 Worcester, Mass. 41,105 49,265 Lowell, Mass. 40,928 49,677 Memphis, Tenn. 40,226 . . . . . . . . Cambridge, Mass. 39,634 47,838 Hartford, Conn. 37,180 . . . . . . . . Scranton, Pa. 35,092 . . . . . . . . Reading, Pa. 33,930 . . . . . . . . Paterson, N. J. 33,579 38,814 Kansas City, Mo. 32,260 . . . . . . . . Mobile, Ala. 32,034 . . . . . . . . Toledo, Ohio 31,584 . . . . . . . . Portland, Me. 31,413 . . . . . . . . Columbus, Ohio 31,274 . . . . . . . . Wilmington, Del. 30,841 . . . . . . . . Dayton, Ohio 30,473 . . . . . . . . Lawrence, Mass. 28,921 34,907 Utica, N. Y. 28,804 32,070 [5]Charlestown, Mass. 28,323 . . . . . . . . Savannah, Ga. 28,235 . . . . . . . . Lynn, Mass. 28,233 32,600 Fall River, Mass. 26,766 45,840 Springfield, Mass. 26,703 31,053 Nashville, Tenn. 25,865 . . . . . . . . Salem, Mass. 24,117 25,955 Trenton, N. J. 22,874 25,031 New Bedford, Mass. 21,320 25,876 Elizabeth, N. J. 20,832 25,928 Hoboken, N. J. 20,297 24,766 Camden, N. J. 20,045 33,852 St. Paul, Minn. 20,030 33,178 Grand Rapids, Mich. 16,507 [4]25,928 Minneapolis, Minn. 13,066 32,721

 Engd. by O.J. Stuart, N.Y.⁠
 Engd. by O.J. Stuart, N.Y.⁠
vegetation, and an elaborate survey of its botanical

 YEARS. White. Colored. Total. 1688 ........ ........ 200,000 1714 375,750 58,850 434,600 1727 502,000 78,000 580,000 1760 1,040,000 220,000 1,260,000 1754 1,165,000 260,000 1,425,000 1760 1,385,000 310,000 1,695,000 1770 1,850,000 462,000 2,312,000 1774 2,100,000 500,000 2,600,000 1780 2,383,000 562,000 2,945,000

The population as reported by the decennial censuses has been as follows:

 YEARS. White. Colored. Free colored. Slave. Aggregate. 1790 3,172,006 757,208 59,527 697,681 3,929,214 1800 4,306,446 1,002,037 108,485 893,602 5,308,483 1810 5,862,073 1,377,808 186,446 1,191,362 7,239,881 1820 7,862,166 1,771,656 233,634 1,538,022 9,633,822 1830 10,537,378 2,328,642 319,599 2,009,043 12,866,020 1840 14,195,805 2,873,649 386,293 2,487,355 17,069,453 1850 19,553,068 3,638,808 434,495 3,204,313 23,191,876 1860 26,922,537 4,441,830 488,070 3,953,760 31,443,821 1870 33,589,377 4,880,009 4,880,009 ........ 38,558,371

Included in the aggregate for 1860 were 44,021 Indians and 34,993 Chinese, and in that for 1870, 25,731 Indians out of tribal relations, 63,199 Chinese, and 55 Japanese. The number of Indians sustaining tribal relations in 1870 was estimated at 357,981. In 1875 the number was reported by the commissioner of Indian affairs at 279,337, exclusive of 11,650 in Alaska; land reserved for Indians, 165,729,714 acres; number of agencies, 82. The representative population, excluding Indians not taxed and the inhabitants of the territories, was 38,115,641. The average increase in the aggregate population since 1870, in the 14 states that took censuses in 1875 and one in 1874, was over 15½ per cent.; at the same rate the population of the United States in 1875 would be about 44,590,000. The density of population in 1870 was 10.7 persons to the square mile, or, excluding the territories, 19.21. The total number of families in the United States was 7,579,363, having an average of 5.09 persons to each; the number of dwellings was 7,042,833, with an average of 5.47 persons to each. Of the total population in 1870, 32,991,142 were born in the United States and 5,567,229 in foreign countries. The number born of foreign parents was 9,734,845, and there were 1,157,170 persons of mixed (half native and half foreign) parentage, making 10,892,015 persons having one or both parents foreign. Only the nativity of those born in foreign countries is reported by the census. The distribution of the entire foreign element (10,892,015) into the chief nationalities has been computed as follows: Irish, 3,630,839; German, 3,307,205; British, 1,496,739; Scandinavian, 467,183; all others, 1,990,049. (See Emigration.) The distribution of population by sex, nativity, and color, in 1860 and 1870, was as follows:

 PARTICULARS. 1860 1870 Total Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Population 31,443,321 16,085,204 15,358,117 38,558,371 19,493,565 19,064,806 Native 27,304,624 13,856,313 13,448,311 32,991,142 16,486,622 16,504,520 Foreign 4,138,697 2,228,891 1,909,806 5,567,229 3,006,943 2,560,286 White 26,922,537 13,811,387 13,111,150 33,589,377 17,029,088 16,560,289 Native [6]22,869,805 11,643,081 11,226,724 28,095,665 14,086,509 14,009,156 Foreign [6]4,131,686 2,225,379 1,906,307 5,493,712 2,942,579 2,551,133 Colored 4,441,830 2,216,744 2,225,086 4,880,009 2,393,263 2,486,746 Blacks 3,853,467 1,936,586 1,916,931 4,295,960 2,115,380 2,180,580 Mulattoes 588,363 280,208 308,155 584,049 277,896 306,153 Chinese and Japanese 34,933 33,149 1,784 63,254 58,680 4,574 Indians 44,021 23,924 20,097 25,731 12,534 13,197

The number of males and females of school age, of males of the military and voting ages, with the distinctions of general nativity and race, and of male citizens of the voting age, was as follows in 1870:

 PARTICULARS. Total. Male. Female. From 5 to 18 years of age 12,055,443 6,086,872 5,968,571 Native 11,509,126 5,811,730 5,697,396 Foreign 546,317 275,142 271,175 White 10,422,564 5,264,635 5,157,929 Colored 1,620,978 814,576 806,402 Chinese 4,143 3,666 477 Indians 7,758 3,995 3,763 Males 18 to 45 years of age 7,570,487 ........ ........ Native 5,697,085 ........ ........ Foreign 1,873,402 ........ ........ White 6,655,811 ........ ........ Colored 861,164 ........ ........ Chinese 48,666 ........ ........ Indians 4,846 ........ ........ Males 21 yrs. of age and upward 9,439,206 ........ ........ Native 6,896,623 ........ ........ Foreign 2,542,583 ........ ........ White 8,353,719 ........ ........ Colored 1,032,475 ........ ........ Chinese 47,531 ........ ........ Indians 5,481 ........ ........ Male citizens 21 years of age and upward 8,425,941 ........ ........

The total population 10 years of age and over was 28,228,945, of whom 14,258,866 were males and 13,970,079 females. There were engaged in all occupations 12,505,923, of whom 10,669,635 were males and 1,836,288 females, and 739,164 were from 10 to 15 years of age; in agriculture, 5,922,471 (5,525,503 males and 396,968 females), including 2,885,996 laborers and 2,977,711 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 2,684,793 (1,618,121 males and 1,066,672 females), including 2,053 actors, 43,874 clergymen, 975,734 domestic servants, 5,286 journalists, 1,031,666 laborers not specified, 40,736 lawyers, 62,383 physicians and surgeons, and 126,822 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 1,191,238 (1,172,540 males and 18,698 females); and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 2,707,421 (2,353,471 males and 353,950 females), including, besides 41,619 mill and factory operatives not specified, 111,606 cotton and 58,836 woollen mill operatives, and 152,107 miners. The total number of blind was 20,320; deaf and dumb, 16,205; insane, 37,432; idiotic, 24,527. The total deaths from all causes during the year ended May 31, 1870, as reported by the census, were 492,263, being 1.28 per cent, of the entire population, excluding the territories. The highest rates of mortality were 2 per cent. in Louisiana and 1.77 in Massachusetts; lowest, 0.69 in Oregon, 0.80 in Minnesota, and 0.81 in Iowa. The total number of births during the year, and living on May 31, was 1,100,475. Of the total number of deaths, 188,684 were from general diseases, of which 94,832 were chiefly acute and 93,852 chiefly chronic. Under general diseases are classed those affections which involve a great number of diverse organs, or the whole frame, rather than any special part of it, the most important being fevers and consumption. Under local diseases were classed 60,455 deaths from those of the nervous, 17,034 of the circulatory, 63,971 of the respiratory, and 73,999 of the digestive system, 4,744 of the urinary system and male organs of generation, and 1,318 of the female organs of generation; 4,810 from affections connected with pregnancy; 2,187 from diseases of the organs of locomotion, and 2,778 of the integumentary system. Besides these, there were 28,493 deaths from conditions not necessarily associated with general or local diseases, 2,351 from poisons, 1,069 from worms, 364 from malformations, 22,740 from accidents and injuries, and 17,266 from unknown causes. The number of deaths from certain principal diseases, with their ratio to the total number from all causes, was as follows:

DISEASES. Number
of
deaths.
Deaths from
all causes
to one from
disease
specified.

Cholera infantum  20,255  24.3
Consumption 69,896  7.0
Croup 10,692  46.0
Whooping cough 9,008  54.6
Measles 9,237  53.8
Pneumonia 40,012  12.8
Smallpox 4,507  109.2
Diphtheria 6,303
 ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left.{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right\}\,}}$ 18.5
Scarlet fever 20,320
Intermittent fever 7,142
 ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left.{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right\}\,}}$ 43.1
Remittent fever 4,281
Cancer 6,224  79.1
Cerebro-spinal fever  651
 ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left.{\begin{matrix}\ \\\\\ \ \end{matrix}}\right\}\,}}$ 20
Enteric fever 22,187
Typhus fever 1,170
Diarrhœa 14,195
 ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left.{\begin{matrix}\ \\\\\ \ \end{matrix}}\right\}\,}}$ 15.8
Dysentery 7,912
Enteritis 9,046

The highest death rate for consumption was in the New England states; the lowest in the southern and western states, and especially the territories. Intermittent and remittent fevers were most destructive in the southern states, and least in New England.—The agriculture resources of the United States, though but partially developed, contribute largely to its wealth and political importance. Of the 12,505,923 persons engaged in all occupations in 1870, 5,922,471 were employed in agriculture, including 2,977,711 farmers and planters and 2,885,996 laborers. The exports of agricultural produce form the most important feature of the commerce of the country; in 1874 they amounted to more than $700,000,000 in value. The exports of breadstuffs were valued at$161,198,864, including wheat worth $101,421,459, wheat flour$29,258,094, and Indian corn $24,769,951; of provisions,$78,328,990, including bacon and hams valued at $33,383,908, cheese$11,898,995, preserved meats $19,308,019, and pork$5,808,712; of cotton, $211,223,580; and of leaf tobacco,$30,399,181. The following are the most important statistics of agriculture, as reported by the censuses of 1860 and 1870:

PARTICULARS. 1860. 1870.

Land in farms, acres 407,212,538  407,735,041
Land in farms, improved 163,110,720  188,921,099
Land in farms, woodland
 ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left.{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right\}\,}}$ 244,101,818
 ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 159,310,177 59,503,765
Land in farms, other unimproved
Percentage of unimproved to total 59.9  53.7
Number of farms 2,044,077  2,659,985
Average size, acres 199  153
Cash value of farms  $6,645,045,007$9,262,803,861
Cash value of farming implements and machinery  $246,118,141$336,878,429
Total amount of wages paid during the year,
including value of board ..............  $310,286,285 Total estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock ..............$2,447,538,658
Produce of orchards, value $19,991,885$47,335,189
Produce of market gardens $16,159,498$20,719,229
Produce of forests ..............  $36,808,277 Home manufactures$24,546,876  $23,423,332 Animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter$213,618,692  $398,956,376 All live stock$1,089,329,915  $1,525,276,457 Horses on farms, number 6,249,174 7,145,370 Horses not on farms 1,185,514 1,547,370 Mules and asses 1,151,148 1,125,415 Milch cows 8,585,735 8,935,332 Working oxen 2,254,911 1,319,271 Other cattle 14,779,373 13,566,005 Neat cattle not on farms 3,347,009 4,273,973 Sheep 22,471,275 28,477,951 Swine 33,512,867 25,134,569 Wheat, bushels 173,104,924 287,745,626 Wheat, spring .............. 112,549,733 Wheat, winter .............. 175,195,893 Rye 21,101,380 16,918,795 Indian corn 838,792,742 760,944,549 Oats 172,643,185 282,107,157 Barley 17,571,818 29,761,305 Buckwheat 17,571,818 9,821,721 Rice, lbs. 187,167,032 73,635,021 Tobacco 434,209,461 262,735,341 Cotton, bales 5,387,052 3,011,996 Wool, lbs. 60,264,913 100,102,387 Peas and beans, bushels 15,061,995 5,746,027 Potatoes, Irish 111,148,867 143,337,473 Potatoes, sweet 42,095,026 21,709,824 Wine, gallons 1,627,192 3,092,330 Butter, lbs. 459,681,372 514,092,683 Cheese (on farms) 103,663,927 53,492,153 Milk sold, gallons .............. 235,500,599 Hay, tons 19,083,896 27,316,048 Seed, clover, bushels 956,188 639,657 Seed, grass 900,040 583,188 Hops, lbs. 10,991,996 25,456,669 Hemp, tons 74,493 12,746 Flax, lbs. 4,720,145 27,133,034 Flaxseed, bushels 566,867 1,730,444 Silk cocoons, lbs. 11,944 3,937 Sugar, cane, hhds. 230,982 87,043 Sugar, sorghum .............. 24 Sugar, maple, lbs. 40,120,205 28,443,645 Molasses, cane, gallons 14,963,996 6,593,323 Molasses, sorghum 6,749,123 16,050,089 Molasses, maple 1,597,589 921,057 Wax, lbs. 1,322,787 631,129 Honey 23,366,357 14,702,815 The leading crops in 1874, as reported by the department of agriculture, were as follows:  PRODUCTS. Number ofbushels, &c. Numberof acres. Value. Average yield per acre. Ind. corn, bushels 850,148,500 41,036,918$550,043,080 20.7 Wheat 309,102,700 24,967,027 291,107,895 12.3 Rye 14,990,900 1,116,716 12,870,411 13.4 Oats 240,369,000 10,897,412 125,047,530 22.0 Barley 32,552,500 1,580,626 29,983,769 20.6 Buckwheat 8,016,600 452,590 6,477,885 17.7 Potatoes 105,981,000 1,310,041 71,823,330 80.9 Total 1,561,161,200 81,361,330 $1,087,353,900 ...... Tobacco, lbs. 178,355,000 281,662$23,362,765 632.2 Hay, tons 24,133,900 21,769,772 331,420,738 1.11 Cotton, bales 3,800,000 ......... 256,215.000 ......

The number and value of farm animals in 1874 were as follows:

 ANIMALS. Number. Average price. Value. Horses 9,504,200 $68 01$646,370,939 Mules 1,393,750 80 00 111,502,713 Milch cows 10,906,800 28 52 311,089,824 Oxen and other cattle 16,313,400 18 68 304,858,859 Sheep 33,783,600 2 79 94,320,652 Swine 28,062,200 5 34 149,869,234

The states producing the most wheat in 1873 were: Iowa, 34,600,000 bushels; Illinois, 28,417,000; Minnesota, 28,056,000; Wisconsin, 26,322,000; California, 21,504,000; Indiana, 20,832,000; Ohio, 18,567,000; Pennsylvania, 15,548,000; Michigan, 14,214,000; Missouri, 11,927,000; Tennessee, 7,414,000; Kentucky, 7,225,000; New York, 7,047,000. Indian corn: Illinois, 143,634,000; Iowa, 105,200,000; Ohio, 88,422,000; Missouri, 70,846,000; Indiana, 67,840,000 ; Kentucky, 58,451,000. Oats: Illinois, 35,360,000; Pennsylvania, 31,229,000; New York, 27,548,000; Ohio, 23,090,000; Iowa, 21,130,000; Wisconsin, 18,862,000; Missouri, 15,670,000. Rye: Pennsylvania, 3,283,000; Illinois, 2,078,000; New York, 1,853,000; Wisconsin, 1,240,000; Kentucky, 1,107,000. Barley: California, 10,213,991; New York, 5,876,000; Iowa, 4,500,000; Illinois, 2,280,000; Ohio, 1,576,000 ; Wisconsin, 1,515,000; Minnesota, 1,060,000. Buckwheat: New York, 2,947,000; Pennsylvania, 2,022,000. Tobacco: Kentucky, 152,000,000 lbs.; Virginia, 50,000,000; Ohio, 32,500,000; Tennessee, 23,750,000; Maryland, 19,300,000; Missouri, 13,200,000. Wool (census of 1870): Ohio, 20,539,643 lbs.; California, 11,391,743; New York, 10,599,225; Michigan, 8,726,145; Pennsylvania, 6,561,722; Illinois, 5,739,249; Indiana, 5,029,023; Wisconsin, 4,090,670. The chief cotton-producing states are Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, South Carolina, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Florida. In 1874 the greatest number of horses was in Illinois, of mules in Tennessee, of oxen and other cattle in Texas and Illinois, of milch cows in New York, and of hogs in Iowa and Illinois. The wool product of 1873 was estimated at 146,000,000 lbs. The industry of wool growing, though progressing but little east of the Mississippi, has been increasing from the Missouri to the Pacific coast. The states reporting the largest number of sheep in 1874 were California, 4,683,200; Ohio, 4,639,000; Michigan, 3,486,300; New York, 2,037,200; Iowa, 1,732,600; Indiana, 1,722,500; Pennsylvania, 1,674,000; Missouri, 1,408,500; Illinois, 1,408,200; Texas, 1,338,700; and Wisconsin, 1,187,600.—The growth of manufactures is shown by the following statistics, reported by the censuses of 1850, 1860, and 1870:

 PARTICULARS. 1850. 1860. 1870. Number of establishments 123,025 140,433 252,148 Steam engines, number ........ ........ 40,191 Steam engines, horsepower ........ ........ 1,215,711 Water wheels, number ........ ........ 51,018 Water wheels, horsepower ........ ........ 1,130,431 Hands employed, all 957,059 1,311,246 2,053,996 Hands employed, males above 16 [7]731,137 [7]1,040 349 1,615,598 Hands employed, females above 15 [8]225,922 [8]270,897 323,770 Hands employed, youth ........ ........ 114,628 Capital $538,245,351$1,009,855,715 $2,118,208,769 Wages$236,755,464 $378,878,966$775,584,343 Value of materials $555,123,822$1,031,605,092 $2,488,427,242 Value of products$1,019,106,616 $1,885,861,676$4,232,325,442

The difference between the schedules used in 1870 and those of 1860 and 1850 renders the above statements only approximately valuable for purposes of comparison. Certain industries are included in the results of 1870 which are excluded from those of 1860; others reported in 1860 do not appear in the above totals for 1870. The marked increase in the value of products between 1860 and 1870 is especially noticeable. Making allowance for the differences above referred to, and estimating the increase due to special administrative efforts in 1870 at $250,000,000, the superintendent of the census computes that the value of products in 1870 should be reduced to$3,924,958,660, in order to be fairly comparable with that of 1860. This would show an increase of $2,039,096,984, or 108.12 per cent., 56 per cent. of which is attributed to the general advance in prices, leaving 52 per cent. as the actual increase of manufacturing production. In 1870 the leading industries were:  INDUSTRIES. Number of establishments, 1870. Hands employed, 1870. Capital. Wages. Value ofMaterials. Value ofProducts. Agricultural implements 2,076 25,249$34,834,600 $12,161,504$21,473,925 $52,066,875 Bagging, flax, hemp, and jute 33 3,170 3,158,101 958,106 2,624,682 4,507,664 Bags, paper 39 444 473,100 134,932 1,053,463 1,483,963 Bags, other than paper 39 1,097 1,290,500 452,517 3,827,678 8,261,679 Belting and hose leather 91 808 2,118,577 454,187 3,231,204 4,558,043 Blacksmithing 26,364 52,982 15,977,992 9,246,549 13,223,907 41,828,296 Bleaching and dyeing (exclusive of straw goods) 250 4,172 5,006,950 1,783,449 53,166,634 58,571,498 Boats 174 2,381 1,665,198 1,225,996 1,214,016 3,300,775 Bookbinding 500 7,697 5,319,410 3,095,821 8,026,870 14,077,309 Boot and shoe findings 271 2,773 858,560 792,957 1,817,028 3,389,091 Boots and shoes 23,428 135,889 48,994,366 51,972,712 93,582,528 181,644,090 Boxes, wooden packing 489 4,509 3,571,942 1,909,088 4,236,745 8,222,433 Boxes, paper 234 4,486 1,148,025 1,222,338 1,553,777 3,917,159 Brass founding and finishing 275 3,377 4,783,585 1,731,306 3,293,629 6,855,756 Brass rolled 11 448 562,800 233,484 704,870 1,254,966 Brass ware 30 757 1,243,450 386,008 907,908 1,849,018 Bread, crackers, and other bakery products 3,550 14,126 10,025,966 5,558,184 22,211,856 36,907,704 Brick 3,114 43,293 20,504,238 10,768,853 7,413,097 29,028,359 Bridge building 64 2,090 2,973,250 1,123,353 3,239,771 5,476,175 Brooms and whisk brushes 635 5,206 2,015,602 1,268,875 3,672,837 6,622,285 Brushes, not whisk 157 2,425 1,683,998 691,405 1,312,897 2,694,823 Butchering 509 1,881 2,099,905 546,346 11,039,928 18,686,061 Carpentering and building 17,142 67,864 25,110,428 29,169,588 63,943,115 132,901,482 Carpets, rag 474 1,016 310,744 141,148 498,595 1,005,327 Carpets, other than rag 215 12,098 12,540,750 4,681,718 13,577,998 21,761,578 Carriages and wagons 11,847 54,928 36,563,095 21,272,780 22,787,341 65,362,837 Cars, railroad, and repairs 170 15,931 16,632,792 9,659,992 18,117,707 31,070,734 Cement 46 1,632 1,521,500 631,998 773,192 2,033,893 Charcoal and coke 167 3,473 2,398,083 1,294,707 1,204,779 3,161,104 Cheese 1,313 4,607 3,690,075 706,566 14,089,284 16,771,665 Chromos and lithographs 91 1,399 1,533,725 837,732 735,810 2,515,684 Clocks 26 1,330 882,700 805,340 818,409 2,509,643 Clothing, men's 7,838 106,679 49,891,080 30,535,879 86,117,231 147,650,378 Clothing, women's 1,847 11,696 3,520,213 2,513,956 6,837,978 12,900,583 Coal oil, refined 170 1,870 6,770,383 1,184,559 21,450,189 26,942,287 Confectionery 949 6,825 4,995,298 2,091,826 8,703,560 15,992,643 Cooperage 4,961 23,314 9,798,847 7,819,813 12,831,796 26,863,734 Copper, milled and smelted 27 1,082 3,158,500 577,129 10,715,400 11,684,123 Copper, rolled 7 266 1,608,750 183,875 1,777,585 2,390,460 Cordage and twine 201 3,698 3,530,470 1,234,272 5,739,608 8,979,382 Cotton goods, not specified 819 129,442 133,238,797 37,280,856 106,307,962 168,457,353 Cotton batting and wadding 27 244 276,800 78,876 533,451 720,117 Cotton thread, twine, and yarns 128 6,077 7,392,295 1,743,651 5,135,303 8,726,217 Cutlery 82 2,111 2,246,830 973,854 762,029 2,882,803 Cutlery and edge tools, not specified 102 2,317 1,880,717 1,157,904 862,014 2,739,998 Drugs and chemicals 292 4,729 12,750,800 2,141,238 11,681,405 19,417,194 Dye woods, stuffs, and extracts 19 548 1,227,500 300,755 1,275,434 2,053,300 Edge tools and axes 97 8,520 4,219,205 1,997,795 2,413,555 5,482,539 Envelopes 22 910 875,000 316,158 1,288,139 2,277,541 Fertilizers (not ground plaster) 126 2,501 4,395,948 766,712 3,808,025 5,815,118 Firearms 46 3,297 4,016,902 2,490,774 1,100,999 5,582,258 Flax and linen goods 10 1,746 2,325,250 424,946 1,121,467 2,178,775 Flouring and grist-mill products 22,573 58,448 151,565,376 14,577,533 367,392,122 444,985,143 Fruits and vegetables, canned and preserved 97 5,869 2,335,925 771,643 3,094,846 5,425,677 Furniture, not specified 6,452 40,836 36,304,029 18,051,591 21,873,427 58,521,580 Furniture, chairs 529 12,462 7,643,884 3,522,940 3,979,748 10,567,104 Furs, dressed 182 2,903 3,472,267 1,042,305 4,816,122 8,903,052 Glass, window 35 2,859 3,244,560 1,503,277 1,400,760 3,811,808 Glass, other 166 12,963 10,867,082 6,341,148 4,734,408 15,334,554 Gloves and mittens 221 4,058 2,340,550 980,549 1,884,146 3,998,521 Grease and tallow 62 442 841,980 184,787 5,114,868 6,035,845 Gunpowder 33 989 4,060,400 570,279 2,270,747 4,011,839 Hardware 580 14,236 13,869,315 6,845,640 9,188,064 22,237,329 Hardware for saddlery 155 2,566 1,482,225 1,062,059 1,257,947 3,227,123 Hat materials 62 1,014 1,168,635 537,287 2,074,959 3,225,763 Hats and caps 483 16,173 6,489,571 6,574,490 12,262,407 24,848,167 Heating apparatus 59 1,141 1,605,830 853,516 1,424,345 3,425,150 Hoop skirts and corsets 194 4,345 1,707,600 1,045,188 2,276,577 4,758,290 Hosiery 248 14,788 10,931,260 4,429,085 9,835,823 18,411,564 Hubs, spokes, bows, shafts, wheels, and felloes 302 3,721 4,050,609 1,544,896 2,204,713 5,285,157 India-rubber and elastic goods 56 6,025 7,486,600 2,559,877 7,434,742 14,566,374 Iron, pigs 386 27,554 56,145,326 12,475,250 45,498,017 69,640,498 Iron, castings, not specified 2,328 37,980 47,745,241 20,679,793 39,178,481 76,453,553 Iron, castings, stoves, heaters, and hollow ware 326 13,325 19,833,720 8,156,121 9,044,069 23,389,665 Iron, blooms 82 2,902 4,506,733 1,195,964 5,685,466 7,647,054 Iron, forged and rolled 396 47,891 59,119,094 27,002,829 33,834,268 128,062,627 Iron, anchors and cable chains 18 359 276,480 165,582 353,824 634,200 Iron, bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets 93 4,423 4,263,227 1,665,426 4,021,070 7,191,151 Iron, nails and spikes, cut and wrought 142 7,770 9,091,912 3,961,172 18,792,383 24,823,996 Iron, pipe, wrought 22 2,129 5,311,095 1,155,910 4,872,907 7,369,194 Iron, railing, wrought 74 630 405,200 321,101 533,116 1,268,756 Iron, ship building and marine engines 1 852 750,000 210,000 187,000 472,000 Jewelry 710 10,274 11,867,856 4,498,343 9,252,425 22,321,029 Lead, bar and sheet 5 39 246,000 23,500 693,789 747,700 Lead, pigs 62 589 2,191,600 237,628 2,807,074 3,499,183 Lead, pipe 17 100 2,054,500 115,020 9,303,869 12,861,959 Lead, shot 7 55 330,000 32,755 988,189 1,218,354 Leather, tanned 4,237 20,784 42,720,505 7,934,416 63,069,491 86,170,883 ​ Leather, curried 3,083 10,027$12,303,785 $4,154,114$43,565,593 $54,191,167 Leather, morocco, tanned and curried 113 3,006 3,854,072 1,678,226 6,623,066 9,997,460 Leather, patent and enamelled 26 528 906,000 341,445 3,211,749 4,018,115 Leather, dressed skins 110 898 1,340,450 397,574 2,099,735 2,859,972 Lime 1,001 6,450 5,344,154 1,936,158 4,458,542 8,917,405 Liquors, distilled 719 5,131 15,545,116 2,019,810 19,729,432 36,191,133 Liquors, malt 1,972 12,443 48,779,435 6,758,602 28,177,684 55,706,643 Liquors, vinous 398 1,486 2,334,394 230,650 1,203,172 2,225,238 Looking-glass and picture frames 320 3,587 2,590,020 1,623,653 2,466,313 5,962,235 Lumber, planed 1,113 13,640 18,007,041 6,222,076 28,728,348 42,179,702 Lumber, sawed 25,817 149,871 143,399,082 39,966,817 103,102,393 209,852,527 Machinery, not specified 1,737 30,781 40,383,960 17,812,493 22,575,692 54,429,634 Machinery, cotton and woolen 338 8,918 10,603,424 4,632,913 5,246,874 13,311,118 Machinery, fire engines 9 838 986,000 307,414 913,833 1,636,580 Machinery, railroad repairing 150 20,015 23,222,761 12,541,818 11,952,840 27,565,650 Machinery, steam engines and boilers 663 22,962 25,987,452 12,572,244 19,784,404 41,576,264 Malt 208 1,640 8,017,248 700,624 9,002,094 12,016,515 Marble and stone work, not specified 923 13,190 11,287,677 7,601,471 8,034,858 21,316,860 Marble and stone work, monuments and tombstones 1,049 5,719 4,942,063 2,490,296 3,709,518 8,916,654 Masonry, brick and stone 2,264 11,043 2,546,425 2,471,700 7,015,782 14,587,185 Matches 75 2,556 1,523,802 616,714 1,179,666 3,540,008 Meat, cured and packed, not specified 17 499 1,549,100 173,180 2,531,552 3,760,802 Meat, packed, beef 36 435 496,700 111,595 1,524,680 1,950,306 Meat, packed, pork 206 5,551 20,078,987 1,722,326 46,577,864 56,429,331 Millinery 1,668 7,205 2,425,926 1,156,531 3,365,132 6,513,222 Mineral and soda waters 387 2,383 3,462,360 923,703 1,687,931 4,222,278 Musical instruments, not specified 105 1,460 1,759,600 896,119 1,166,424 2,616,149 Musical instruments, organs and materials 76 1,566 1,775,850 1,139,780 743,351 2,960,165 Musical instruments, pianos and materials 156 4,141 6,019,311 3,071,392 2,924,777 8,329,594 Oil, animal 58 543 2,072,532 298,975 7,582,576 9,728,667 Oil, fish 101 1,487 1,490,131 277,895 2,782,361 3,993,139 Oil, cotton-seed 26 664 1,225,350 292,032 1,333,631 2,205,610 Oil, linseed 77 945 3,862,956 458,387 7,216,414 8,881,962 Oil floor cloth 84 1,411 2,237,000 687,288 2,548,768 4,211,579 Paints, not specified 68 1,008 3,742,150 550,463 3,998,106 5,720,758 Paints, lead and zinc 75 1,932 7,414,250 1,016,574 7,480,622 11,211,647 Paper, not specified 163 2,770 5,001,820 1,028,208 3,478,709 6,406,817 Paper, printing 235 8,167 16,771,920 3,400,038 16,120,363 25,200,417 Paper, wrapping 225 3,111 6,276,600 1,249,821 4,420,240 7,706,317 Paper, writing 46 3,862 6,314,674 1,470,446 6,009,751 9,263,384 Paper hangings 15 869 1,415,500 329,267 1,315,106 2,165,510 Patent medicines and compounds 319 2,436 6,667,684 1,017,795 7,319,752 16,257,720 Plated ware 203 4,235 4,586,125 2,350,169 3,771,981 8,142,150 Printing cotton and woollen goods 42 8,894 13,367,553 3,438,089 43,873,358 54,446,044 Printing and publishing, not specified 311 10,668 16,839,993 7,156,332 11,398,131 28,995,214 Printing and publishing, book 40 1,390 2,128,993 760,275 1,525,773 3,568,823 Printing and publishing, newspaper 1,199 13,130 14,947,887 8,168,515 8,709,632 25,393,029 Printing and publishing, job 609 5,555 6,007,354 2,710,234 2,966,709 8,511,934 Quartz, milled 296 2,973 10,910,822 2,460,631 12,446,974 18,386,406 Saddlery and harness 7,607 23,553 13,935,961 7,046,207 16,068,310 32,709,981 Salt 282 2,953 6,561,615 1,147,910 1,760,670 4,818,229 Sash, doors, and blinds 1,695 20,379 21,239,809 10,059,812 17,581,814 36,625,806 Saws 72 1,595 2,883,391 995,609 1,332,891 3,175,289 Scales and balances 49 1,003 1,019,500 668,451 920,870 2,823,816 Screws 18 1,582 9,147,880 664,408 1,248,135 3,425,473 Sewing machines 49 7,291 8,759,431 5,142,248 3,055,786 14,097,446 Ship building, ship materials, and repairs 762 11,063 9,102,335 5,594,686 8,252,394 17,910,328 Shovels and spades 13 849 757,100 489,100 1,424,944 2,445,526 Silk goods, not specified 53 4,176 4,019,630 1,328,389 4,126,821 7,066,487 Silk, sewing and twist 35 2,523 2,223,500 624,917 4,197,752 5,672,875 Silverware 55 815 1,282,550 542,113 1,222,428 2,344,357 Soap and candles 614 4,422 10,454,860 1,925,951 15,232,587 22,535,337 Starch 195 2,072 2,741,675 900,719 3,884,909 5,994,422 Steel, Bessemer 3 329 858,000 176,000 1,373,812 1,818,220 Steel, cast 20 1,893 3,979,400 1,256,632 3,417,928 6,936,566 Steel springs 41 1,021 2,426,500 601,706 1,662,920 2,928,993 Stone and earthen ware 777 6,116 5,294,398 2,247,173 1,702,705 6,045,536 Sugar and molasses, raw cane 713 21,299 10,248,475 1,230,119 6,069,271 10,383,368 Sugar and molasses, refined cane 59 4,597 20,545,220 3,177,288 96,899,431 108,941,911 Tar and turpentine 227 2,638 902,225 476,284 2,146,090 3,585,225 Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 6,646 25,823 21,027,876 9,516,357 19,067,015 40,636,811 Tobacco and cigars 61 1,431 1,767,100 546,538 1,782,829 3,337,274 Tobacco, chewing and smoking, and snuff 512 20,368 11,788,714 4,670,095 20,351,607 36,258,177 Tobacco, cigars 4,631 26,049 11,368,516 9,098,709 12,522,171 32,166,593 Trunks, valises, and satchels 222 3,479 2,185,694 1,810,798 3,315,038 7,725,488 Umbrellas and canes 83 2,618 1,737,757 837,580 1,926,056 4,098,032 Varnish 59 415 2,168,740 252,059 3,311,097 4,991,405 Watches 37 1,816 2,666,133 1,304,304 412,783 2,819,080 Wire 175 4,270 4,200,700 1,802,617 4,512,891 8,017,625 Wood, turned and carved 733 4,103 2,751,544 1,499,565 1,648,008 4,959,191 Wool-carding and cloth-dressing 1,001 2,318 1,740,249 260,419 3,504,052 4,675,926 Woollen goods 1,938 77,870 97,173,432 26,648,272 93,406,884 151,298,196 Worsted goods 102 12,920 10,085,778 4,368,857 14,308,198 22,090,331 Taking the value of products as a standard, the leading manufacturing states were: New York,$785,194,651; Pennsylvania, $711,894,344; Massachusetts,$553,912,568; Ohio, $269,713,610; Missouri,$206,213,429; Illinois, $205,620,672; New Jersey,$169,237,732; Connecticut, $161,065,474; Michigan,$118,394,676; Rhode Island, $111,418,354; and Indiana,$108,617,278. The great centre for the manufacture of boots and shoes, straw goods, cotton and woollen goods, and textiles in general, is in Massachusetts. The manufacture of iron (excepting castings), machinery, cast-steel springs, and glass ware is most extensively carried on in Pennsylvania; of leather, flour, sewing machines, and refined molasses and sugar, in New York; of silk goods, in New Jersey; of agricultural implements, in Ohio; and of clocks, India-rubber and elastic goods, and hardware, in Connecticut. The following statement affords a comparison between the values of leading products in 1870 and 1860:

 INDUSTRIES. VALUE OF PRODUCTS. 1860. 1870. Agricultural implements $17,487,960$52,066,875 Boots and shoes 91,889,298 181,644,090 Brick and tile 11,263,147 29,302,016 Carpets other than rag 7,857,636 21,761,573 Clothing, men's 80,830,555 147,650,378 Hosiery 7,280,606 18,411,564 Cotton goods 115,681,774 177,489,739 Flouring and grist-mill products 248,580,365 444,985,143 India-rubber and elastic goods 5,768,450 14,566,374 Iron, blooms 2,628,178 7,647,054 Iron, pig 12,748,727 69,640,498 Iron, rolled 31,888,705 120,314,158 Iron, cast 36,132,033 99,843,218 Iron, forged 2,030,718 8,385,669 Lead, pig 839,222 3,499,183 Liquors, distilled 26,768,225 36,191,133 Liquors, malt 21,310,933 55,706,643 Lumber, sawed 96,715,854 210,159,327 Machinery 51,887,266 138,519,246 Nails and tacks 9,857,223 23,101,082 Oil, vegetable 7,689,960 13,249,241 Oil, animal (not fish) 2,568,336 9,728,667 Salt 2,289,504 4,818,229 Sewing machines 4,255,820 14,097,446 Soap and candles 18,464,574 22,535,337 Silk 6,607,771 12,739,362 Steel 1,778,240 9,609,986 Sugar and molasses (cane), refined 42,241,834 108,941,911 Tar and turpentine 1,031,356 3,585,225 Tobacco, chewing and smoking, and snuff 21,820,535 38,388,350 Tobacco, cigars 9,068,778 33,373,685 Woollen goods 61,894,986 155,405,358 Worsted goods 3,701,378 22,090,331

The number of cotton (spinning) mills in the United States in 1875 was 875, having a total of 9,539,364 spindles; of these, 694 mills, with 9,057,543 spindles, were in northern, and 181 mills, with 481,821 spindles, in southern states. The quantity of cotton consumed during the year ending June 30 was 1,242,080 bales of 576,742,753 lbs., including 1,097,001 bales in northern and 145,079 in southern mills. The total number of spindles has increased from 7,114,000 in 1870 to 9,539,364 in 1875, the ratio of increase being larger in the southern than in the northern states. The consumption of cotton has increased from 930,736 bales in 1870 to 1,242,080 in 1875. For the production and manufacture of cotton in the United States, see Cotton, and Cotton Manufacture.—The statistics of mining in 1870 were as follows:

 MINERALS. No. of establishments. Hands employed. Amount ofcapital. Value ofproducts. Asphaltum 1 23 $514,286$450,000 Cinnabar 4 811 11,900,000 817,700 Coal, anthracite 231 53,096 51,016,785 38,495,745 Coal, bituminous 1,335 41,658 68,991,244 35,029,247 Copper 40 5,404 7,789,374 5,201,312 Gold, hydraulic mined 362 1,978 1,887,484 2,508,531 Gold, placer mined 1,632 8,463 5,624,549 7,266,613 Gold quartz 224 8,297 9,454,500 4,360,121 Gold and sliver 57 2,114 29,062,400 9,068,526 Iron ore 420 15,022 17,773,935 13,204,138 Lead 112 1,126 613,736 736,004 Marble 22 795 1,316,600 804,300 Nickel 1 48 60,000 24,000 Peat, cut 4 39 13,100 8,200 Petroleum 2,314 4,488 10,045,826 19,304,224 Silver quartz 102 1,056 4,015,000 3,248,861 Slate 101 1,749 2,738,239 1,311,492 Stone 997 12,573 7,152,854 9,971,100 Zinc 15 588 2,414,942 788,880 Total 7,974 154,328 $222,384,854$152,598,994

Of the above named minerals, nearly one half in value were the product of Pennsylvania, which produced nearly all of the anthracite coal and of the petroleum, more than a third of the bituminous coal, and more than a fourth of the iron ore. The census returns of gold and silver were greatly below the actual production. The annual production of gold in the United States to 1873 and of silver to 1874 is given in the articles Gold, vol. viii., p. 81, and Silver, vol. xv., p. 57. The production of gold in 1874 amounted to about $42,000,000, and that of silver in 1875 to about$40,000,000. The production of pig iron in the United States has increased from 784,178 tons in 1855 to 919,770 in 1860, 931,582 in 1865, 1,865,000 in 1870, 2,854,558 in 1872, 2,868,278 in 1873, and 2,689,413 in 1874. About one fourth of the total amount is smelted from Lake Superior ores. The production of Bessemer steel has increased from 3,000 tons in 1867 to 40,000 in 1870 and 176,579 in 1874; that of other steel from 15,262 tons in 1865 to 35,000 in 1870 and 47,481 in 1874. In 1875 there were 10 establishments producing Bessemer and 42 other steel. The latest statistics of the production of iron and steel in the United States, as reported by the American iron and steel association, are as follows:

 PRODUCTS—NET TONS. 1872. 1873. 1874. Pig Iron 2,854,558 2,868,278 2,689,413 All rolled iron, including nails 1,941,992 1,966,445 1,839,560 All rolled iron, including nails and excluding rails 1,941,992 1,076,368 1,110,147 Rails of all kinds 1,000,000 890,077 729,413 Bessemer steel rails 94,070 129,015 144,944 Iron and all other rails 905,930 761,062 584,469 Street rails 15,000 9,430 6,739 Kegs of cut nails and spikes 4,065,822 4,024,704 4,912,180 Merchantable Bessemer steel other than rails 16,430 27,985 31,635 Total of merchantable Bessemer steel 110,500 157,000 176,579 Crucible cast steel 27,260 32,786 34,128 Open-hearth steel 3,000 3,500 7,000 All other steel 7,740 13,714 6,353 Blooms from ore and pig iron 58,000 62,564 61,670

—The recent growth of the foreign commerce of the country is shown in the following statement of the gross specie value of imports and exports for years ending June 30:

 YEARS. IMPORTS. EXPORTS OF FOREIGN PRODUCTS. EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTS. Merchandise. Coin andbullion. Total. Merchandise. Coin andbullion. Total. Merchandise. Coin andbullion. Total. Mixedvalues, gold and currency. 1850 173,509,526 4,628,792 178,138,318 9,475,493 5,476,315 14,951,808 134,900,233 2,046,679 136,946,912 .......... 1851 210,771,429 5,453,503 216,224,932 10,295,121 11,403,172 21,698,293 178,620,138 18,069,580 196,689,718 .......... 1852 207,440,398 5,505,044 212,945,442 12,053,084 5,236,298 17,289,382 154,931,147 37,437,837 192,368,984 .......... 1853 263,777,265 4,201,382 267,978,647 13,620,120 3,938,340 17,558,460 189,869,162 23,548,535 213,417,697 .......... 1854 297,623,039 6,939,342 304,562,381 21,631,260 3,218,934 24,850,194 213,985,236 38,062,570 252,047,806 .......... 1855 257,808,708 3,659,812 261,468,520 26,158,368 2,289,925 28,448,293 192,751,135 53,957,418 246,708,558 .......... 1856 310,432,310 4,207,632 314,639,942 14,781,372 1,597,206 16,378,578 266,438,051 44,148,279 310,586,330 .......... 1857 348,428,342 12,461,799 360,890,141 14,917,047 9,058,570 23,975,617 278,906,713 60,078,352 338,985,065 .......... 1858 263,338,654 19,274,496 282,613,150 20,660,241 10,225,901 30,886,142 251,351,033 42,407,246 293,758,279 .......... 1859 331,333,341 7,434,789 338,768,130 14,509,971 6,385,106 20,895,077 278,392,080 57,502,305 335,894,385 .......... 1860 353,616,119 8,550,135 362,166,254 17,333,634 9,599,388 26,933,022 316,242,423 56,946,851 373,189,274 .......... 1861 289,310,542 46,339,611 335,650,153 14,654,217 5,991,210 20,645,427 204,899,616 23,799,870 228,699,486 .......... 1862 189,356,677 16,415,052 205,771,729 11,026,477 5,842,989 16,869,466 179,644,024 31,044,651 210,688,675 213,069,519 1863 243,335,815 9,584,105 252,919,920 17,960,535 8,163,049 26,123,584 186,003,912 55,993,562 241,997,474 305,884,998 1864 316,447,283 13,115,612 329,562,895 15,333,961 4,922,979 20,256,940 143,504,027 100,473,562 243,977,589 320,085,199 1865 238,745,580 9,810,072 248,555,652 29,089,055 3,025,102 32,114,157 136,940,248 64,618,124 201,558,372 323,743,187 1866 484,812,066 10,700,092 445,512,158 11,341,420 3,400,697 14,742,117 337,518,102 82,643,374 420,161,476 550,684,277 1867 395,763,100 22,070,475 417,833,575 14,719,332 5,892,176 20,611,508 277,641,893 54,976,196 332,618,089 438,577,312 1868 357,436,440 14,188.368 371,624,808 12,562,999 10,038,127 22,601,126 269,389,900 83,745,975 353,135,875 454,301,713 1869 417,506,379 19,807,876 437,314,255 10,951,000 14,222,414 25,173,414 275,166,697 42,915,966 318,082,663 413,961,115 1870 435,958,408 26,419,179 462,377,587 16,155,295 14,271,864 30,427,159 376,616,478 43,883,802 420,500,275 499,092,143 1871 520,223,684 21,270,024 541,493,708 14,421,270 14,038,629 23,459,899 428,398,908 84,403,359 512,802,267 562,518,651 1872 626,595,077 13,743,689 640,338,766 15,690,455 7,079,294 22,769,749 428,487,131 72,798,240 501,285,371 549,219,718 1873 642,136,210 21,480,937 663,617,147 17,446,483 10,703,028 28,149,511 505,033,439 73,905,546 578,938,985 649,132,563 1874 567,406,342 28,454,906 595,861,248 16,849,619 6,930,719 23,780,338 569,433,421 59,699,686 629,133,107 693,039,054 1875 533,005,436 20,900,717 553,906,153 14,158,611 8,275,013 22,438,624 499,284,100 83,857,129 583,141,229 643,094,767

To the total value of domestic exports in 1874 should be added $10,200,059 gold or$11,424,066 currency, and to the value of those in 1875, $15,596,524 gold, for merchandise which the Canadian reports show to have been exported from the United States, but which does not appear in the returns of this country. The average yearly value in gold of the imports and exports, from the formation of the government to 1850, was as follows:  YEARS. Imports. Exports of foreign products. Exports of domestic products. 1789 to 1799$52,359,269 $15,175,257$27,944,992 1799 to 1809 93,351,628 37,827,500 37,287,530 1809 to 1819 81,906,927 13,357,458 45,338,432 1819 to 1829 80,220,651 28,326,438 52,832,653 1829 to 1839 126,641,148 19,564,916 83,845,630 1839 to 1849 119,678,698 13,233,998 110,840,752

The chief articles of import and of domestic export during the year ending June 30, 1875, with their values, were as follows:

 IMPORTS. Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines $10,272,571 Coffee 50,591,488 Gold and silver, coin and bullion 20,900,717 Gums 2,321,383 Hides and skins, other than fur 18,536,902 India-rubber and gutta-percha, crude and manufactures of 5,189,469 Paper materials, rags and other 4,770,745 Silk, raw 4,504,306 Tea 22,673,703 Animals, living 2,861,002 Books, engravings, &c. 2,633,796 Barley 6,297,738 Cotton manufactures 27,738,401 Earthenware 4,265,210 Fancy goods 5,623,949 Flax and manufactures of 17,720,647 Fruits 12,952,680 Furs and fur skins, dressed 3,017,631 Glass and glass ware 5,805,115 Hemp and manufactures of 3,219,385 Iron and steel, and manufactures of 18,475,733 Jute and other grasses, and manufactures of$3,882,268 Leather and manufactures of 10,245,597 Opium 2,037,793 Precious stones 3,612,280 Seeds 6,687,192 Silk, manufactures of 24,380,923 Soda and salts of 5,563,526 Spices 2,285,525 Straw and palm leaf, manufactures of 2,325,539 Sugar, brown 70,015,757 Molasses 11,685,224 Melado 3,313,597 Tin and manufactures of 15,365,565 Tobacco and manufactures of 6,861,384 Watches, clocks, &c. 2,566,195 Wines and spirits 7,769,527 Wood, manufactures of 6,182,988 Wool, unmanufactured 11,071,259 Wool, manufactures of 44,609,704 All other articles 62,084,493 Total $552,918,857 Total merchandise, exclusive of specie$532,018,140 DOMESTIC EXPORTS. Agricultural implements $2,625,372 Animals, living 2,672,505 Indian corn 24,456,937 Wheat 59,607,863 Wheat flour 23,712,440 Cotton, raw 190,638,625 Cotton, manufactured 4,071,882 Chemicals, dyes, and medicines 2,925,322 Furs and fur skins 4,396,424 Gold and silver, coin and bullion 83,857,129 Hides and skins, other than fur 4,729,725 Iron and steel, and manufactures of 19,349,671 Leather and manufactures of 7,324,796 Naval stores 2,901,625 Oil cake 5,138,300 Oils, mineral, refined or manufactured 30,078,568 Provisions 81,343,401 Spirits of turpentine 1,924,544 Sugar and molasses 3,793,517 Tallow 5,692,203 Tobacco and manufactures of 27,844,490 Wood and manufactures of 17,740,085 All other articles 36,239,343 Total$643,064,767 Total merchandise, exclusive of specie $559,207,638 The chief countries represented in the foreign commerce in 1875 were as follows:  COUNTRIES. Imports.[9] Domesticexports.[10] Argentine Republic$5,834,709 $1,301,294 Belgium 6,189,098 12,387,590 Brazil 42,033,046 7,634,865 Central American states 2,627,359 1,042,784 Chili 789,242 2,062,190 China 13,480,440 1,465,984 France 63,342,631 50,133,711 French West Indies and Guiana 2,037,266 1,167,276 Germany 40,893,386 52,517,913 England 144,195,531 321,014,343 Scotland 11,615,139 17,457,991 Ireland 1,237,167 28,327,535 Nova Scotia, New Brunswick 3,896,350 7,724,820 Quebec, Ontario, &c. 26,308,456 23,909,153 British Columbia 2,154,753 1,032,883 British West Indies and Honduras 4,642,891 7,587,218 British Guiana 2,499,245 1,830,807 British East Indies 15,584,099 473,049 British Hong Kong 1,206,816 7,296,070 British Australasia 3,755,590 3,505,345 Hayti 2,207,173 4,870,812 Italy 9,190,182 7,226,554 Japan 7,772,302 1,647,197 Mexico 11,634,983 3,895,792 Netherlands 2,353,658 7,483,010 Dutch East Indies 6,775,399 1,034,159 Peru 1,344,695 2,448,657 Portugal 480,362 2,820,099 Russia on the Baltic 698,221 10,420,706 Spain 4,534,873 7,540,086 Cuba 66,745,527 15,586,658 Porto Rico 6,980,082 2,377,757 All other Spanish possessions 6,830,187 89,889 Turkey in Europe 72,459 3,454,795 United States of Colombia 12,942,305 4,272,950 Uruguay 2,935,039 1,440,665 Venezuela 5,690,224 2,423,254 All other countries, islands, &c. 10,445,378 14,193,956 Total$553,906,153 $643,094,767 The total number of vessels entered in the foreign trade during the year ended June 30, 1875, was 27,961, with an aggregate tonnage of 11,692,810. Of these, 11,074, of 3,573,950 tons, were American, and 16,887, of 8,118,860 tons, were foreign; 1,028, of 1,141,734 tons, were American ocean steamers, and 1,246, of 3,142,723 tons, foreign ocean steamers. The total number cleared was 28,236, of 11,896,507 tons, including 11,216 American vessels, of 3,736,639 tons, and 17,020 foreign vessels, of 8,159,868 tons. Besides the above, 74,027 vessels, of 31,614,282 tons, entered, and 73,324, of 30,440,626 tons, cleared in the coastwise trade and fisheries. The extent of the merchant marine of the United States at different periods has been as follows:  YEARS. Sail, tons. Steam, tons. Total, tons. 1790 478,377 ........ 478,877 1800 972,492 ........ 972,492 1810 1,424,783 ........ 1,424,783 1820 1,280,167 ........ 1,280,167 1830 1,127,304 64,472 1,191,776 1840 1,978,455 202,309 2,180,764 1850 3,010,020 525,434 3,535,454 1855 4,441,716 770,285 5,212,001 1860 4,485,931 867,937 5,353,868 1865[11] 4,029,643 1,067,139 5,087,782 1870[12] 4,171,412 1,075,095 4,246,507 1875[12] 3,685,064 1,168,668 4,853,782 The distribution of the merchant marine has been as follows:  YEARS. Foreigntrade,tons. Coastwisetrade,tons. Whale fisheries, tons. Cod and mackerel fisheries, tons. 1790 346,254 103,775 ........ 28,348 1800 667,107 272,492 3,466 29,427 1810 981,019 405,347 3,589 34,828 1820 583,657 588,025 36,445 72,040 1830 537,563 516,979 39,705 97,529 1840 762,838 1,176,694 136,927 104,305 1850 1,439,694 1,797,825 146,017 151,918 1855 2,348,358 2,543,255 186,848 133,540 1860 2,379,396 2,644,867 166,841 162,764 1865 1,518,350 3,381,522 90,516 106,394 1870 1,448,846 2,638,247 67,954 91,460 1875 1,515,598 3,219,698 38,229 80,207 The classification of the merchant shipping of the United States in 1870 and 1875 was as follows:  CHARACTER. Year endingJune 30, 1870. Year endingJune 30, 1875. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. Registered, permanent 1,932 1,093,649.69 2,030 1,125,898.32 Registered, temporary 1,010 423,150.37 951 427,929.60 Enrolled, permanent 21,150 2,584,792.81 23,379 3,108,440.86 Enrolled, temporary 375 98,147.81 584 129,948.68 Licensed under 20 tons 4,531 51,766.55 5,391 61,514.68 Total 28,998 4,246,507.23 32,285 4,853,732.14 Of those reported in 1875, 23,440, of 3,367,618.01 tons, were returned for the Atlantic and gulf coasts; 1,225, of 229,257.51 tons, for the Pacific coast; 5,496, of 837,891.76 tons, for the northern lakes; and 2,124, of 418,964.86 tons, for the western rivers. The number, class, and tonnage of vessels built in the United States for a series of years have been:  YEARS. Shipsand barks. Brigs. Schooners. Sloops, canalboats,andbarges. Steamers. Total. Total tonnage. 1820 21 60 ⁠301 152 ... 534 47,784 1830 25 56 ⁠403 116 ⁠ 37 637 58,094 1840 97 109 ⁠378 224 ⁠ 64 872 118,309 1850 247 117 ⁠547 290 ⁠259 1,360 272,218 1855 381 126 ⁠605 669 ⁠253 2,047 583,450 1860 110 36 ⁠372 289 ⁠264 1,071 212,892 1861 110 38 ⁠360 371 ⁠264 1,143 233,194 1862 62 17 ⁠207 397 ⁠183 864 175,076 1863 97 34 ⁠212 1,113 ⁠367 1,823 310,884 1864 112 45 ⁠322 1,389 ⁠498 2,366 415,741 1865 109 46 ⁠369 853 ⁠411 1,788 383,806 1866[13] 96 61 ⁠457 926 ⁠348 1,888 336,147 1868 80 48 ⁠590 848 ⁠236 1,802 285,305 1870 73 27 ⁠519 709 ⁠290 1,618 276,958 1872 15 10 ⁠426 900 ⁠292 1,643 209,052 1874 71 22 ⁠655 995 ⁠404 2,147 432,725 1875 114 22 ⁠502 340 ⁠323 1,301 297,639 On June 30, 1875, there were employed in the cod and mackerel fisheries 1,259 vessels of 68,703 tons, and in the whale fisheries 165 vessels of 38,229 tons. The products of the year ending on that date were valued at$13,588,581, including $2,841,002 whale and$10,747,579 other fisheries. (See Fisheries.) The number and chief nationalities of emigrants arriving in the United States each year to the close of 1873 are given in the article Emigration. For the years 1874 and 1875 they were:

 COUNTRIES. 1874. 1875. England 43,396 30,040 Ireland 47,683 29,969 Scotland 8,765 5,739 Wales, Man, Jersey, and Channel islands 573 431 Total British isles 100,422 66,179 British America 30,596 23,420 Norway 6,581 4,465 Sweden 4,336 6,031 Denmark 3,188 1,951 Holland 1,533 1,073 Germany 56,927 36,565 Austria 6,891 6,039 Russia 7,447 4,369 France 8,741 3,607 Switzerland 2,436 1,641 Italy 5,787 3,315 All other countries 25,929 27,576 Total 260,814 191,231

The whole number of customs districts in the United States is 112, each having a port of entry. There are also 15 interior ports of delivery, at which duties may be collected on appraised merchandise transported in bond from exterior ports of entry, viz.: Albany, N. Y. ; Pittsburgh, Pa.; Parkersburg and Wheeling, W. Va.; Cincinnati, O.; Evansville, Ind.; Cairo and Galena, Ill.; Burlington and Dubuque, Iowa; Omaha, Neb.; Louisville, Ky.; Memphis and Nashville, Tenn.; and St. Louis, Mo. Of these the following have also been made ports of entry, to which merchandise may be transported directly without prior appraisement: Cincinnati, O.; Evansville, Ind.; Louisville, Ky.; Memphis, Tenn.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. The railroad, canal, telegraph, and postal systems of the United States are described in the special articles on those subjects.—The wealth, taxation (not national), and public debt (not national) in 1860 and 1870 were as follows:

 PARTICULARS. 1860. 1870. True value of real and personal estate $16,159,616,068$30,068,518,507 Assessed value of real estate 6,973,006,049 9,914,780,825 Assessed value of personal estate 5,111,553,956 4,264,205,907 Assessed value, total 12,084,560,005 14,178,986,732 Taxation, state ............ 68,051,298 Taxation, county ............ 77,746,115 Taxation, town, city, &c. ............ 134,794,108 Taxation, total 94,186,746 280,591,521 Public debt, state, bonded ............ 324,747,959 Public debt, state, all other ............ 28,118,739 Public debt, county, bonded ............ 157,955,880 Public debt, county, all other. ............ 29,609,660 Public debt, town, city, &c., bonded ............ 271,119,668 Public debt, town, city, &c., all other ............ 57,124,852 Public debt, aggregate ............ 868,676,758

—The several states of the Union, so far as their internal affairs are concerned, are supreme and independent, while for the common interests of all they delegate a portion of their powers to a central government, whose laws, so long as they are not in conflict with the constitution, are paramount to state authority. All powers not expressly granted by the constitution to the federal government, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively or to the people. The government consists of three branches, the legislative, executive, and judicial. The executive power is vested in a president, who together with a vice president is elected for four years by a college of electors, each state returning as many electors as it is entitled to have senators and representatives in congress. The present total number of electors is 366. The constitution provides that they shall be appointed in such manner as the respective legislatures may direct. At first they were generally chosen by the legislatures themselves, and this continued to be done in South Carolina till 1860; but now they are designated in all the states by popular vote at an election held every four years (counting for this century from 1800), on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November. The electors meet in each state on the first Wednesday in December and cast their votes for president and vice president. On the second Wednesday in February the certificates of the votes thus cast are opened by the president of the senate in presence of the two houses of congress, when the votes are counted and the result declared. The official term of the officers declared elected begins on the 4th of March following. In case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability of the president, the vice president succeeds to the presidency, and, if the disability be not temporary, serves the remainder of the presidential term; and in case of the failure of both president and vice president, congress has authority to declare what officer shall act as president until the disability be removed or a president shall be elected. By act of congress approved March 1, 1792, the president of the senate pro tempore, or in case there be no president of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives, is to act as president in such a case, and a new president is to be elected if the vacancy occurs more than five months before the end of the existing presidential term. Neither the president of the senate nor the speaker of the house has ever succeeded to the presidency under this law. Three presidents have died in office and been succeeded by vice presidents, viz.: William Henry Harrison in 1841, succeeded by Vice President John Tyler; Zachary Taylor in 1850, succeeded by Millard Fillmore; and Abraham Lincoln in 1865, succeeded by Andrew Johnson. When there is no election of president by the people for want of a majority of electoral votes for any one candidate, the house of representatives chooses the president from the three having the highest number of votes, the body of representatives from each state casting a single vote. Two elections by the house have occurred, viz.: in 1801 (under the original provision of the constitution, which required that the candidate having the highest number of votes for president should be president and the candidate having the next highest number vice president), when, there being a tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the former was chosen president by the house; and in 1825, when John Quincy Adams was chosen. When the election results in no choice for vice president, that officer is chosen by the senate from the two who have received the highest number of votes. In 1837 Richard M. Johnson was thus chosen vice president by the senate. The president may be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. He is commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and of the militia of the several states when they are called into the actual service of the general government; and has power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to make treaties, and to appoint ministers and other public officers of the United States whose appointment is not otherwise provided for. He receives a salary of $50,000 (until 1873,$25,000) a year, and the vice president $10,000. All acts of congress must be presented to him before they can become law, and he may within ten days from its presentation return any bill of which he disapproves to the house in which it originated, stating his objections. If on reconsideration the bill is again passed by two thirds of each house, it becomes law. The president and vice president must be native-born citizens, 35 years of age, and 14 years resident within the United States. The president is assisted by a cabinet of seven ministers, called the secretaries of state, of the treasury, of the interior, of war, and of the navy, the attorney general, and the postmaster general, who are nominated by him and confirmed by the senate. They receive$8,000 a year each. These are the heads of the seven executive departments of the government, viz., state, treasury, interior, war, navy, justice, and post office. There are two assistant secretaries in the department of state, two in that of war, two in the treasury, and one in the interior department. There are three assistant postmasters general, and three assistant attorneys general in addition to the solicitor general, who is the first assistant of the attorney general. These officers are also appointed by the president with the consent of the senate. The principal duties of the secretary of state relate to foreign affairs. Besides other matters relating more directly to finance, the secretary of the treasury superintends the collection of duties and internal revenue; he also has general supervision of the lighthouses of the United States. There are in the department of the treasury a treasurer, commissioner of customs, commissioner of internal revenue, and comptroller of the currency; also a bureau of statistics, which collects and publishes statistics relating to commerce and navigation; and a bureau of the mint, which has under its control all the mints and assay offices of the United States. The secretary of the interior is charged with the supervision of public business relating to: 1, the census; 2, public lands, including mines; 3, Indians; 4, pensions and bounty lands; 5, patents; 6, custody and distribution of publications; 7, education; 8, government hospitals for the insane; 9, Columbia asylum for the deaf and dumb; also certain duties relating to the territories. The most important of these functions are intrusted to the commissioner of the general land office, commissioner of Indian affairs, commissioner of pensions, commissioner and assistant commissioner of patents, superintendent of public documents, and commissioner of education, who are appointed by the president with the consent of the senate. The department of agriculture (which is not an executive department), under the charge of a commissioner of agriculture, is designed to obtain and diffuse useful information relating to agriculture, and to procure and distribute new and valuable seeds and plants. Annual reports are made to congress through the president by the chiefs of the departments above named. The general supervision of Indian affairs is vested in a board consisting of not more than ten commissioners, who are appointed solely by the president “from men eminent for intelligence and philanthropy,” and who serve without pecuniary compensation. They are required to supervise all expenditures for the Indians, and to inspect all goods purchased for them. Inspectors, not exceeding five, are appointed by the president to visit the Indian superintendencies and agencies as often as twice a year and investigate their affairs. There are four superintendents of Indian affairs, who exercise a general supervision and control over the official acts of all persons employed by the government in that service. The national legislature consists of a congress composed of a senate and house of representatives. The senate consists of two senators from each state chosen by the respective legislatures for six years, in such a way that one third of the whole body goes out of office every two years. The act of congress of 1866 provides that in every state each branch of the legislature shall first vote separately and viva voce for senator. These votes are declared in joint assembly on the following day, and if no candidate has received a majority vote of each house, both houses in joint assembly elect a senator by ballot. If a vacancy occur in the senate when the legislature of the state interested is not in session, it may be filled by appointment of the governor until the legislature next meets, when a senator is chosen for the unexpired term. The vice president of the United States is president of the senate ex officio, and the senate elects a president pro tempore to serve in his absence; the vice president has only a casting vote. A senator must be 30 years of age, nine years a citizen of the United States, and at the time of his election resident within the state for which he is chosen. The senate has sole power to try all impeachments. The house of representatives is composed of members chosen for two years by the people of each state; they must be 25 years of age, seven years citizens of the United States, and at the time of their election resident within the states for which they are chosen. The number of representatives in congress is fixed by the law of 1872 at 292, and they are apportioned among the several states according to their representative population, excluding Indians not taxed. The number of representatives in congress and of electoral votes of each state are as follows:

 STATES. Representatives. Electoral votes. Alabama 8 10 Arkansas 4 6 California 4 6 Connecticut 4 6 Delaware 1 3 Florida 2 4 Georgia 9 11 Illinois 19 21 Indiana 13 15 Iowa 9 11 Kansas 3 5 Kentucky 10 12 Louisiana 6 8 Maine 5 7 Maryland 6 8 Massachusetts 11 13 Michigan 9 11 Minnesota 3 5 Mississippi 6 8 Missouri 13 15 Nebraska 1 3 Nevada 1 3 New Hampshire 3 5 New Jersey 7 9 New York 33 35 North Carolina 8 10 Ohio 20 22 Oregon 1 3 Pennsylvania 27 29 Rhode Island 2 4 South Carolina 5 7 Tennessee 10 12 Texas 6 8 Vermont 3 5 Virginia 9 11 West Virginia 3 5 Wisconsin 8 10 Total 292 366

The admission of Colorado as a state with one representative and two senators will add three to the total number of electoral votes. Every state is entitled to at least one representative. New states admitted after the apportionment (which is made after each decennial census) elect representatives in addition to the limited number of 292, but such excess continues only till the next apportionment. There are also delegates, one from each organized territory, who are entitled to speak in the house, but not to vote. The election for representatives and delegates to congress is held biennially on the Tuesday next after the first Monday of November in even years. The house of representatives chooses its own speaker and other officers; has the sole power of impeachment; and originates all bills relating to revenue. Members of both senate and house receive $5,000 a year, and mileage at the rate of 20 cents for each mile of travel in going to and returning from the seat of government. The pay of the speaker of the house is$8,000 a year. The regular sessions of congress begin on the first Monday of December in each year, and extra sessions may be called by the president whenever he deems it necessary. The term of office of representatives, and consequently the duration of each congress, expires by law on the 4th day of March of every odd year. Congress has power to lay and collect taxes, imposts, and excises, which must be uniform throughout the United States; to borrow money on the credit of the United States; to regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian tribes; to coin money; to define and punish piracy and offences against the law of nations; to declare war; to raise and support an army and navy; to provide for calling forth the militia when required; and to exercise exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia. Congress can make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. It has passed general laws of bankruptcy and for the protection of inventions, copyrights, and trade marks. (See Bankrupt, Patents, Copyright, and Trade Mark.) The judiciary comprises a supreme court, circuit courts, district courts, and the court of claims. There are also the supreme court of the District of Columbia and the territorial courts, the judges of which are appointed by the president. The former has jurisdiction corresponding to that of the state courts and also that of the federal district courts; the jurisdiction of the latter is specially defined by the acts providing for their creation. Besides these, each state has its own independent judiciary. The supreme court consists of a chief justice (salary $10,500) and eight associate justices (salary$10,000 each). It holds one session annually in Washington, beginning on the second Monday in October. The United States is divided into nine judicial circuits, as follows: 1, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island; 2, Vermont, Connecticut, and New York; 3, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware; 4, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; 5, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas; 6, Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee; 7, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin; 8, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas; 9, California, Oregon, and Nevada. There is a circuit judge (salary $6,000) resident in each circuit, and a justice of the supreme court visits each circuit for the purpose of holding circuit court. Circuit courts are held by the justice of the supreme court assigned to the circuit, or by the circuit judge of the circuit, or by the district judge of the district, or by any two of them sitting together. The United States is also divided into 57 districts, in each of which there is a district court composed of one judge, who resides in the district for which he is appointed. In many states the district is coextensive with the state; in others the state is divided into two or three districts The court of claims consists of a chief justice and four associate judges; its sessions are held in Washington. All the judges of the federal courts are appointed for life by the president with the consent of the senate; but they may be removed for cause. (For the jurisdiction of the federal courts, see Court, vol. v., pp. 432-'3.) The qualifications of voters in the United States are prescribed by the states respectively; the fifteenth amendment to the federal constitution provides that the right of citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The executive power of each organized territory is vested in a governor, who is appointed for four years by the president of the United States with the consent of the senate, and receives a salary of$3,000. The secretary is appointed in the same manner and for the same period, and receives a salary of $2,500. The legislative power is vested in a council and house of representatives, chosen by the people for two years; the sessions are biennial. A delegate to congress is elected by the people in each territory for two years. The legislation of the territories is subject to revision by congress. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court consisting of a chief and two associate justices, who are appointed for four years by the president with the consent of the senate, and receive a salary of$3,000 each; in three district courts each held by a judge of the supreme court; and in inferior courts organized by the territory. Territories are admitted as states into the Union by special acts of congress. The District of Columbia is under the exclusive jurisdiction of congress. By act of June 20, 1874, the government is vested in a commission of three persons appointed by the president with the consent of the senate. All ministers to foreign countries are appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate.—The constitution forbids the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it; the passing of any bill of attainder or ex post facto law; the imposition of any capitation or other direct tax except in proportion to the census, or of any tax or duty on articles exported from any state; and the passing of any commercial or revenue regulation giving a preference to the ports of one state over those of another state. No money can be drawn from the treasury except in consequence of appropriations made by law, and a statement of the public receipts and expenditures must be published from time to time. No title of nobility can be granted by the United States, and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them can without the consent of congress accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any king, prince, or foreign state. The right of the people to bear arms may not be infringed; soldiers may not be quartered in any house in time of peace without the consent of the owner, nor even in time of war except in a manner to be prescribed by law. The persons, houses, papers, and effects of the people are exempt from search and seizure except under a warrant issued upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. No person may be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor may any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed; to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence. Excessive bail may not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Private property may not be taken for public use without just compensation. No state can enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money, emit bills of credit, or make anything but gold and silver a legal tender for debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; grant any title of nobility; or lay any imposts or duties on imports and exports, without the consent of congress, except what may be necessary for executing its inspection laws. The net produce of all imposts and duties laid by any state on imports or exports shall be for the benefit of the treasury of the United States. Without the consent of congress no state may lay any duty on tonnage; keep troops or ships of war in times of peace; enter into any agreement or compact with another state or with a foreign power; or engage in war unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. Treason against the United States consists only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. The punishment of treason is left to be defined by congress, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state, and citizens of each state are entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states. Slavery is prohibited by the thirteenth amendment of the constitution. All persons born or naturalized in the United States are declared to be citizens thereof, and every state is prohibited from making or enforcing any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of such citizens. New states may be admitted into the Union by congress, but no new state can be erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of congress. The several states have exclusive power to prescribe the qualifications of voters and state officers, and the form of their state government. The constitution only requires that the form of government be republican, and that no law or ordinance be passed which would conflict with any law of the United States. Congress has power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territories or other property belonging to the United States. Amendments to the constitution may be proposed by two thirds of both houses of congress, or by a convention convoked by congress on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the states; they become valid when ratified by the legislatures of or conventions in three fourths of the states.—The army of the United States comprises 25 regiments of infantry, 10 of cavalry, and 5 of artillery, besides a corps of engineers, &c. The chief officers are: the general (in 1876, William T. Sherman), annual salary $13,500; the lieutenant general (Philip H. Sheridan),$11,500; three major generals, $7,500 each; and six brigadier generals,$3,500 each. The United States is divided into four military divisions, which are respectively under the command of the lieutenant general and the three major generals. The division of the Atlantic, with headquarters in New York, constitutes but one department; that of the Missouri, with headquarters in Chicago, comprises the departments of Dakota, Missouri, the Platte, and Texas; that of the South, headquarters in Louisville, Ky., includes the departments of the South and of the Gulf; that of the Pacific, headquarters in San Francisco, the departments of California, the Columbia, and Arizona. The numerical strength of the army is about 25,000 enlisted men. The national armory is at Springfield, Mass. There are United States arsenals at Augusta, Ga.; Augusta, Me.; Benicia, Cal.; Fort Union, N. M.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Jefferson Barracks, Mo.; New York city (arsenal and agency); Old Point Comfort, Va.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Pikesville, Md.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; Rock Island, Ill.; San Antonio, Texas; Vancouver, W. T.; Washington, D. C.; Watertown, Mass.; and West Troy, N. Y. The soldiers' home, for honorably discharged soldiers of the regular army who have served 20 years or have been discharged for disability contracted in the service, is situated in the District of Columbia, near Washington. It is under the supervision of a board of commissioners consisting of the surgeon general, adjutant general, and commissary general of subsistence of the army. The national home for disabled volunteer soldiers is at Dayton, Ohio, and has branches at Augusta, Me., Milwaukee, Wis., and Hampton, Va. These homes are under the direction of a board of managers, and are maintained by annual congressional appropriations. (See Pension.) In 1876 there were for the interment of soldiers and sailors 81 national cemeteries in the United States, most of them being near famous battle fields of the war. The total number of interments to 1875 was 306,053. The cemeteries were classified as follows:

 FIRST CLASS. Arlington, Va. Andersonville, Ga. Beaufort, S. C. City of Mexico, Mexico. Corinth, Miss. Camp Nelson, Ky. Chattanooga, Tenn. Chalmette, La. Fredericksburg, Va. Gettysburg, Pa. Hampton, Va. Jefferson Barracks, Mo. Little Rock, Ark. Mound City, Ill. Memphis, Tenn. Murfreesboro, Tenn. Marietta, Ga. Nashville, Tenn. Natchez, Miss. Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn. Poplar Grove, Va. Port Hudson, La. Richmond, Va. Salisbury, N. C. Soldiers' Home, D. C. Vicksburg, Miss. SECOND CLASS. Alexandria, Va. Alexandria, La. Brownsville, Texas. Baton Rouge, La. Barrancas, Fla. City Point, Va. Culpeper, Va. Fort Leavenworth, Kan. Fort Smith, Ark. Florence, S. C. Fort Scott, Kan. Knoxville, Tenn. Mill Springs, Ky. Mobile, Ala. New Berne, N. C. Philadelphia, Pa. Raleigh, N. C. Wilmington, N. C. Winchester, Va. Yorktown, Va. THIRD CLASS. Annapolis, Md. Ball's Bluff, Va. Battle Ground, D. C. Beverly, N. J. Camp Butler, Ill. Cave Hill, Ky. Cold Harbor, Va. Crown Hill, Ind. Cypress Hills, N. Y. Danville, Ky. Danville, Va. Fayetteville, Ark. Finn's Point, N. J. Fort Donelson, Tenn. Fort Gibson, Indian Ter. Fort Harrison, Va. Fort McPherson, Neb. Fort St. Philip, La. Fort Vancouver, W. T. Glendale, Va. Grafton, W. Va. Jefferson City, Mo. Keokuk, Iowa. Laurel, Md. Lebanon, Ky. Lexington, Ky. London Park, Md. New Albany, Ind. Rock Island, Ill. San Antonio, Texas. Santa Fé, N. M. Seven Pines, Va. Springfield, Mo. Staunton, Va. Woodlawn (Elmira), N. Y.

The law provides for the enrolment in the militia of every able-bodied male citizen of the respective states between the ages of 18 and 45 years, except those specially exempted. The organization and control of the militia when not in active service are left to the respective states. The president is empowered to call out the militia whenever the United States is invaded, or in imminent danger of invasion from any foreign nation or Indian tribe, or in case of rebellion. (See Militia, vol. xi., p. 540.) In 1876 the navy comprised 147 vessels of 152,492 tons measurement, carrying 1,195 guns. Of these, 26 were sailing vessels, 26 ironclads, and 95 ordinary steam vessels, including 25 tugs. The chief officers on the active list are the admiral (in 1876, David D. Porter), annual salary $13,000; vice admiral (Stephen C. Rowan), salary$9,000 when at sea and $8,000 when on shore duty; 12 rear admirals, each receiving$6,000 a year when at sea and $5,000 on shore duty; 25 commodores, 50 captains, and 90 commanders. The whole field of naval operations in every part of the world is divided into six stations, each commanded by a rear admiral, designated as the European, the Asiatic, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, the South Atlantic, and the North Atlantic. There are United States navy yards at Kittery, Me.; Boston, Mass.; New London, Conn.; Brooklyn, N. Y.; League Island (Philadelphia), Pa.; Washington, D. C.; Norfolk, Va.; Pensacola, Fla.; and Mare Island, Cal. Nine naval hospitals are maintained by the United States, as follows: Annapolis, Md.; Brooklyn, N. Y.; Chelsea, Mass.; Mare Island, Cal.; Norfolk, Va.; Pensacola, Fla.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Washington, D. C.; and Yokohama, Japan. (See Navy.)—The national debt of the United States, past and present, has accrued chiefly in consequence of the war of the revolution, that of 1812, the Florida war, the Mexican war, and the civil war. The cost of the revolutionary war was estimated by Hamilton at$135,193,703 in specie; the estimated cost of the war of 1812 was $75,450,930, and of the Mexican war$82,232,745. Acquisitions of territory have added $72,200,000 to the debt, as follows: the purchase of Louisiana from France in 1803, for$23,500,000 (including certain claims in addition to the price of the territory); of Florida from Spain in 1819 for $6,500,000; the Texas cession in 1850,$10,000,000; the acquisition of California from Mexico in 1848, $15,000,000; the Gadsden purchase from Mexico in 1853,$10,000,000; and the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867, $7,200,000. In 1790 the secretary of the treasury reported that the aggregate foreign and domestic debt on Dec. 31, 1784, was$54,124,464; the state debts, including interest, were estimated at $25,000,000. The outstanding principal of the public debt of the United States on Jan. 1 of each year from 1791 to 1843 inclusive, and on July 1 from 1844 to 1875, has been as follows:  YEARS. Amount. 1791$75,463,476 1792 77,227,924 1793 80,352,634 1794 78,427,404 1795 80,747,587 1796 83,762,172 1797 82,064,479 1798 79,228,529 1799 78,408,669 1800 82,976,294 1801 83,038,050 1802 80,712,632 1803 77,054,686 1804 $86,427,120 1805 82,312,150 1806 75,723,270 1807 69,218,398 1808 65,196,317 1809 57,023,192 1810 53,173,217 1811 48,005,587 1812 45,209,737 1813 55,962,827 1814 81,487,846 1815 99,833,660 1816 127,334,933 1817$123,491,965 1818 103,466,633 1819 95,529,648 1820 91,015,566 1821 89,987,427 1822 93,546,676 1823 90,875,877 1824 90,269,777 1825 83,788,432 1826 81,054,059 1827 73,987,357 1828 67,475,043 1829 58,421,413 1830 48,565,406 1831 39,128,191 1832 24,322,235 1833 7,001,698 1834 4,760,082 1835 37,513 1836 336,957 1837 3,308,124 1838 10,434,221 1839 3,573,343 1840 5,250,875 1841 13,594,480 1842 20,601,226 1843 32,742,922 1844 23,461,652 1845 15,925,303 1846 15,550,202 1847 $38,826,534 1848 47,044,862 1849 63,061,858 1850 63,452,773 1851 68,304,796 1852 66,199,341 1853 59,803,117 1854 42,242,222 1855 35,586,956 1856 31,972,537 1857 28,699,831 1858 44,911,881 1859 58,496,837 1860 64,842,287 1861 90,580,873 1862 524,176,412 1863 1,119,772,138 1864 1,815,784,370 1865 2,680,647,869 1866 2,773,236,173 1867 2,678,126,103 1868 2,611,687,851 1869 2,588,452,213 1870 2,480,672,427 1871 2,353,211,332 1872 2,253,251,328 1873 [14]2,234,482,993 1874 [14]2,251,690,468 1875 [14]2,232,284,531 In 1835 the country was entirely out of debt, the small amount unpaid having been provided for. The total amount of loans and treasury notes issued by the government previous to the year 1861 was$492,371,087, all of which has been paid, with the exception of $1,408,050, which has matured but has not been presented for payment. The whole amount of loans and treasury notes issued since 1861 is$5,011,818,908. Under the acts of Feb. 8, July 17, and Aug. 5, 1861, were issued $207,736,350 of bonds redeemable in 1881, bearing 6 per cent. interest payable semi-annually, and known as sixes of '81. Under the acts of July 17, 1861, June 30, 1864, and March 3, 1865, treasury notes to the amount of$970,087,250 were issued in denominations of $50 and over, bearing 7310 per cent. interest, and known as seven-thirties. With an unimportant exception, all of these have been paid or funded. Under the acts of Feb. 25, 1862, March 3, 1864, and Jan. 28 and March 3, 1865,$1,602,697,000 of coupon and registered bonds were issued, redeemable after 5 and payable in 20 years, bearing 6 per cent. interest payable semi-annually in coin, and known as five-twenties of '62, '64, and '65, and consols of '65, '67, and '68; outstanding, April 1, 1876, $701,318,300. Under the act of March 3, 1864, were issued$196,117,300 of “ten-forty” bonds, redeemable in 10 and payable in 40 years in coin, with 5 per cent. interest payable semi-annually; outstanding, $194,566,300. Under the acts of July 14, 1870, and Jan. 20, 1871, were issued$500,000,000 of 5 per cent. bonds payable in coin after 10 years, and the interest quarterly. Under the act of March 3, 1863, $266,595,440 of compound interest notes were issued, payable in three years with 6 per cent. interest; outstanding April 1, 1876,$336,700. The acts of Feb. 25 and July 11, 1862, authorized the issue of $300,000,000 of legal-tender notes fundable into a bond bearing 6 per cent. interest in gold. The demand notes previously issued,$60,000,000, were also made a legal tender by the act of March 17, 1862. The act of March 3, 1863, authorized an additional issue of $150,000,000; and the right to exchange such notes for 6 per cent. bonds was limited to July 1, 1863. The act of June 30, 1864, provided that the total amount of such notes should not exceed$400,000,000, and such additional sum, not exceeding $50,000,000, as might be lawfully required for the redemption of temporary loans. The amount outstanding on April 1, 1876, was$370,823,645. (See Money, vol. xi., p. 743.) On Jan. 1, 1861, the debt amounted to $66,243,721. During the next six months it increased at the rate of about$4,000,000 a month; during the year beginning July 1, 1862, at the rate of about $36,000,000 a month; during the following year at the rate of$49,500,000 a month. Increasing more than $70,500,000 a month from Dec. 1, 1863, to April 1, 1865, and$84,400,000 a month during the five months following, it reached its maximum on Aug. 31, 1865, when it amounted to $2,845,907,626, composed as follows:  Funded debt$1,109,568,192 Matured debt 1,503,020 Temporary loans 107,148,713 Certificates of debt 85,093,000 Five per cent. legal-tender notes 33,954,230 Compound Interest legal-tender notes 217,024,160 Seven-thirty notes 830,000,000 United States notes (legal tenders) 433,160,569 Fractional currency 26,344,742 Suspended requisitions uncalled for 2,111,000

Of these obligations, $684,138,959 were a legal tender in the payment of all debts, public and private, except customs duties and interest on the public debt. The amount of legal-tender notes, demand notes, fractional currency, and national bank notes outstanding on Aug. 31, 1865, and annually thereafter, from Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1, 1876, inclusive, was:  DATES. UNITED STATES ISSUES. National bank notes, including national goldbank notes. Aggregate. Fractionalcurrency. Old demand notes. Legal-tendernotes.[15] Total. August 31, 1865⁠$26,344,742 . . . . . . $433,160,569$459,505,311 $176,213,955$635,719,266 January 1, 1866 26,000,420 . . . . . . 426,231,389 452,231,809 298,588,419 750,820,228 January 1, 1867 28,732,812 . . . . . . 380,497,842 409,230,654 299,846,206 709,076,860 January 1, 1868 31,597,583 . . . . . . 356,159,127 387,756,710 299,747,569 687,504,279 January 1, 1869 34,215,715 . . . . . . 356,021,073 390,286,788 299,629,322 689,866,110 January 1, 1870 39,762,664 $113,098 356,000,000 395,875,762 299,904,029 695,779,791 January 1, 1871 39,995,089 101,086 356,000,000 396,096,175 306,307,672 702,403,847 January 1, 1872 40,767,877 92,801 357,500,000 398,360,678 328,465,431 726,826,109 January 1, 1873 45,722,061 84,387 358,557,907 404,364,355 344,582,812 748,947,167 January 1, 1874 48,544,792 79,637 378,401,702 427,026,131 350,848,236 777,874,367 January 1, 1875 46,390,598 72,317 382,000,000 428,462,915 354,128,250 782,591,165 January 1, 1876 44,147,072 69,642 371,827,220 416,043,934 346,479,756 762,523,690 The refunding of the national debt was authorized by the acts of congress of July 14, 1870, and Jan. 20, 1871. The amount of six per cent. gold-bearing bonds outstanding on Jan. 1, 1870, was$1,886,349,800, and of five per cent. bonds $221,589,300. On Jan. 1, 1876, the former amounted to$1,017,615,400, and the latter to $670,384,750, showing a decrease in the funded debt of$419,938,950. The reduction in the total debt during this period (excluding $35,175,000 of special deposits of legal-tender notes) was$435,716,254. The temporary loans, certificates of indebtedness, seven-thirty notes, and all the items of the debt bearing interest in lawful money, with the exception of the navy pension fund, either have been paid, have matured and ceased to bear interest, or have been funded. The public debt outstanding on April 1, 1876, is shown in the following statement. Besides this, $64,623,512 of 6 per cent. bonds, maturing 30 years from their date, have been issued to the several Pacific railway companies, which are to pay them at maturity.  Debt bearing interest in coin: Bonds at 6 per cent.$984,999,650 00 Bonds at 5 per cent. 710,037,600 00 $1,695,037,250 00 Debt bearing interest in lawful money: Navy pension fund at 3 per cent. 14,000,000 00 Debt on which interest has ceased since maturity 9,183,360 26 Debt bearing no interest: Old demand and legal-tender notes$370,823,645 50 Certificates of deposit 34,230,000 00 Fractional currency 42,604,893 71 Coin certificates 32,337,600 00 479,996,139 21 Total debt $2,198,216,749 47 The total receipts and expenditures of the government during each decade to 1860 were:  PERIODS. RECEIPTS. EXPENDITURES. Netordinary. Gross. Netordinary. Gross. 1791-1800.⁠$56,800,000 $77,200,000$34,000,000 $75,000,000 1800-1810. 132,000,000 133,600,000 55,900,000 131,900,000 1810-1820. 201,800,000 312,400,000 182,900,000 314,200,000 1820-1830. 212,200,000 230,300,000 122,000,000 226,600,000 1830-1840. 310,000,000 329,500,000 230,700,000 300,600,000 1840-1850. 246,400,000 374,200,000 293,900,000 374,400,000 1850-1860. 589,200,000 646,200,000 545,500,000 645,800,000 The annual receipts and expenditures of the government for 20 years, with the chief sources and objects, have been as follows, the fiscal year ending June 30: RECEIPTS.  YEARS. Customs. Internalrevenue. Direct tax. Publiclands. Miscellaneous. Net ordinary receipts. Premiums. Receipts fromloans and treasury notes. Grossreceipts. 1856$64,022,863 .......... ........ $8,917,644$1,116,190 $74,056,699 ..........$200 $74,056,699 1857 63,875,905 .......... ........ 3,829,486 1,259,920 68,965,312 .......... 3,900 68,969,212 1858 41,789,620 .......... ........ 3,513,715 1,352,029 46,655,365 .......... 23,717,300 70,372,665 1859 49,565,824 .......... ........ 1,756,687 1,454,596 52,777,107$709,357 28,287,500 81,773,965 1860 53,187,511 .......... ........ 1,778,557 1,088,530 56,054,599 10,008 20,776,800 76,841,407 1861 39,582,125 .......... ........ 870,658 1,023,515 41,476,299 33,630 41,861,709 83,371,640 1862 49,056,397 .......... $1,795,331 152,203 915,327 51,919,261 68,400 529,692,460 581,680,121 1863 69,059,642$37,640,787 1,485,103 167,617 3,741,794 112,094,945 602,345 776,682,361 889,379,652 1864 102,316,152 109,741,134 475,648 588,333 30,291,701 243,412,971 21,174,101 1,128,873,945 1,393,461,017 1865 84,928,260 209,464,215 1,200,573 996,553 25,441,556 322,031,158 11,683,446 1,472,224,740 1,805,939,345 1866 179,046,651 309,226,813 1,974,754 665,031 29,036,314 519,949,564 38,083,055 712,851,533 1,270,884,173 1867 176,417,810 266,027,537 4,200,233 1,163,575 15,037,522 462,846,679 27,787,330 640,426,910 1,131,060,920 1868 164,464,599 191,087,589 1,788,145 1,348,715 17,745,403 376,434,453 29,203,629 625,111,433 1,030,749,516 1869 180,048,426 158,356,460 765,685 4,020,344 13,997,338 357,138,256 13,755,491 238,678,081 609,621,828 1870 194,538,374 184,899,756 229,102 3,350,481 12,942,118 395,959,833 15,295,643 285,474,496 696,729,973 1871 206,270,408 143,098,153 580,355 2,388,646 22,093,541 374,431,104 8,892,839 268,768,523 652,092,468 1872 216,370,286 130,642,177 ........ 2,575,714 15,106,051 364,694,229 9,412,637 305,047,054 679,153,921 1873 188,089,522 113,729,314 315,254 2,882,312 17,161,270 322,177,673 11,560,530 214,931,017 548,669,221 1874 163,103,833 102,409,784 ........ 1,852,428 [16]32,575,043 299,941,090 5,037,665 439,272,535 744,251,291 1875 157,167,722 110,007,493 ........ 1,413,640 15,431,915 284,020,771 3,979,279 387,971,556 675,971,607

EXPENDITURES.

 YEARS. War. Navy. Indians. Pensions. Miscellaneous. Net ordinary  expenditures. Premiums. Interest. Public debt. Gross expenditures. 1856 $16,963,160$14,074,834 $2,644,263$1,296,229 $31,794,038$66,772,527 $385,372$1,953,822 $3,614,618$72,726,341 1857 19,159,150 12,651,694 4,354,418 1,310,380 28,565,498 66,041,143 368,572 1,598,265 3,276,606 71,274,587 1858 25,679,121 14,053,264 4,978,266 1,219,768 26,400,016 72,330,437 574,443 1,652,055 7,505,250 82,062,186 1859 23,154,720 14,690,927 3,490,534 1,222,222 23,797,544 66,355,950 ........ 2,637,649 14,685,043 83,678,642 1860 16,472,202 11,614,649 2,991,121 1,100,802 27,977,978 60,056,754 ........ 3,144,120 13,854,250 77,055,125 1861 23,001,530 12,387,156 2,865,481 1,034,599 23,327,287 62,616,055 ........ 4,034,157 18,737,100 85,387,313 1862 389,173,562 42,640,353 2,327,948 852,170 21,385,862 456,379,896 ........ 13,190,344 96,097,322 565,667,563 1863 603,314,411 63,261,235 3,152,032 1,078,513 23,198,382 694,004,575 ........ 24,729,700 181,081,685 899,815,911 1864 690,391,048 85,704,963 2,629,975 4,985,473 27,572,216 811,283,679 ........ 53,685,421 430,572,014 1,295,541,114 1865 1,030,690,400 122,617,434 5,059,360 16,347,621 42,989,383 1,217,704,199 1,717,900 77,395,090 609,616,141 1,906,433,331 1866 283,154,676 43,235,662 3,295,729 15,605,549 40,613,114 385,954,731 58,476 133,067,624 620,263,249 1,139,344,081 1867 95,224,415 31,034,011 4,642,531 20,936,551 51,110,223 202,947,733 10,813,349 143,781,591 735,536,980 1,093,079,655 1868 123,246,648 25,775,502 4,100,682 23,782,386 53,009,867 229,915,088 7,001,151 140,424,045 692,549,685 1,069,889,970 1869 78,501,990 20,000,757 7,042,923 28,476,621 56,474,061 190,496,354 1,674,680 130,694,242 261,912,718 584,777,996 1870 57,655,675 21,780,229 3,407,938 28,340,202 53,237,461 164,421,507 15,996,555 129,235,498 393,254,282 702,907,842 1871 35,799,991 19,431,027 7,426,997 34,443,894 60,481,916 157,583,827 9,016,794 125,576,565 399,508,670 691,680,858 1872 35,372,157 21,249,809 7,061,728 28,533,402 60,984,757 153,201,856 6,958,266 117,357,839 405,007,307 682,525,270 1873 46,323,138 23,526,256 7,951,704 29,359,426 73,328,110 180,488,636 5,105,919 104,750,688 233,699,352 524,044,597 1874 42,313,927 30,932,587 6,692,462 29,038,414 [16]85,141,593 194,118,985 1,395,073 107,119,815 422,065,060 724,698,933 1875 41,120,645 21,497,626 8,384,656 29,456,216 71,070,702 171,529,848 ........ 103,093,544 407,377,492 682,000,885

The receipts and expenditures of the post office department are not included in the above statement. They are given from 1790 to 1874 in the article Post, vol. xiii., p. 754. The receipts for the year ending June 30, 1875, were $26,791,360, of which$24,490,942 were for stamps, stamped envelopes, and postal cards. The expenditures were $33,611,309, of which$18,779,201 were for transportation of the mails, $10,464,746 for compensation of postmasters and clerks,$1,877,210 for compensation of letter carriers, and $724,186 for postage stamps. (For particulars concerning internal revenue, see Taxes, vol. xv., p. 589.) The total production of gold from 1848 to 1874, inclusive, was$1,282,927,092; of silver, $217,051,114. The coinage of the mints from 1793 to Jan. 1, 1876, was: of gold,$920,070,958; of silver, $169,669,963; of minor coinage,$12,717,198. Of this amount, $471,433,936 of gold,$116,153,632 of silver, and all of the minor, were coined at Philadelphia; and $390,427,157 of gold, and$19,175,425 of silver, coined at San Francisco. (See Gold, Silver, and Mint.)—A law for the establishment of a national banking system was passed by congress in February, 1863, and was superseded by the national bank act of June 3, 1864. (See Bank, vol. ii., p. 281.) The act of June 20, 1874, authorized the retirement of the circulation of national banks, and the surrender of bonds held as security therefor, upon the deposit of legal-tender notes in the treasury for the amount of the circulation thus retired. It also repealed the provision requiring a reserve on circulation, and provided for a system of redemption of national bank notes in the treasury department. The act of Jan. 14, 1875, provides for the unlimited issue of circulating notes to national banks, subject to the provisions of existing laws, and the reduction of the legal-tender notes at the rate of 80 per cent. upon the amount of additional bank notes issued, until the legal-tender notes shall be reduced to $300,000,000. The following table exhibits in millions of dollars the resources and liabilities of state banks in the years 1857 and 1875, and of national banks in 1865 and 1875:  RESOURCES. STATE BANKS. NATIONAL BANKS. Jan., 1857, 1,416 banks. Jan., 1875, 551 banks. Oct., 1865, 1,513 banks. Oct., 1875, 2,087 banks. Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. Loans and discounts$684.5 $176.3$487.2 $984.7 Bonds for circulation ..... .3 272.6 370.3 Other stocks and bonds 59.3 23.7 155.1 61.6 Due from banks 65.9 19.9 107.4 144.7 Real estate 26.1 9.0 14.7 42.4 Specie 58.3 1.2 18.1 8.1 Legal-tenders and bank notes 28.1 26.7 206.2 97.6 United States certificates ..... ..... ..... 48.8 Clearing-house exchanges ..... ..... ..... 75.1 Due from U. S. treasurer ..... ..... ..... 19.7 Other resources 31.0 15.2 98.5 29.2 Total$953.2 $272.8$1,359.8 $1,882.2  LIABILITIES. STATE BANKS. NATIONAL BANKS. Jan., 1857, 1,416 banks. Jan., 1875, 551 banks. Oct., 1865, 1,513 banks. Oct., 1875, 2,087 banks. Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. Capital stock$370.8 $69.1$393.2 $504.8 Surplus fund ..... 6.8 38.7 134.4 Other profits 59.7 9.0 32.4 53.0 Circulating notes 214.8 .2 171.3 318.4 Deposits 230.4 165.9 549.1 675.4 Due to banks 57.7 10.5 174.2 179.7 Other liabilities 19.8 10.8 .9 16.5 Total$953.2 $272.3$1,359.8 $1,882.2 The following table exhibits for each year, from 1868 to 1875 inclusive, the amount of circulation and of net deposits of the national banks, together with the reserve required and held by them, the figures below hundreds of thousands being omitted:  DATES. Number ofbanks. LIABILITIES. RESERVE. CLASSIFICATIONOF RESERVE. Circulation. Net deposits. Total. Required. Hold. Ratio. Specie. Otherlawful money. Duefromagents. Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. Per cent. Millions. Millions. Millions. Oct. 5, 1868 1,645$295.7 $559.2$854.9 $172.3$234.5 27.4 $11.5$156.0 $67.0 Oct. 9, 1869 1,617 293.6 504.4 798.0 160.1 208.2 26.1 22.0 129.5 56.7 Oct. 8, 1870 1,615 291.8 523.5 815.3 163.2 203.4 24.9 14.5 122.6 66.3 Oct. 2, 1871 1,767 315.5 636.7 952.2 191.3 233.4 24.5 12.0 134.5 86.9 Oct. 3, 1872 1,919 333.5 619.8 953.3 187.4 209.9 22.0 10.2 119.0 80.7 Sept. 12, 1873 1,976 339.1 673.3 1,012.4 199.5 229.1 22.6 19.9 113.1 96.1 Oct. 2, 1874 2,004 333.2 717.3 1,050.5 210.0 244.9 23.3 21.2 139.8 83.9 Oct. 1, 1875 2,087 318.4[17] 731.9 1,050.3 208.9 235.1 22.4 8.1 141.4 85.6 The total amount of circulation on March 1, 1876, was$342,819,073, of which $24,452,580 is being retired, lawful money having been deposited with the treasurer for that purpose. The remainder of the circulation,$318,366,493, is secured by $356,680,150 of United States bonds, the value of which in currency on March 1, 1876, was$427,947,224, and in gold $374,582,200. The following statement shows by geographical divisions the average number of national, state, private, and savings banks during the six months ending May 31, 1875, with their average capital and deposits in millions of dollars:  GEOGRAPHICALDIVISIONS. NATIONAL BANKS. STATE BANKS ANDPRIVATE BANKERS. SAVINGS BANKSWITH CAPITAL. SAVINGS BANKS WITHOUT CAPITAL. Number. Capital. Deposits. Number. Capital. Deposits. Number. Capital. Deposits. Number. Deposits. Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. Millions. New England states 511$161.7 $132.5 128$11.4 $22.5 2$0.3 $4.7 426$395.7 Middle states 595 190.3 387.2 1,307 98.1 232.2 8 0.2 2.3 215 369.0 Southern states 175 34.5 38.0 529 35.5 45.4 5 0.5 0.5 5 1.9 Western states and territories 753 110.4 162.5 1,803 66.7 176.3 22 4.9 33.1 40 48.4 United States 2,034 $496.9$720.2 3,767 $211.7$476.4 37 $5.9$40.6 686 $815.0 —There is no national system of education in the United States, and the general government exercises no control over public schools and makes no regular provision for their support, except that the military academy at West Point, N. Y., the school of artillery at Fortress Monroe, Va., and the naval academy at Annapolis, Md., are wholly supported and controlled by the government. Officers are also detailed by the government to give military instruction in certain colleges. (See Military Schools, and Annapolis. For the aid given by the government for the advancement of learning, see Smithsonian Institution.) The regulation of all matters pertaining to education is left entirely to the states, each of which maintains a system of public instruction independently of the others. In each state free common schools are provided by law for all persons of school age. But the general government has made liberal provision for purposes of education by various grants of land, dating as far back as 1803. More than 75,000,000 acres of land have thus been set apart for common schools and universities, including 7,830,000 reserved by act of congress passed July 2, 1862, for the establishment in the several states of colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The organization and control of these institutions are given to the respective states and many of them are in operation. The following are the most important facts relating to the common schools in the United States in 1874, as reported by the bureau of education, the number of states in the Union being 37, and of territories, including the District of Columbia, 11:  PARTICULARS. NUMBERREPORTING. In states. In territories. States. Territories. School population 37 11 13,735,672 139,378 Estimated number between 6 and 16 years of age ...... ...... 10,442,492 94,155 Number enrolled in public schools 34 11 8,030,772 69,209 Number in daily attendance 30 4 4,488,075 33,489 Pupils in private schools 13 5 352,460 10,128 Total number of teachers 35 8 239,873 1,427 Male 28 7 87,395 499 Female 28 7 129,049 731 Public school income 37 10$81,277,688 $881,219 Public school expenditure 35 9$74,169,217 $805,121 Permanent school fund 28 ..$75,251,008 ........

The higher and special institutions of instruction were as follows:

 INSTITUTIONS. Number. Teachers. Pupils. City schools .... 16,438 976,837 Normal schools 124 966 24,405 Business colleges 126 577 25,892 Academies 1,031 5,466 98,179 Preparatory schools 91 697 11,414 Scientific and agricultural schools 72 609 7,244 Colleges for women 209 2,285 23,445 Universities and colleges 343 3,783 56,692 Theological schools 113 579 4,356 Law schools 38 181 2,585 Medical schools 99 1,121 9,095 Regular 63 780 6,888 Eclectic 4 36 303 Homœopathic 7 122 565 Dental 11 133 431 Pharmaceutical 14 50 908 Institutions for the blind 29 525 1,942 Institutions for deaf and dumb 40 275 4,900 Institutions for feeble-minded 9 312 1,265 Kindergarten 55 125 1,636

The charitable educational institutions embraced, besides those mentioned for the blind, deaf and dumb, and feeble-minded, 56 reform schools, 156 orphan asylums, 21 soldiers' orphans' homes, 9 infant asylums, and 57 miscellaneous charities. There were 26 industrial schools, with 259 teachers and 6,096 pupils. Art instruction, including training in industrial art, was afforded by 26 institutions. There were 44 museums of natural history, and 27 of art. (See Education, vol. vi., pp. 424-431.) No general provision is made by the United States for the treatment of the insane, idiotic, deaf and dumb, or blind. Such institutions are organized and maintained by the states and by corporations. (See Blind, Deaf and Dumb, Idiocy, and Insanity.) There is a government hospital for the insane in the District of Columbia, intended for the treatment of the insane of that district and of the army and navy. The superintendent is appointed by the secretary of the interior. The Columbia deaf and dumb institution is intended primarily for the deaf and dumb of the District of Columbia; but pupils residing in the states, not exceeding 40 in number, may be admitted to the collegiate department without charge for tuition. For an account of the charitable and reformatory institutions maintained or aided by congress in the District of Columbia, see District of Columbia, and Washington. United States prisoners are confined in state or territorial prisons. For the prison systems of the states and the mode of treating paupers, see Prisons and Prison Discipline, and Pauperism; see also Reformatories.—The total number of libraries in 1870 was 164,815 having 45,528,938 volumes. Of these, 108,800 with 26,072,420 volumes were private, and 56,015 with 19,456,518 volumes other than private. They were classified as follows: 1 congressional library, with 190,000 volumes; 14 departmental, 115,185; 53 state and territorial, 653,915; 1,101 town, city, &c., 1,237,430; 1,073 court and law, 425,782; 14,375 school, college, &c., 3,598,537; 33,580 Sabbath school, 8,346,153; 4,478 church, 1,634,915; 47 of historical, literary, and scientific societies, 590,002; 9 of charitable and penal institutions, 13,890; 43 of benevolent and secret associations, 114,581; and 1,241 circulating, 2,536,128. In 1876 the library of congress had more than 300,000 volumes. (See Library, vol. x., p. 404.)—The whole number of newspapers and periodicals in 1870 was 5,871, having an aggregate circulation of 20,842,475, and issuing annually 1,508,548,250 copies. There were 574 daily, with a circulation of 2,601,547; 107 tri-weekly, 155,105; 115 semi-weekly, 247,197; 4295 weekly, 10,594,643; 96 semi-monthly, 1,349,820; 622 monthly, 5,650,843; 13 bi-monthly, 31,650; and 49 quarterly, 211,670. In 1875 the total number was reported at 7,870, including 718 daily, 80 tri-weekly, 107 semi-weekly, 6,957 weekly, 24 bi-weekly, 106 semi-monthly, 802 monthly, 8 bi-monthly, and 68 quarterly. (See Newspapers, vol. xii., p. 342.)—There is no established or state church in the United States. The most numerous denominations are the Methodists, Roman Catholics, Baptists, and Presbyterians, which are generally found in all parts of the country, though the number of Presbyterians is not great in New England, and the Baptist denomination is not relatively so strong there as in other parts of the country. But a small proportion of the Roman Catholics are of American parentage, being mostly of Irish, German, and French nativity. Of the 2,887 Congregational organizations reported by the census of 1870, 1,400 were in New England and 1,178 in New York, Illinois, Ohio, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Michigan. The greatest numerical strength of the Friends is in Pennsylvania, though the denomination is well represented in Ohio, New York, Iowa, Indiana, New Jersey, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Maryland. The Jews are found in most of the states, chiefly in the largest cities, the greatest numbers being in New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and California. More than a third of all the Lutherans were reported in Pennsylvania and Ohio. Of the 72 Moravian organizations, 15 were in Pennsylvania, 13 in Wisconsin, 10 in North Carolina, 6 each in New York and Minnesota, and 5 in Iowa. The Mormons are almost exclusively in Utah. Of the 471 organizations of the Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed), 304 were in New York, 97 in New Jersey, and 22 in Michigan; and of the 1,256 of the Reformed church in the United States (late German Reformed), 712 were in Pennsylvania and 288 in Ohio. Of the 18 Shaker organizations, 15 were in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Ohio. More than half of the Spiritualists are in Massachusetts and Michigan. Of the 331 Unitarian societies, 180 were in Massachusetts, 23 in New Hampshire, and 22 in New York. Seven Chinese religious organizations were reported in California. The total number of religious organizations, as reported by the census of 1870, was 72,459, having 63,082 edifices with 21,665,062 sittings, and property valued at $354,483,581. The denominations were represented as follows:  DENOMINATIONS. Organizations. Edifices. Sittings. Property. Baptist, regular 14,474 12,857 3,997,116$39,229,221 Baptist, other 1,355 1,105 363,019 2,378,977 Christian 3,578 2,822 865,602 6,425,137 Congregational 2,887 2,715 1,117,212 25,069,698 Episcopal, Protestant 2,835 2,601 991,051 36,514,549 Evangelical Association 815 641 198,796 2,301,650 Friends 602 662 224,664 3,939,560 Jewish 189 152 73,265 5,155,234 Lutheran 3,032 2,776 977,332 14,917,747 Methodist 25,278 21,337 6,528,209 69,854,121 Miscellaneous 27 17 6,935 135,650 Moravian (Unitas Fratrum) 72 67 25,700 709,100 Mormon 189 171 87,838 656,750 New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) 90 61 18,755 869,700 Presbyterian, regular 6,262 5,683 2,198,900 47,828,732 Presbyterian, other 1,562 1,388 499,344 5,436,524 Reformed Church in America (late Dutch Reformed) 471 468 227,228 10,359,255 Reformed Church in the United States (late German Reformed) 1,256 1,145 431,700 5,775,215 Roman Catholic 4,127 3,806 1,990,514 60,985,566 Second Advent 225 140 34,555 306,240 Shaker 18 18 8,850 86,900 Spiritualist 95 22 6,970 100,150 Unitarian 331 310 155,471 6,282,675 United Brethren in Christ 1,445 937 265,025 1,819,810 Universalist 719 602 210,884 5,692,325 Unknown (local missions) 26 27 11,925 687,800 Unknown (union) 409 552 153,202 965,295

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present king of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world:

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature; a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the state remaining, in the mean time, exposed to all the danger of invasion from without and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners, refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers. He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution and unacknowledged by our laws, giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation—

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states;

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury;

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offences;

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies;

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the powers of our governments;

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries, to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms. Our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts made by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in general congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that, as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

“The declaration was not only the announcement of the birth of a people,” says Bancroft, “but the establishment of a national government; a most imperfect one, it is true, but still a government, in conformity with the limited constituent powers which each colony had conferred upon its delegates in congress. The affairs of internal police and government were carefully retained by each separate state, which could, each for itself, enter upon the career of domestic reforms. But the states, which were henceforth independent of Britain, were not independent of one another; the United States of America assumed powers over war, peace, foreign alliances, and commerce.” Soon after the evacuation of Boston by the British, Washington had transferred his army to the city of New York. On June 29 a fleet from Halifax, bearing Gen. Howe and the late garrison of Boston, entered New York harbor, and on July 2 landed the forces on Staten Island. A few days later arrived Admiral Lord Howe, to whom, in conjunction with his brother Sir William, the king had intrusted the control of American affairs. The British government, unable to recruit the army to the desired number from its own people, who disapproved the war, had hired from German princes, and especially from Hesse-Cassel, large bodies of mercenaries; and with these and fresh troops brought from the south by Sir Henry Clinton, the force on Staten Island was augmented to 30,000 men. Washington's army was much less in numbers, and every way inferior in supplies and equipments. The campaign began on Long Island, where on Aug. 27 the Americans were defeated with heavy loss, and forced to abandon that island, and soon after the city of New York. Having fought another unsuccessful battle at White Plains (Oct. 28), Washington early in December was compelled to retreat beyond the Delaware at the head of but 3,000 men, poorly clad, half starved, and destitute of blankets end tents. About the same time the British seized and held the island of Rhode Island, and at Baskingridge, N. J., captured Gen. Charles Lee. On the night of Dec. 25 Washington crossed the Delaware in open boats with 2,400 men, and falling upon the British forces at Trenton captured about 1,000 Hessians. A few days later (Jan. 3, 1777), he defeated the enemy again at Princeton, taking 230 prisoners. Soon after the army went into winter quarters at Morristown. When the campaign opened in the spring of 1777, Washington's force consisted of about 7,500 men. Gen. Howe, after vainly attempting to bring on a general engagement, withdrew his forces (June 30) from New Jersey to Staten Island, and afterward sailed with nearly 20,000 men for the Chesapeake, where he landed on Elk river and threatened Philadelphia. To defend the capital Washington was forced to give battle on the Brandy wine, Sept. 11, but was outnumbered and compelled to retreat with the loss of nearly 1,000 men. Lafayette, who had recently entered the service of the United States as a volunteer, and had been made a major general, was severely wounded on this occasion. On the 26th the British took possession of Philadelphia without opposition. On Oct. 4 Washington made an attack on the British at Germantown, seven miles from Philadelphia, but was repulsed with heavy loss; and soon afterward both armies went into winter quarters, the Americans at Valley Forge, on the Schuylkill, 20 m. from Philadelphia. The want of success in this region was more than counterbalanced by victories in the north. A British army, 7,500 strong, besides Indians, commanded by Gen. Burgoyne, advanced from Canada by Lake Champlain, and took Ticonderoga, Fort Independence, and Whitehall. Strong detachments, which were sent to Bennington, Vt., to destroy a collection of stores, were met there (Aug. 16) and defeated with the loss of about 200 killed and 600 prisoners by the Vermont and New Hampshire militia led by Gen. Stark. Burgoyne advanced to Stillwater on the Hudson, where he was encountered by Gen. Gates; and on Sept. 19 an indecisive engagement was fought at that place, in which the British lost more than 600 men. The American encampment had been strongly fortified by Kosciuszko. On Oct. 7 a second battle (commonly called the battle of Saratoga) was fought on nearly the same ground, in which the Americans had the advantage; and ten days later Burgoyne with his whole army capitulated at Saratoga. The consequences of this victory were of the highest importance at home and abroad. On Dec. 1 Baron Steuben, a German officer, arrived in the country, and during the winter joined Washington at Valley Forge. He was afterward appointed inspector general, and was of great service in introducing discipline into the army. From the beginning of the conflict the French government had secretly encouraged the revolt of the colonies, and had furnished them with supplies of arms and military stores, without which it would have been almost impossible to carry on the war. Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee had been sent by congress as commissioners to France shortly after the declaration of independence, but received no open countenance from the court till after the surrender of Burgoyne. That event decided the negotiations in their favor; and in February, 1778, treaties of alliance and of amity and commerce were signed at Paris. Sir Henry Clinton, who succeeded Howe as commander-in-chief of the British, evacuated Philadelphia in the night of June 17 with more than 17,000 men, and on the 18th began his march toward New York. Washington pursued, and on the 28th the two armies engaged in battle on the plains of Monmouth, near the village of Freehold, N. J. The action was not decisive, but the Americans remained masters of the field, while the British retreated to New York and remained inactive for the rest of the summer. On July 8 a French fleet from Toulon, under Count d'Estaing, anchored in Delaware bay, but too late to intercept the British squadron and transports retreating from Philadelphia. An attempt made in August with the assistance of the French fleet to drive the British from Ehode Island proved a failure, and d'Estaing, without having accomplished anything of importance, sailed in November for the West Indies. At the close of the campaign of 1778 the position of the British was not at all advanced from that which their forces held in 1776. They occupied nothing but Rhode Island and the island of Manhattan, while the Americans had gained largely in knowledge of the art of war, and had secured the powerful alliance of France. But great embarrassment was felt from the wretched condition of the national finances, the continental money issued by congress having depreciated to a very low point. In this emergency the patriotism and the financial skill and credit of Robert Morris were of the highest value. In 1779 the principal theatre of war was at the south, where Gen. Benjamin Lincoln commanded the Americans. Toward the end of 1778 Gen. Clinton had sent an expedition to Georgia, which defeated the American forces at Savannah, and took possession of the city, Dec. 29; and the colony was soon completely in the power of the British. In September, 1779, Savannah was besieged by a French and American force, and on Oct. 9 an assault was made upon it, which was repulsed with a loss to the allies of nearly 800 men, among them Casimir Pulaski. The siege was thereupon abandoned. About this time the British evacuated Rhode Island, to concentrate their forces at New York. Paul Jones, commanding an American frigate, captured on Sept. 23 two British ships of war in the English channel, in one of the most desperate naval battles ever fought. During the whole war in fact Paul Jones was actively employed against the enemy on the sea, and, together with a swarm of privateers from New England, inflicted immense loss on the mercantile marine of England. One of the most brilliant achievements of the war was the storming (July 16) of Stony Point on the Hudson by Gen. Wayne at the head of 1,200 men, taking 543 prisoners; only 15 of his men were killed, while the British killed numbered 63. About the beginning of 1780 Clinton, leaving the Hessian general Knyphausen in command at New York, sailed south with 8,500 men to carry the war into the Carolinas. Charleston was besieged for several weeks, and Gen. Lincoln after a feeble defence surrendered on May 12, the garrison becoming prisoners of war. The rest of the state of South Carolina was overrun by detachments of the British, and nominally submitted to the restoration of the royal authority, so that Clinton, deeming his conquest complete, sailed for New York on June 5, leaving Lord Cornwallis in command. But a guerilla warfare, under the command of Sumter, Marion, and other partisan leaders, continually harassed not only the British but the tories, as the American royalists were commonly called, of whom there were great numbers in the state. Congress sent Gen. Gates to recover South Carolina. On his first encounter with Cornwallis at Camden, Aug. 16, he was routed with great loss, Baron de Kalb, a French officer of experience, who was second in command, being mortally wounded. Gates with the remnant of his force fled to North Carolina. Within three months two American armies had been destroyed, while the most formidable of the partisan bands, that of Sumter, had been dispersed by Col. Tarleton. Early in September Cornwallis marched into North Carolina, where on Oct. 7, at King's mountain, a detachment from his army was totally defeated by 900 militia, who killed and captured upward of 1,100 of the enemy. This serious reverse, and the renewed activity of Marion, Sumter, and other partisan leaders, induced Cornwallis to withdraw to South Carolina. During the summer the only military operation of importance in the north was an unsuccessful irruption of the British into New Jersey. Soon after, on July 10, a French fleet arrived at Newport, bringing the count de Rochambeau and 6,000 soldiers. Washington went to Hartford in September to confer with the French officers, and during his absence it was discovered that Benedict Arnold, who commanded the important fortress of West Point, had agreed to deliver that stronghold and its dependencies into the hands of Sir Henry Clinton. Arnold escaped, but Major André, the British officer who communicated with him, was caught and hanged as a spy. The principal military operations of 1781 were in the south, where Greene had been made commander in place of Gates. At Cowpens, S. C., on Jan. 17, Gen. Morgan won a brilliant victory over the British under Col. Tarleton. On March 15, at Guilford Court House, N. C., a battle was fought in which the British gained the victory, but drew from it no advantage; and on Sept. 8 occurred the drawn battle of Eutaw Springs, a bloody action which nearly terminated the war in South Carolina. At the close of the year the British in the states south of Virginia were confined to Charleston and Savannah. Cornwallis, having advanced into Virginia in April, was opposed by Lafayette, Wayne, and Steuben, and fortified himself at Yorktown, where be gathered a considerable army. Meanwhile the American army under Washington and the French army of Rochambeau had formed a junction on the Hudson; and while the British commander, Sir Henry Clinton, was kept from sending aid to Cornwallis by apprehensions that Now York was threatened, the allied army was far on its way toward Yorktown, where it arrived Sept. 28, 1781, and began a regular siege, which lasted till Oct. 19, when Cornwallis surrendered with his whole force of 7,247 men, besides 840 sailors; 106 guns were taken. This victory substantially terminated the contest, and secured the independence of America. The French contributed 37 ships (under De Grasso) and 7,000 men to the besieging force, and the Americans 9,000 men. In England Lord North and his administration were forced to retire, March 20, 1782, and were succeeded by a cabinet opposed to the further prosecution of the war, headed by the marquis of Rockingham. Orders were sent to the British commanders in America to cease hostilities, and in July, 1782, Savannah was evacuated, and Charleston on Dec. 14. Adams, Franklin, Jay, and Laurens on the part of the United States, and Strachey, Oswald, and Fitzherbert on the part of Great Britain, signed a preliminary treaty of peace at Paris on Nov. 30, 1782; and on Sept. 3, 1783, a definitive treaty was signed at Versailles, by which the United States wore formally acknowledged by Great Britain to be free, sovereign, and independent. New York, the last position held by the British on our coast, was evacuated Nov. 25, 1783. In the seven years of the revolutionary war Great Britain sent to America about 112,000 soldiers and 22,000 seamen. Tho forces raised by tho United States during tho same period consisted of about 232,000 continental soldiers and 56,000 militia. On Nov. 2 Washington issued a farewell address to tho armies of the United States, and, after taking leave on Dec. 4 of his officers at New York, proceeded to Annapolis, Md., where congress was then in session, and on Dec. 23 resigned his commission as commander-in-chief and retired to his estate at Mount Vernon.—The existence of tho United States as a political entity may be dated from tho assembling of the second continental congress, May 10, 1775, as the first assumed no political powers. From that date to March 1, 1781, when the articles of confederation were finally ratified, the government of the Union was revolutionary, the powers exercised by congress being assumed by that body and conceded by the states from the necessity of tho situation. The period of the confederation extended to March 4, 1789, when the constitution went into effect. On June 12, 1776, while the resolution of independence was under consideration in congress, a committee of one from each colony was created to draft a form of confederation, and the articles reported by it were adopted, Nov. 15, 1777. They were ratified by South Carolina on Feb. 5, 1778, and by ten other states before tho close of that year. Delaware ratified them on Feb. 1, 1779, and Maryland on Jan. 30, 1781; and, being signed by delegates from all tho states, they went into effect as above stated. The delay of Maryland was caused by her refusal to join the confederation until those states claiming territory beyond their settled limits should cede it to the Union for the common benefit. Cessions having been made, an ordinance was passed by congress, July 13, 1787, for the government of the territory N. W. of the Ohio river, since famous as the ordinance of 1787. Dissatisfaction with the confederation, owing to the weakness of the central government under it, soon became widespread, and in September, 1786, a convention of delegates from several states at Annapolis, Md., recommended the calling of a convention of delegates from all the states to propose changes in the articles of confederation. This plan was approved by congress on Feb. 21, 1787, and tho convention organized at Philadelphia on May 25, by the choice of Washington as president. It remained in session in Carpenters' hall until Sept. 17, when it adjourned after adopting the constitution. All the states were represented except Rhode Island. On the 28th congress passed a resolution transmitting the constitution to the several states to be acted upon by conventions. Delaware ratified it on Dec. 7, and ten other states prior to Sept. 13, 1788, when a resolution of congress declared it ratified by nine states (the constitution providing that when ratified by that number it should go into effect in the states ratifying), fixed the first Wednesday of January, 1789, for the choice of presidential electors in the several states, and the first Wednesday of February for the choice of president by the electors, and provided that the new government should go into operation on the first Wednesday of March. The second continental congress expired on March 4, 1789, having maintained its corporate identity for nearly 14 years, though changed from time to time in its membership. Its presidents, though without power or patronage, were regarded as the personal representatives of the sovereignty of the Union. The following are their names, with the date of their election: Peyton Randolph of Virginia, May 10, 1775; John Hancock of Massachusetts, May 24, 1775; Henry Lanrens of South Carolina, Nov. 1, 1777; John Jay of New York, Dec. 10, 1778; Samuel Huntington of Connecticut, Sept. 28, 1779; Thomas McKean of Delaware, July 10, 1781; John Hanson of Maryland, Nov. 5, 1781; Elias Boudinot of New Jersey, Nov. 4, 1782; Thomas Mifflin of Pennsylvania, Nov. 3, 1783; Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, Nov. 30, 1784; Nathaniel Gorham of Massachusetts, June 6, 1786; Arthur St. Clair of Pennsylvania, Feb. 2, 1787; Cyrus Griffin of Virginia, Jan. 22, 1788. The first congress under the constitution was long without a quorum; the house did not organize till March 30, 1789, nor the senate till April 6. The electoral votes were then counted, when Washington, having received the entire number (69), was declared elected president, and John Adams, who had received the next highest number (34), was declared elected vice president. Adams took his seat as president of the senate on April 21, and Washington was inaugurated in New York on April 30. The president appointed Jefferson secretary of state, Hamilton secretary of the treasury, Henry Knox of Massachusetts secretary of war, and Edmund Randolph of Virginia attorney general, those officers then constituting the whole of the cabinet. North Carolina ratified the constitution on Nov. 21, 1789, and Rhode Island on May 29, 1790, completing the list of the original states. Ten amendments in the nature of a bill of rights, suggested by the conventions in some of the states, and adopted by the first congress, became a part of the constitution in 1791. An eleventh amendment, taking from the federal courts jurisdiction of actions prosecuted against a state by citizens of another state, became operative in 1798, and a twelfth, changing the method of electing the president and vice president, in 1804. No further amendments were made for more than 60 years. The seat of government was removed to Washington in 1800, the first session of congress held there commencing on Nov. 17. The previous seats of government were as follows, the dates being those of the opening of sessions of congress: Philadelphia, May 10, 1775; Baltimore, Dec. 20, 1776; Philadelphia, March 4, 1777; Lancaster, Pa., Sept. 27, 1777; York, Pa., Sept. 30, 1777; Philadelphia, July 2, 1778; Princeton, N. J., June 30, 1783; Annapolis, Md., Nov. 26, 1783; Trenton, N. J., Nov. 1, 1784; New York, Jan. 11, 1785, where the constitutional government was organized in 1789; and Philadelphia, Dec. 6, 1790. The beneficial influence of the new government was immediately felt in the restoration of public confidence, the revival of commerce, and the general prosperity of the country. A system of finance, advocated in an able report by Hamilton, was adopted, and the debts of the late confederacy and of the individual states were assumed by the general government. A bank of the United States was incorporated in 1791, and a mint was established at Philadelphia in 1792. In the summer of 1790 an Indian war broke out with the tribes of the northwest, who, after inflicting defeats on Gens. Harmar and St. Clair, were finally quelled by Gen. Wayne, and peace was restored in August, 1795. The great revolution in France, which broke out at the beginning of Washington's administration, was powerfully felt in its principles and effects in this country. Two parties had already been formed: the federalists, composed of those who favored the maintenance of the constitution just as it was; and the republicans or democrats, who desired to introduce amendments to limit the federal power, and to increase that of the states and the people. Washington, Adams, Hamilton, and Jay were accounted among the federalists; while Jefferson, Madison, Gallatin, and Edward Livingston were among the leaders of the republicans. The federal party on the French question advocated a strict neutrality, while the republicans freely avowed their sympathy for France, and their willingness to aid the French republic in its struggle with the European monarchies. Party spirit ran high on this point, yet at the second presidential election in 1792 Washington again received the unanimous votes (132) of the electoral colleges. Adams was re-elected vice president, receiving 77 votes, while George Clinton, the republican candidate, received 50 votes, and 5 were cast for others. The feeling against Great Britain existing since the revolution was strongly stimulated by the obnoxious conduct of the British government in retaining possession of forts in the west to which its title had been ceded by the treaty of 1783, and in seizing American vessels and impressing American seamen. After in vain remonstrating against these outrages, the president sent John Jay as a special envoy to England, where, in November, 1794, a treaty was concluded, which was regarded by the republicans as so favorable to England that the requisite confirmation by the senate was obtained with difficulty, and its promulgation among the people raised an extraordinary clamor against Jay and the president, which however soon subsided. In pursuance of this treaty the forts were surrendered in 1796. Its ratification exasperated the French government, which openly showed its displeasure by decrees under which American commerce suffered continual annoyances and losses. Among the important domestic events of Washington's administration were the admission into the Union of the new states of Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792), and Tennessee (1796), and the whiskey insurrection against an unpopular excise law, which in 1794 threw western Pennsylvania into confusion, but was energetically suppressed by the president, who called out 15,000 militia. On the approach of the third presidential election, Washington positively declined to be a candidate, and the two great parties at once arrayed themselves against each other with a bitterness of zeal never since equalled. The federalists supported John Adams and the republicans Thomas Jefferson. Adams, who received 71 electoral votes, was chosen president, while Jefferson, who received 68, the next highest number, became, by the constitution as it then was, the vice president. The two next highest candidates were Thomas Pinckney and Aaron Burr. Timothy Pickering was made secretary of state, Oliver Wolcott of the treasury, James McHenry of war, and Charles Lee attorney general. In 1798 the navy department was created, and Benjamin Stoddert made secretary. The relations between France and the United States were so threatening that one of the first acts of President Adams was to convene congress in extra session, May 13, 1797. Three envoys, C. C. Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall, were sent to France with authority to adjust all difficulties. The French government refused to receive them, but intimated that a considerable present of money would greatly facilitate negotiations, and that a refusal to pay the bribe would lead to war. “War be it then,” replied Pinckney; “millions for defence, but not a cent for tribute.” Pinckney and Marshall, who were federalists, were ordered to quit France; but Gerry, who was a republican, was allowed to remain. The insult to their envoys excited great indignation in the United States, and congress made preparations for war. The army and navy were enlarged, and Washington was appointed commander-in-chief, with the rank of lieutenant general. The frigate Constellation captured a French frigate in the West Indies, and disabled another of superior force in an action lasting five hours. The decided measures adopted by the United States were not without effect on the French government, and overtures were made to the president for a renewal of negotiations. A fresh embassy was sent, and, Napoleon Bonaparte having attained to power, a treaty was promptly concluded, Sept. 30, 1800. During these troubles with France two acts were passed by congress, known as the alien and sedition laws: the first, which was limited to two years, empowering the president to order aliens who were conspiring against the peace of the United States to quit the country; the other, which was to remain in force till March 4, 1801, providing among other things for the punishment by fine and imprisonment of seditious libels upon the government. The alien law was defended on the ground that the country swarmed with French and English emissaries, whose mission was to embroil the United States with European quarrels; while the apology for the sedition law was the unquestionable licentiousness of the press, which at that time was chiefly conducted by refugees and adventurers from Great Britain and Ireland. Nevertheless these laws became exceedingly unpopular, and were bitterly denounced as harsh and unconstitutional. They contributed largely to the dissatisfaction with Mr. Adams's administration, which prevailed especially in the south and west, and which led in the next presidential election to the success of the republican candidates, Jefferson and Burr, each of whom received 73 votes, while Mr. Adams received 65, C. C. Pinckney 64, and Jay 1. The tie in the votes for Jefferson and Burr threw the election into the house of representatives, where on the 36th ballot Jefferson was chosen president and Burr vice president. This contest led to the adoption of the twelfth amendment of the constitution, requiring the electors to designate which person is voted for as president and which as vice president, while the original article required them to vote for two persons, of whom the one who had the highest number of votes was to be president, and the next highest vice president. Jefferson's cabinet consisted of James Madison, secretary of state; Samuel Dexter, and afterward Albert Gallatin, of the treasury; Henry Dearborn, of war; Benjamin Stoddert, and afterward Robert Smith, of the navy; and Levi Lincoln, attorney general. For the most part his administration was marked by vigor and enlightened views, and in 1804 he was re-elected for a second term, receiving 162 votes. George Clinton was elected vice president by the same vote. The opposition ticket, C. C. Pinckney of South Carolina and Rufus King of New York, received only 14 votes, those of Connecticut and Delaware and 2 from Maryland. During his first term Ohio was admitted (1802), and Louisiana was purchased of France in 1803. The insolence of the piratical states on the Barbary coast was humbled by the bombardment of Tripoli in 1804, and by the invasion of that state by a small force led from Egypt by Capt. Eaton, an American officer, which led to a satisfactory treaty in 1805. In 1806 Aaron Burr secretly organized, chiefly in the western states, a military expedition, which led to his arrest and trial at Richmond in 1807 on a charge of attempting to dismember the Union and to establish an independent dominion west of the Alleghanies; but no overt act being proved against him, he was acquitted. The amicable relations which had existed between the United States and Great Britain for several years began in the latter part of 1805 to be disturbed by the condemnation by British courts of several American vessels for alleged violations of neutrality; and the situation was aggravated by the operation of an order in council (May 16, 1806) of the British government declaring the whole coast of Europe, from the Elbe to Brest, to be in a state of blockade; an order which Napoleon retaliated by declaring in a decree issued at Berlin, Nov. 21, 1806, a blockade of all the ports of the British islands. Under these and other orders and decrees great numbers of American vessels were seized by French and English cruisers, and our foreign commerce, which had attained extraordinary prosperity from the neutral position of the country, was nearly destroyed. The irritation against Great Britain produced by her depredations on our commerce was greatly increased by her persistent assertion of the right to search American vessels for suspected deserters from her navy, a right continually exercised by her cruisers in the most offensive manner, and in the practice of which multitudes of native-born American seamen were forced into the British navy. The insolence of the British naval officers was at length carried so far that in June, 1807, the frigate Chesapeake was stopped near the entrance to Chesapeake bay by the English man-of-war Leopard, and on the refusal of her commander to submit to a search was fired into, and 21 of her crew were killed or wounded. This outrage, for which immediate reparation was demanded by Jefferson, was not atoned for till four years later, and even then the right of search was still claimed by the British government, and eventually became a cause of war. In February, 1806, an act had been passed prohibiting the importation of certain articles of British production, the first of a series of similar measures designed to bring Great Britain to terms. In December, 1807, congress, on the recommendation of the president, laid an embargo, which prohibited the departure from American ports of vessels bound for foreign countries. This measure was vehemently denounced by the federal party, and for a time it prostrated the shipping and commercial interests of the United States. It was repealed in February, 1809, just before the expiration of the president's second term. In the presidential election of 1808 the republican (or, as it was now often called, the democratic) party supported James Madison for president and George Clinton for vice president. Madison and Clinton were elected, the former receiving 122 votes and the latter 113, while the federal candidates, C. C. Pinckney and Rufus King, received each 47, a few votes being cast for other candidates. The ruinous operation of the embargo law had considerably weakened the democratic party, particularly in the commercial eastern and middle states. Mr. Madison formed his cabinet as follows: Robert Smith, secretary of state; Albert Gallatin, of the treasury; William Eustis, of war; Paul Hamilton, of the navy; and Cæsar A. Rodney, attorney general. Congress met in May, 1809, in extra session, and continued the non-importation system. A long negotiation was carried on with the English government on this subject, the orders in council, and the right of search, which resulted only in augmenting the unfriendly feeling between the two countries. Though the president was exceedingly averse to forcible measures, the pressure of public opinion, and the influence of Clay, Calhoun, Lowndes, and other leaders of the war party, at length induced him to acquiesce reluctantly in a declaration of hostilities. He sent to congress, June 1, 1812, a message on the subject of the aggressions of Great Britain, which was referred to the committee on foreign relations in the house of representatives, who on June 3 reported a manifesto as a basis of the declaration of war, for these reasons: the impressment of American seamen by the commanders of British ships of war; the British doctrine and system of blockade; the orders in council; and, lastly, various depredations committed by British subjects on the commerce of the United States. The house adopted the measure by a vote of 79 to 49, and the senate by a vote of 19 to 13; and on June 18 the president signed the act declaring war. For several months thereafter the British government did little toward counter hostilities. But although the United States had the advantage that the main force of their enemy was occupied by the great European conflict, their own preparation for the contest was in every respect inadequate. The treasury was almost empty, the revenue having been nearly ruined by the non-importation acts and embargoes; the army at first numbered but 10,000 men, half of them raw recruits, and was very deficient in officers of experience; while the navy comprised only eight frigates, two sloops, and five brigs. Long before war was declared British emissaries, as was alleged, had been engaged in exciting the northwestern Indians against the Americans; and in the summer of 1811 hostilities were actually begun by the tribes north of the Ohio under the lead of Tecumseh. William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana territory, encountered them with a considerable force on the banks of the Tippecanoe river, Nov. 7, 1811, and defeated them. After the declaration of war, Gen. Hull, then governor of Michigan territory, was ordered to invade Canada from Detroit, which he accordingly did at the head of 1,800 men. His force was wholly inadequate to the enterprise, and he was soon compelled to fall back; and his men being reduced by various casualties to 800, on Aug. 16, 1812, he surrendered his army, Detroit, and all Michigan to Gen. Brock. An invasion of Canada on the Niagara frontier was almost equally unsuccessful, and the campaign of 1812 closed with little or no credit to the American arms on land. But the navy, small as it was, had achieved a series of brilliant victories. The frigate Constitution, Capt. Isaac Hull, captured the British frigate Guerriere, Aug. 19; the sloop of war Wasp, Capt. Jones, captured the brig Frolic, Oct. 18; the frigate United States, Capt. Decatur, captured the frigate Macedonian, Oct. 25; and the Constitution, of which Capt. Bainbridge had now taken command, captured the frigate Java, Dec. 29. In these contests the British loss in killed and wounded was vastly in excess of that of the Americans, and the result highly elated the public, with whom the navy hitherto had been in no special favor. A swarm of privateers scoured the ocean, preying upon British commerce to such an extent that their captures in this year alone amounted to more than 300 vessels. The campaign of 1813 was marked by alternate successes and reverses. In January a detachment of 900 men from the western army, under Gen. Winchester, was defeated and captured at the river Raisin, and many of the prisoners massacred by the Indian allies of the English. In April Gen. Pike with 1,600 Americans captured York (now Toronto), which was defended by 800 men, but was himself killed by the explosion of a magazine, by which 200 of his men were killed or wounded. In May an attack on Sackett's Harbor by the British under Gen. Prevost was repulsed by Gen. Brown, and Fort George in Canada was taken by the Americans. In October Gen. Harrison defeated the British, who had abandoned Detroit, near the Thames river in Canada, with severe loss, the Indian chief Tecumseh being among the slain. Attempts at an invasion of Canada from Lakes Ontario and Champlain, with a view to the capture of Montreal, came to nothing, partly through disagreement between Gens. Wilkinson and Hampton. The navy as usual was more successful than the army. On Lake Erie, Sept. 10, a British fleet of six vessels was captured after a severe contest by Commodore O. H. Perry, which rendered the Americans masters of the lake. On the ocean, the Hornet, Capt. Lawrence, captured the Peacock, Feb. 24; and the Enterprise, Lieut. Burroughs, captured the Boxer, Sept. 5. On the other hand, the frigate Chesapeake, commanded by Capt. Lawrence, was on June 1 captured by the British frigate Shannon, Capt. Broke. The campaign of 1814 was conducted with more vigor on both sides, and was marked by obstinate and sanguinary engagements on the Niagara frontier. On July 5 the British were defeated at Chippewa by Gen. Brown, and on the 25th at Bridgewater or Lundy's Lane by Gens. Brown and Winfield Scott, the latter of whom had also distinguished himself at Chippewa. The war in Europe having closed, large reënforcements, consisting of troops who had served under Wellington in Spain, were sent to Canada by the British government; and Sir George Prevost, at the head of 12,000 men, invaded New York on the northern frontier and laid siege to Plattsburgh, defended by Gen. Macomb. The army was supported by a powerful fleet on Lake Champlain, commanded by Commodore Downie. On Sept. 11 the United States fleet, under Commodore Macdonough, totally defeated the English fleet, and on the same day the British army retreated in disorder to Canada. In August a British fleet arrived in the Chesapeake with an army of 5,000 men commanded by Gen. Ross, who landed in the Patuxent and marched on Washington, and, after putting to flight the militia at Bladensburg, took possession of the federal city on the 24th, and burned the capitol, the president's house, and other public buildings. On the day after this barbarous exploit the British retired to their ships, and on Sept. 12-13 made an attack on Baltimore, where they were repulsed by the citizens, and Gen. Ross was killed. On the ocean during this year and the beginning of 1815 the British vessels of war Epervier, Avon, Reindeer, Cyane, Levant, Penguin, and Nautilus were taken by the Americans, who on their part lost the frigates Essex and President, both captured by greatly superior forces, besides two or three smaller vessels. After protracted negotiations a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. Dec. 24, 1814, on the part of the United States, by Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Jonathan Russell, James A. Bayard, and Albert Gallatin. The treaty provided for the mutual restoration of all territory taken during the war, and for the mutual appointment of commissioners to determine the northern boundary of the United States. Nothing was said of the impressment of American seamen, one of the main causes of the war, but the practice was discontinued. Before the news of peace could cross the Atlantic, a British army 12,000 strong, led by Gens. Pakenham, Gibbs, Keene, and Lambert, landed on the coast of Louisiana and made an attack on New Orleans, which was defended by Gen. Andrew Jackson with less than 5,000 men, chiefly militia from Tennessee and Kentucky. The attack was repelled, Jan. 8, 1815, with a loss to the British of 2,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners, while the Americans lost only a few men. The war from its beginning had been distasteful to the majority of the people of New England, who, being mostly federalists, regarded it not only as unnecessary and impolitic, but as waged chiefly to gratify democratic prejudice against England and partiality for France. They suffered from it immense losses by the destruction of their commerce and their fisheries, and the federal government did little or nothing for their protection from the enemy. To remedy these evils the celebrated Hartford convention was held. (See Hartford Convention.) For many years the democrats continued to impute treasonable designs to that convention, and it was one of the causes which led to the decay and extinction of the federal party. In the latter part of 1813 and the beginning of 1814 the country of the Creek Indians, within the present limits of Alabama, was invaded by four columns, one under Gen. Jackson, and that tribe was severely defeated and compelled to cede the greater part of its lands. During the war the Algerines had resumed their old practice of piracy, had seized several American vessels, and had insulted and plundered the American consul. Immediately after the conclusion of peace with Great Britain a naval force commanded by Decatur was sent to the Mediterranean, which captured several Algerine cruisers, and in a few weeks compelled the rulers of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli to make indemnity for their outrages, and to agree to abstain from depredations on American commerce. The national finances were in a very confused state at the close of the war, the debt created by which exceeded $80,000,000. The banks, except in New England, had suspended specie payments, and the want of a uniform and solvent currency was urgently felt. To remedy this latter evil, congress in 1816 chartered for 20 years a national bank at Philadelphia, with a capital of$35,000,000, whose notes furnished a convenient and uniform circulating medium, convertible at all times into gold and silver.—The presidential election of 1812 had resulted in the choice of Mr. Madison for a second term by a vote of 128, against 89 for De Witt Clinton, who was supported by the federalists. Elbridge Gerry was chosen vice president by 131 votes to 86 for Jared Ingersoll. On the approach of the presidential election of 1816, James Monroe of Virginia, Mr. Madison's secretary of state, received the democratic nomination, and in the election was chosen by 183 votes, against 34 votes given to Rufus King by the federal states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Delaware. Daniel D. Tompkins of New York was elected vice president. The administration of Mr. Madison terminated March 4, 1817. The war with Great Britain was its principal feature, but among other events of importance were the admission of Louisiana into the Union in 1812, and of Indiana in 1816. President Monroe's cabinet was constituted as follows: J. Q. Adams, secretary of state; William H. Crawford, of the treasury; John C. Calhoun, of war; Benjamin W. Crowninshield, of the navy; and William Wirt, attorney general. His administration commenced under very favorable circumstances. Party distinctions had so nearly disappeared, that democrats and federalists combined to support the government. Monroe was reëlected in 1820 by all the electoral votes except one. Daniel D. Tompkins was reëlected vice president by nearly the same vote. In the spring of 1818 Gen. Jackson led a force against the Seminole Indians in Florida, and destroyed several of their villages. The main event of Monroe's administration was the Missouri controversy, by which for the first time the country was divided upon the slavery question. The admissions to the Union hitherto had been of slaveholding and non-slaveholding states in compensating order. Vermont and Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio, Louisiana and Indiana had offset each other; and in 1817 the slaveholding state of Mississippi was admitted, followed immediately in 1818 by non-slaveholding Illinois. Congress in its session of 1818-'19 authorized the territory of Alabama, which was rapidly filling with a slaveholding population, to form a constitution without any prohibition of slavery. A similar bill was brought forward for the territory of Missouri, and James Tallmadge of New York moved in the house of representatives to insert a clause prohibiting any further introduction of slaves, and granting freedom to the children of those already there on their attaining the age of 25; and this motion was carried by a vote of 87 to 76. A few days later John W. Taylor of New York moved as an amendment to a bill for the organization of the territory of Arkansas, that slavery should not thereafter be introduced into any part of the territories ceded by France to the United States N. of lat. 36° 30′. This was intended as a compromise, but was warmly opposed, a large number both of northern and southern members declaring themselves hostile to any compromise whatever, and the amendment was consequently withdrawn. The slaveholders contended that for congress to prohibit slavery in the territories would be a violation of the constitutional right of the citizen to enjoy his property anywhere within the jurisdiction of the United States. The restrictionists, on the other hand, denied that men could be property under the jurisdiction of the United States, however the case might be under the laws of particular states; and they maintained that the constitutional question was conclusively settled by the action of the congress contemporaneous with the framing of the federal constitution, which in 1787 introduced into the bill for the government of the territory N. W. of the Ohio the proviso that “there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in said territory, otherwise than in punishment for crime.” And in further confirmation of their views, they brought forward the fact that the most distinguished statesman of the south, Thomas Jefferson, had in 1784 introduced and urged with all his influence the passing of a bill in congress prohibiting slavery not only in all the territory held by the United States, but in all that might be afterward acquired. The debate on this subject was long and excited. The southern orators declared that if the restriction should be persisted in the south would retire and the Union be dissolved. The senate refused to concur in the restriction imposed by the house, and consequently the Missouri bill failed for the session of 1818-'19. During the recess of congress a strong public agitation against slavery arose in the middle states, and finally spread to New England, both democrats and federalists coöperating in it. Alabama was admitted into the Union early in the session of 1819-'20, an event promptly followed by the admission of Maine. When the legislatures of the free states met in their annual session in 1820, the agitation among the people on the slavery question was forcibly expressed by their representatives. Pennsylvania led off by a solemn appeal to the states “to refuse to covenant with crime,” and by a unanimous declaration that it was the right and the duty of congress to prohibit slavery in the territories. The rest of the middle states also unanimously adopted similar resolutions. Ohio and Indiana took the same position; and though the New England legislatures were silent, numerous memorials from towns, cities, and public meetings there in favor of freedom were laid before congress. The legislatures of the slave states expressed themselves, on the other hand, very strongly in opposition to restriction. In congress the debate was long and acrimonious. The senate sent to the house the Missouri bill with the prohibition of slavery in that state struck out, but with the proviso that it should not thereafter be tolerated N. of lat. 36° 30′. The striking out of the restrictive clause was reluctantly assented to by the house by a vote of 90 to 87, a very few northern members voting for it. The compromise by which slavery was prohibited for ever N. of 36° 30′ was then agreed to by a vote of 134 to 42. The northern states acquiesced in this compromise as a political necessity, and as finally settling a controversy dangerous to the peace and stability of the Union, and the slavery agitation subsided for a time. Missouri was finally admitted as a state in 1821. The other great question of Mr. Monroe's administration was the recognition of the Spanish American republics, which had declared and maintained their independence for several years. Chiefly by the efforts and the eloquence of Henry Clay, their independence was acknowledged in 1822; and in the following year the president in his annual message put forth a declaration which has since been famous as the “Monroe doctrine.” In this it was announced that any attempt on the part of European governments to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere would be considered dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States; that the republic would not interfere with existing colonies or dependencies, but would regard as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition to the United States any attempt of a European power to oppress or control the destiny of the governments whose independence the United States had acknowledged. In 1819 Florida had been ceded by Spain.—In the presidential election of 1824 the confused state of parties led to the nomination of four candidates, none of whom had a majority of the electoral votes. Andrew Jackson received 99, John Quincy Adams 84, William H. Crawford 41, and Henry Clay 37. The election went to the house of representatives (the choice being between the three highest candidates), where Mr. Adams received the vote of 13 states, and was declared president; while Jackson received the vote of 7 and Crawford of 4 states. John C. Calhoun had been elected vice president by the electoral colleges, receiving 182 votes to 78 for all others. The total popular vote (the electors in six states being chosen by the legislature) was 352,062, viz.: 155,872 for Jackson, 105,321 for Adams, 46,587 for Clay, and 44,282 for Crawford. The political views of Mr. Adams did not differ from those of Mr. Monroe, and his foreign and domestic policy was very similar. He appointed Henry Clay secretary of state, Richard Rush of the treasury, James Barbour of war, Samuel L. Southard of the navy, and William Wirt attorney general. His administration was remarkable for order, method, and economy, though party spirit was higher than it had been for many years. Perhaps the most important event in his term was the adoption of what was called the American system of protecting home manufactures by a heavy duty upon foreign articles of the same kind, a system popular in the manufacturing north, but bitterly opposed in portions of the agricultural south. A tariff law enacted in 1828 on the principle of protection led a few years later to serious political complications. The presidential contest of the same year was carried on with great animation and virulence, chiefly by means of discussions on the personal character and history of the candidates, Gen. Jackson having been nominated in opposition to Mr. Adams. The result was the election of Jackson by 178 votes to 83 for Adams, while John C. Calhoun was reëlected vice president in opposition to Richard Rush. The popular vote was 647,231 for Jackson and 509,097 for Adams. President Jackson selected for his cabinet Martin Van Buren, secretary of state; Samuel D. Ingham, of the treasury; John H. Eaton, of war; John Branch, of the navy; John McPherson Berrien, attorney general; and William T. Barry, postmaster general. The last named officer was now for the first time made a member of the cabinet. In his first annual message, December, 1829, the president took strong ground against the renewal of the charter of the United States bank, as an institution not authorized by the constitution. A long and excited contest ensued in congress and among the people on this question. Congress in 1882 passed a bill to recharter the bank, but Jackson vetoed it; and as it failed to receive the votes of two thirds of the members of both houses, the bank charter expired by limitation in 1836. The commercial part of the community in this contest generally took the side of the bank, and the party formed in opposition to the president assumed the name of whig, while his supporters adhered to the old name of democrats. The tariff of 1828 had always been distasteful to the cotton-growing states, and on the passing of an act of congress in the spring of 1832 imposing additional duties upon foreign goods, the discontent of South Carolina broke out in almost actual rebellion. A state convention held there in November declared the tariff acts unconstitutional and therefore null and void, and proclaimed that any attempt by the general government to collect duties in the port of Charleston would be resisted by force of arms, and would produce the secession of South Carolina from the Union. The chief leaders of the nullifiers, as this South Carolina party was called, from their assertion of the right of a state to nullify an act of congress which she deemed unconstitutional, were John C. Calhoun, who had resigned the vice presidency and become a senator of the United States; Robert Y. Hayne, also a senator; and George McDuffie, governor of the state. The nullifiers made considerable military preparations, and for a time civil war between South Carolina and tho federal government seemed inevitable. Jackson had just been reëlected for a second term by 219 electoral votes, against a divided opposition which cast 49 votes for Henry Clay, 11 for John Floyd, and 7 for William Wirt, while Mr. Van Buren was chosen vice president. The popular vote was 687,502 for Jackson and 530,189 for his opponents. All the disposable army was ordered to assemble at Charleston under Gen. Scott, and a ship of war was sent to that port to insure the collection of duties. A proclamation was issued, Dec. 10, 1832, denying the right of a state to nullify any act of the federal government, and warning all engaged in fomenting the rebellion that the laws against treason would be enforced at all hazards and to their utmost penalties. The leaders of the nullifiers were also privately given to understand that if they committed any overt act they should surely be hanged. The firmness of the president, who in this conjuncture was warmly supported by the great mass of the nation of all parties, gave an effectual check to the incipient rebellion, and the affair was finally settled by a proposition brought forward in congress by Henry Clay, the leading champion of the protective system, for the modification of the tariff by a gradual reduction of the obnoxious duties; a compromise which was accepted by the nullifiers as the only means of escape from the perilous position in which they had placed themselves. Meanwhile the president's vehemence in party matters had led to sweeping removals from office, and a personal quarrel to changes in the cabinet, which in the latter part of 1831 was constituted thus: Edward Livingston, secretary of state; Louis McLane, of the treasury; Lewis Cass, of war; Levi Woodbury, of the navy; and Roger B. Taney, attorney general. Barry remained postmaster general. In his annual message in December, 1832, the president recommended the removal of the public funds from the bank of the United States, where they were by law deposited. Congress by a decisive vote refused to authorize the removal, and the president on his own responsibility directed the secretary of the treasury to withdraw the deposits and place them in certain state banks. That officer refusing, he was removed, and Mr. Taney, the attorney general, appointed in his place, who complied with the order. This step was attended by a financial panic, and great commercial distress immediately ensued. A resolution censuring the president was passed in the senate, but the house of representatives sustained him. The foreign policy of President Jackson was very successful. Useful commercial treaties were made with several countries, and indemnities for spoliations on American commerce were obtained from France, Spain, Naples, and Portugal. At home the principal events of his administration, besides those already mentioned, were the extinction of the national debt, the beginning, toward the close of 1835, of the war with the Seminole Indians in Florida, and the admission of Arkansas (1836) and Michigan (1837) into the Union.—In the presidential contest of 1836 Mr. Van Buren, who was supported by the democrats, received 170 electoral votes, and was elected; while the opposition or whig vote was divided between William Henry Harrison (73), Hugh L. White (26), Daniel Webster (14), and Willie P. Mangum (11). No candidate having been elected vice president, Richard M. Johnson, who had received the highest number of votes (147, against 77 for Francis Granger, 47 for John Tyler, and 23 for William Smith), was chosen by the senate. The popular vote was 761,549 for Van Buren and 736,656 for the opposition candidates. President Van Buren selected as his cabinet, John Forsyth, secretary of state; Levi Woodbury, of the treasury; Joel R. Poinsett, of war; Mahlon Dickerson, of the navy; B. F. Butler, attorney general; and Amos Kendall, postmaster general. All of these except Mr. Poinsett had been members of President Jackson's cabinet at the close of his last term; but several changes were subsequently made, James K. Paulding becoming secretary of the navy and Felix Grundy attorney general in 1838, Henry D. Gilpin attorney general and John M. Niles postmaster general in 1840. The new administration commenced under most untoward circumstances. The business of the country, affected by excessive speculation and overtrading, and by sudden contractions and expansions of the currency, was on the verge of ruin. Within two months after the inauguration of the president the mercantile failures in the city of New York alone amounted to more than $100,000,000. Nearly the whole of Mr. Van Buren's term was occupied with attempts to remedy these evils by legislative measures for the establishment of a stable currency and a sound system of government finance. A favorite measure of the president was the independent treasury system for the custody of the public funds, which was ultimately sanctioned by congress, and is still in force. The war with the Seminoles was not ended till 1842. The pecuniary troubles were imputed in great measure to the financial policy of the administration by its political opponents; and, as the presidential election of 1840 approached, the state elections indicated that the democratic party was in danger of overthrow. A whig national convention (the congressional caucus system for nominating candidates having been abandoned) was held at Harrisburg, Dec. 4, 1839, and Gen. Harrison was nominated for president, with John Tyler for vice president. The national democratic convention met at Baltimore, May 5, 1840, and unanimously nominated Mr. Van Buren. The canvass was one of the most animated and exciting that have ever taken place, and the result was that Harrison and Tyler each received 234 electoral votes, and Van Buren 60 (those of New Hampshire, Virginia, South Carolina, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri, and Arkansas), while the same number were divided between R. M. Johnson, L. W. Tazewell, and James K. Polk as democratic candidates for the vice presidency. The popular vote was 1,275,011 for Harrison and 1,128,702 for Van Buren. Gen. Harrison was inaugurated March 4, 1841, and selected as his cabinet Daniel Webster, secretary of state; Thomas Ewing, of the treasury; John Bell, of war; George E. Badger, of the navy; Francis Granger, postmaster general; and J. J. Crittenden, attorney general. Before any distinctive line of policy could be adopted by the new administration, the president died, April 4. The presidential office devolved on John Tyler, who retained the cabinet of his predecessor until the following September, when all but the secretary of state resigned in consequence of the unexpected development of a policy on the part of the president in relation to a national bank much more in accordance with the views of the democratic party, to which he had formerly been attached, than to those of the whigs, by whom he had been elevated to power. A treaty was concluded in 1842 with Great Britain by Mr. Webster for the settlement of the northeastern boundary. On April 12, 1844, a treaty to annex Texas to the United States was concluded by Mr. Calhoun and the agents of the new republic, but was rejected by the senate, on the ground that it would involve the country in a war with Mexico. The Texas question immediately became the prominent issue in the presidential contest of that year, the democratic party supporting and the whigs opposing annexation. At the south it was advocated as a means of strengthening the slavery interest, and at the north it was in great part opposed for the same reason, the anti-slavery element in both the parties being at this period of considerable strength. The friends of Texas soon obtained control of the democratic party, and, Mr. Van Buren having expressed unconditional opposition to annexation, at the national convention of that party at Baltimore, May 27, 1844, James K. Polk was nominated for president, and George M. Dallas for vice president. The whig national convention, which met at Baltimore May 1, had already nominated for president Henry Clay, and for vice president Theodore Frelinghuysen. The result of the election was 170 electoral votes for Polk and Dallas, and 105 for the whig candidates. The popular vote was 1,337,243 for Polk and 1,299,062 for Clay. The management of the Texas question was now assumed by congress, and joint resolutions for annexing that country to the United States as one of the states of the Union were signed by President Tyler March 1, 1845; and his last important official act was to sign two days later the bill for the admission of Florida and Iowa into the Union.—President Polk appointed as his cabinet James Buchanan, secretary of state; Robert J. Walker, of the treasury; William L. Marcy, of war; George Bancroft, of the navy; Cave Johnson, postmaster general; and John Y. Mason, attorney general. At the beginning of his administration the country was involved in disputes with Mexico, growing out of the annexation of Texas to the United States. Gen. Zachary Taylor was sent with a small army to occupy the region between the Nueces and the Rio Grande, which the United States claimed as belonging to Texas, while the Mexicans maintained that Texas had never extended beyond the Nueces. In April, 1846, a slight collision occurred on the Rio Grande between Gen. Taylor's army and that of the Mexican commander, Gen. Arista. On May 11 the president sent a special message to congress declaring that “war existed by the act of Mexico,” and asking for men and money to carry it on. Congress, by a vote of 142 to 14 in the house, and of 40 to 2 in the senate, appropriated$10,000,000, and gave authority to call out 50,000 volunteers. Taylor meanwhile had defeated the Mexicans at Palo Alto, May 8, and at Resaca de la Palma, May 9, and on being reënforced continued the war by brilliant victories at Monterey in September, and at Buena Vista, Feb. 23, 1847. (See Taylor, Zachary.) The conduct of the war was now assumed by Gen. Scott, commanding in chief. On March 9, 1847, he landed near Vera Cruz with about 12,000 men; that city was immediately besieged, and surrendered before the end of the month. Gen. Scott entered the city of Mexico on Sept. 14, after a series of hard-fought and uniformly successful battles. (See Scott, Winfield.) Meanwhile Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, at the head of a small force, had marched from Fort Leavenworth over the great plains to Santa Fé, and conquered New Mexico in August, 1846. He instituted an American government over the province, and then resumed his march toward California, which had already been conquered by Col. Fremont and Commodore Stockton. On his arrival at Monterey, Gen. Kearny assumed the office of governor, and on Feb. 8, 1847, proclaimed the annexation of California to the United States. While Kearny was on his way to California, Col. Doniphan, at the head of 1,000 Missouri volunteers, had made a prodigious march across the plains, and taken the city of Chihuahua, after routing, Feb. 28, 4,000 Mexicans, who met him about 18 m. from the city. Gen. Scott's army occupied the Mexican capital until after the ratification of a treaty of peace which was negotiated at Guadalupe Hidalgo, Feb. 2, 1848, by Nicholas P. Trist on the part of the United States. By this treaty Mexico granted to the United States the line of the Rio Grande as a boundary, and also ceded New Mexico and California. On their part the United States agreed to pay Mexico $15,000,000, and to assume the debts due by Mexico to American citizens to an extent not exceeding$3,500,000. At the beginning of the Mexican war negotiations in relation to the Oregon region were going on between Great Britain and the United States. “The whole of Oregon up to 54° 40′ ” had been one of the watchwords of the democratic party during the recent presidential canvass, and Mr. Polk in his inaugural address had declared that “our title to the country of the Oregon was clear and unquestionable.” But Great Britain, on various pretexts, asserted a claim to the whole country, and the president after much negotiation finally offered as an amicable compromise the boundary of the parallel of 49°, with a modification giving to her the whole of Vancouver island, which was agreed to by Great Britain. The other important measures of Mr. Folk's administration were the revision of the tariff in 1846, by which its protective features were lessened, and the admission (1848) of Wisconsin into the Union as the 30th state, Florida and Texas having been admitted in 1845, and Iowa in 1846.—In the democratic national convention which met at Baltimore May 22, 1848, Lewis Cass was nominated for president, and William O. Butler for vice president. By the whig convention, which met at Philadelphia on June 7, Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore were nominated. The question of slavery had a powerful influence on the political combinations of this period. After the subsidence of the Missouri agitation in 1821, slavery attracted little attention until the establishment of the “Liberator” newspaper by William Lloyd Garrison at Boston, Jan. 1, 1831, and the formation of anti-slavery societies in the free states in 1832-'3 by Arthur Tappan and others. These societies relied exclusively on moral and religious influences to promote emancipation, and avoided political action, affirming that congress had no right to interfere with slavery in the states, though they petitioned that body to abolish slavery in the territories, in the District of Columbia, and wherever else the federal government had constitutional jurisdiction. Violent attempts were made to suppress the agitation throughout the country, resulting in many places in serious riots. Several of the southern legislatures called upon those of the north to suppress the movement by penal enactments. President Jackson in his message to congress in 1835 recommended the adoption of a law prohibiting the circulation of anti-slavery publications through the mails; and a bill for that purpose reached a third reading in the senate, but was finally rejected. In the house of representatives a rule was adopted in 1836 that all anti-slavery petitions should be laid on the table without reference or consideration; this rule was finally rescinded in 1845. In 1840 a disagreement among the abolitionists led to their separation into two divisions, one of which, consisting only of a few hundred men, under the lead of Mr. Garrison, in 1844 took the position that the compromises of the constitution on the subject of slavery were immoral, and that consequently it was sinful to swear to support that instrument or to hold office or vote under it, and that the union of the states was “an agreement with hell and a covenant with death,” which ought to be at once dissolved. The other and far more numerous division of the abolitionists, with whom the followers of Mr. Garrison were often erroneously confounded, adhered to the Union and the constitution, and, having become satisfied that both the whig and democratic parties were completely under the control of the slave-holders, established in 1840 the “liberty party,” and at a national convention held at Albany nominated James G. Birney for president and Thomas Earle for vice president. Their entire vote at the election of 1840 was 7,059. In 1844 Mr. Birney was again nominated for president, with Thomas Morris for vice president, and received 62,300 votes. These figures, however, imperfectly represented the numbers of the opponents of slavery, most of whom still maintained their connection with the two great parties, on whose action they had a powerful influence. In 1846, during the Mexican war, a bill being before congress authorizing the president to use $2,000,000 in negotiating a peace, David Wilmot, a democratic representative from Pennsylvania, moved to add thereto the proviso that, “as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty to be negotiated between them, and to the use by the executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall be first duly convicted.” This proviso was adopted in the house, nearly all the members from the free states voting for it, but failed in the senate from want of time. At the next session, 1846-'7, a similar bill appropriating$3,000,000 was finally passed without the proviso. On the termination of the war, the practical question involved in the Wilmot proviso, whether the introduction of slavery should be allowed or prohibited in the territories newly acquired from Mexico, became of prominent interest. In the whig national convention by which Gen. Taylor was nominated were several delegates from the northern states representing what were called “free-soil” opinions, that is, opinions hostile to the extension of slavery; several of these withdrew on the rejection of a resolution committing the party against the introduction or existence of slavery in the territories, and subsequently separated themselves from the whig party. A similar schism had already taken place in the democratic national convention of the same year, the “barnburners,” as the free-soil democrats were termed, having seceded partly on anti-slavery and partly on personal grounds. An agreement was soon made between these seceding whigs and democrats and the liberty party to unite their forces in opposition to the extension of slavery; and a convention was held at Buffalo, Aug. 9, 1848, which was attended by delegates from all the free states and from Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. A free-soil or free democratic party was formed, and Martin Van Buren was nominated for president and Charles Francis Adams for vice president. A platform was adopted, declaring that the new party was formed “to maintain the rights of free labor against the aggressions of the slave power, and to secure free soil to a free people; that slavery, in the several states of this Union which recognize its existence, depends upon the state laws alone, which cannot be repealed or modified by the general government, and for which laws that government is not responsible; we therefore propose no interference by congress with slavery within the limits of any state; that the only safe means of preventing an extension of slavery into territory now free is to prohibit its extension in all such territory by an act of congress; that we accept the issue which the slave power has forced upon us, and to their demand for more slave states and more slave territory, our calm but final answer is, no more slave states and no more slave territory.” Van Buren and Adams received at the presidential election, in November, 1848, a popular vote of 291,263, but secured no electoral vote. The democratic candidates, Cass and Butler, received 127 electoral votes; and the whig candidates, Taylor and Fillmore, received 163 electoral votes, and were elected. The popular vote for Taylor was 1,360,099 and for Cass 1,220,544.—President Taylor was inaugurated on Monday, March 5, 1849, and appointed as his cabinet John M. Clayton, secretary of state; William M. Meredith, of the treasury; George W. Crawford, of war; William B. Preston, of the navy; Thomas Ewing, of the interior (an office created by congress two days before, March 3, 1849); Jacob Collamer, postmaster general; and Reverdy Johnson, attorney general. One of the earliest and most difficult of the questions which pressed on the new administration arose out of the acquisition of California, the people of which in 1849 framed a constitution prohibiting slavery. This being presented to congress early in 1850 with a petition for the admission of that region as a state, great excitement in congress and throughout the country arose. The extreme slavery party, led by Mr. Calhoun, demanded not only the rejection of California, but, among other concessions, an amendment of the constitution that should equalize the political power of the free and slave states. The question was still further complicated by the application of New Mexico for admission, and by a claim brought forward by Texas to a western line of boundary which would include a large portion of New Mexico. Finally a compromise was proposed by Henry Clay in the senate as a final settlement of the whole question of slavery, and after a long discussion the result aimed at by Mr. Clay was attained by separate acts, which provided for: 1, the admission of California as a free state; 2, territorial governments for New Mexico and Utah without excluding slavery, but leaving its exclusion or admission to the local population; 3, the settlement of the Texas boundary question; 4, the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia; 5, the enactment of a stringent law for the arrest and return of fugitive slaves. Ten of the southern senators, including Mason and Hunter of Virginia, Soule of Louisiana, and Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, published a final protest against the admission of California after the vote was taken; and the free-soil party at the north denounced the concessions to Texas and the refusal to prohibit slavery in New Mexico and Utah as unjust and unwise, and proclaimed the fugitive slave law unconstitutional, immoral, and cruel. While the compromise bills were yet before congress, President Taylor died, July 9, 1850, and was succeeded by the vice president, Millard Fillmore, who soon after reconstructed the cabinet as follows: Daniel Webster, secretary of state; Thomas Corwin, of the treasury; Charles M. Conrad, of war; Alexander H. H. Stuart, of the interior; William A. Graham, of the navy; Nathan K. Hall, postmaster general; and John J. Crittenden, attorney general. The acts relating to California, New Mexico, Utah, and Texas were signed by Mr. Fillmore on Sept. 9, the fugitive slave act on the 18th, and the District of Columbia act on the 20th; and the whole weight of his administration was given to the support of these measures. During the remainder of his term the events of most importance were the invasion of Cuba, in August, 1851, by a band of “filibusters” from New Orleans, led by Gen. Lopez, who was speedily captured and executed with many of his followers; the visit of Louis Kossuth to the United States in December, 1851; a dispute with England on the subject of the fisheries in 1852, which was settled by mutual concessions; and lastly the negotiation of a treaty with Japan by Commodore Perry, in command of an American fleet, by which the commerce of that empire was thrown open to the world.—On the approach of the presidential election of 1852 it became evident that, notwithstanding the apparent acquiescence of the great mass of the people in the compromise measures of 1850, the question of slavery was still a source of political agitation. The democrats of the south were divided into “Union men” and “southern rights men,” the latter maintaining the right of a state to secede from the Union whenever its rights were violated by the general government. On the other hand, the whigs of the south were mostly Union men and satisfied with the compromise measures, while a majority of the whigs of the north were opposed to the fugitive slave law, though not offering resistance to its execution, and were still desirous of preventing the extension of slavery by national legislation. The democratic national convention met at Baltimore, June 1, 1852, and nominated for president Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, who was known to hold opinions satisfactory to the south on the subject of slavery. William E. King of Alabama was nominated for vice president. The platform declared resistance to “all attempts at renewing in congress or out of it the agitation of the slavery question, under whatever shape or color the attempt may be made;” and also a determination to “abide by and adhere to a faithful execution of the acts known as the compromise measures settled by the last congress, the act for reclaiming fugitives from service or labor included.” The whig national convention met at Baltimore, June 16, and nominated for president Gen. Winfield Scott and for vice president William A. Graham of North Carolina. The platform declared that “the series of acts of the 31st congress, commonly known as the compromise or adjustment, the act for the recovery of fugitives from labor included, are received and acquiesced in by the whigs of the United States as a final settlement in principle and substance of the subjects to which they relate; . . . . and we deprecate all further agitation of the questions thus settled, as dangerous to our peace, and will discountenance all efforts to continue or renew such agitation, whenever, wherever, or however made.” The national convention of the free-soil party was held at Pittsburgh, Aug. 11, all the free states being represented, together with Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky. John P. Hale was nominated for president, and George W. Julian for vice president. A platform was adopted declaring “that the acts of congress known as the compromise measures of 1850, by making the admission of a sovereign state contingent upon the adoption of other measures demanded by the special interest of slavery, by their omission to guarantee freedom in the free territories, by their attempt to impose unconstitutional limitations on the power of congress and the people to admit new states, and by their invasion of the sovereignty of the states and the liberties of the people through the enactment of an unjust, oppressive, and unconstitutional fugitive slave law, are proved to be inconsistent with all the principles and maxims of democracy, and wholly inadequate to the settlement of the questions of which they are claimed to be an adjustment. That no permanent settlement of the slavery question can be looked for except in the practical recognition of the truth that slavery is sectional and freedom national; by the total separation of the general government from slavery, and the exercise of its legitimate and constitutional influence on the side of freedom; and by leaving to the states the whole subject of slavery and the extradition of fugitives from justice.” At the election, Nov. 2, 1852, the democratic candidates, Pierce and King, received 254 electoral votes from 27 states. Scott and Graham received the 42 votes of Vermont, Massachusetts, Kentucky, and Tennessee. The popular vote for Pierce and King was 1,601,474, for Scott and Graham 1,386,578, and for Hale and Julian 155,825. President Pierce was inaugurated March 4, 1853, and appointed as his cabinet William L. Marcy, secretary of state; James Guthrie, of the treasury; Jefferson Davis, of war; James C. Dobbin, of the navy; Robert McClelland, of the interior; James Campbell, postmaster general; and Caleb Cushing, attorney general. One of the first questions that occupied the administration was a boundary dispute with Mexico concerning a tract of land bordering on New Mexico and comprising 45,535 sq. m., which finally by negotiation and purchase became a part of the United States. It is known as the Gadsden purchase, from the American minister who negotiated the treaty, and forms part of Arizona and New Mexico. In 1853 various expeditions were sent out to explore the routes proposed for a railroad from the Mississippi to the Pacific. In January, 1854, Stephen A. Douglas, chairman of the senate committee on territories, reported a bill for the organization of two new territories, Kansas and Nebraska, in the region west of Missouri and north of lat. 36° 30′. By this bill the Missouri compromise act of 1820 was repealed, and slavery allowed to enter where it had been formally and for ever excluded. The measure was warmly supported by the administration and by the leaders of the democratic party, and was strenuously opposed in debates of extraordinary length and interest by Chase and Wade of Ohio, Everett and Sumner of Massachusetts, Seward of New York, Fessenden of Maine, Houston of Texas, and Bell of Tennessee, in the senate, where it finally passed by a vote of 37 to 14. In the house it was opposed by Thomas H. Benton of Missouri and others; but it passed by a vote of 113 to 100, and the bill became a law on the last day of May. This bill roused great excitement and indignation in the free states, where it was denounced as a flagrant breach of faith, and its enactment greatly increased the strength of the antislavery party. Much dissatisfaction also was caused in those states by a conference at Ostend between the United States ministers to England, France, and Spain (Buchanan, Mason, and Soulé), in the circular issued by whom it was proposed to buy Cuba from Spain, or, if necessary to prevent emancipation in the island, to take it by force. The attempt to obtain Cuba was regarded at the north as prompted, like the repeal of the Missouri compromise, chiefly by a desire to extend and strengthen the slaveholding influence in the United States. So also were the filibuster expeditions against Nicaragua led by William Walker, whose envoy at Washington, Vijil, was formally recognized by the president in 1856. (See Walker, William.) As, by the terms of the Kansas and Nebraska act, the people of those territories were to be left free to determine for themselves whether or not slavery should be tolerated there, a struggle soon began in Kansas, to which chiefly emigration was directed, between the anti-slavery and pro-slavery parties, which, after many acts of violence and a long period of confusion amounting almost to civil war, terminated in the adoption by the people of Kansas of a state constitution excluding slavery. (See Kansas.) In the course of the debates on the Kansas question Mr. Sumner of Massachusetts made a speech in the senate, May 19 and 20, 1856, and two days afterward was assailed in the senate chamber by Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina for expressions therein, and so much injured that he was long unable to resume his duties. This event increased still further the anti-slavery feeling at the north; and when the canvass for president began in 1856, an anti-slavery party appeared in the field of far more formidable dimensions than any previous organization of the kind. This party assumed the name of republican, and absorbed the entire free-soil party, the greater part of the whig party, and considerable accessions from the democratic party. The first decisive exhibition of its strength was the election in the congress of 1855-'6 of N. P. Banks, a former democrat, as speaker of the house of representatives. The whig party about this period disappeared from the field, that portion of it opposed to anti-slavery measures having been merged, especially at the south, in an organization called the American party from its opposition to foreign influence, and particularly to Roman Catholic influence, in our political affairs, but popularly known as the “Know-Nothing party” from the secrecy of its organization and the reticence of its members. This party held a national convention at Philadelphia, Feb. 22, 1856, and, after adopting a platform virtually recognizing the principles of the Kansas-Nebraska act and approving the fugitive slave law, nominated Millard Fillmore for president, and Andrew J. Donelson of Tennessee for vice president. The democratic national convention met at Cincinnati, June 2, and reaffirmed the Baltimore platform of 1852, with the addition of resolutions condemning the principles of the American party, recognizing the Kansas-Nebraska act as the only safe solution of the slavery question, affirming the duty of upholding state rights and the Union, and assenting generally to the doctrines of the Ostend circular. James Buchanan of Pennsylvania was nominated for president, and John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for vice president. The republican national convention met at Philadelphia, June 17, and adopted a platform declaring that “the maintenance of the principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the federal constitution is essential to the preservation of our republican institutions, and that the federal constitution, the rights of the states, and the union of the states shall be preserved;” and that “the constitution confers upon congress sovereign power over the territories of the United States for their government, and in the exercise of this power it is the right and the duty of congress to prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism, polygamy and slavery.” John C. Fremont of California was nominated for president, and William L. Dayton of New Jersey for vice president. The election resulted in the choice of Buchanan and Breckinridge by 174 electoral votes, against 114 for Fremont and 8 for Fillmore. The popular vote for Buchanan was 1,838,169, for Fremont 1,341,264, and for Fillmore 874,534. Fillmore received the vote of Maryland, Buchanan the votes of all the other slave states and of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, and California (19 in all), and Fremont those of the 11 remaining free states.—President Buchanan appointed as his cabinet Lewis Cass, secretary of state; Howell Cobb, of the treasury; John B. Floyd, of war; Isaac Toucey, of the navy; Jacob Thompson, of the interior; Aaron V. Brown, postmaster general; and Jeremiah S. Black, attorney general. With the exception of a rebellion of the Mormons in Utah in 1857-'8, which was suppressed without bloodshed, and of the admission into the Union of Minnesota in 1858 and of Oregon in 1859, the chief interest of Mr. Buchanan's administration centred around the slavery controversy, which still continued in Kansas, in the halls of congress, and in the legislatures of the free states. Several of the latter bodies, under the influence of a growing public opinion in opposition to the justice and constitutionality of the fugitive slave law, passed acts designed to impede its operation, and to secure to alleged fugitives the right to trial by jury and to the legal assistance usually given to those charged with criminal offences. These acts were commonly called personal liberty laws. An important element in the slavery controversy was the decision of the supreme court in the case of Dred Scott, rendered soon after the inauguration of Presidaent Buchanan. (See Taney, Roger Brooke.) A constitution for Kansas framed at Lecompton in 1857 was laid before congress in the session of 1857-'8, and was strongly opposed by the republicans on the ground that it had been fraudulently concocted by the pro-slavery party there, that it did not represent the wishes of the people of Kansas, and that some of its provisions were cunningly framed for the purpose of forcing slavery into the new state in spite of the opposition of the inhabitants. A powerful section of the democratic party, headed by Stephen A. Douglas, sided with the republicans in this matter; but the so-called “Lecompton bill,” submitting this constitution to the people under certain conditions, after a parliamentary struggle of extraordinary intensity and duration, was passed by congress by the votes of the democratic majority, led in the house by Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, and in the senate by Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, John M. Mason of Virginia, and John Slidell of Louisiana. The president lent all his influence to the measure, on the ground that it would pacify the country, and would not prevent Kansas from becoming a free state if the people desired to exclude slavery. This contest resulted in a schism in the democratic party, and eventually in its division into two bodies, one of which looked upon Mr. Douglas as its leader, while the other supported for the presidency John O. Breckinridge of Kentucky. An attempt to free slaves by force of arms, made at Harper's Ferry in October, 1859, by John Brown of Kansas, for which he was hanged by the authorities of Virginia, Dec. 2, created a profound sensation throughout the country. (See Brown, John, vol. iii., p. 338.) In January, 1861, after the withdrawal of southern members of congress, Kansas was admitted into the Union under a constitution framed at Wyandotte in 1859.—The democratic national convention met at Charleston, April 23, 1860, and a controversy on the subject of slavery immediately arose. On the 30th a platform was adopted by a vote of 165 to 138, the essential portion of which was as follows: “Inasmuch as differences of opinion exist in the democratic party as to the nature and extent of the powers of a territorial legislature, and as to the powers and duties of congress, under the constitution of the United States, over the institution of slavery within the territories; resolved, that the democratic party will abide by the decisions of the supreme court of the United States on the questions of constitutional law.” Most of the southern delegates thereupon withdrew, and on May 3 the convention adjourned to meet at Baltimore on June 18, after recommending that the vacant seats be filled prior to that date. The seceding delegates met, adopted a platform, and adjourned after calling a convention to assemble at Richmond on June 11. The portion of their platform relating to slavery was as follows: “That the government of a territory organized by an act of congress is provisional and temporary; and, during its existence, all citizens of the United States have an equal right to settle with their property in the territory, without their rights, either of person or property, being destroyed or impaired by congressional or territorial legislation. That it is the duty of the federal government, in all its departments, to protect, when necessary, the rights of persons and property in the territories, and wherever else its constitutional authority extends. That when the settlers in a territory having an adequate population form a state constitution, the right of sovereignty commences, and, being consummated by admission into the Union, they stand on an equal footing with the people of other states; and the state thus organized ought to be admitted into the federal Union, whether its constitution prohibits or recognizes the institution of slavery.” The regular convention assembled in Baltimore pursuant to adjournment, and nominated Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois for president and Benjamin Fitzpatrick of Alabama for vice president, though a further withdrawal of delegates took place. Mr. Fitzpatrick subsequently declined, and Herschel V. Johnson of Georgia was substituted by the national committee. The convention called by the seceding delegates met first at Richmond, but adjourned, and convened finally at Baltimore on June 23, when it adopted the Charleston platform and nominated John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for president and Joseph Lane of Oregon for vice president. The “Constitutional Union” party, composed mainly of the American party, held its national convention at Baltimore May 9, and nominated for president John Bell of Tennessee, and for vice president Edward Everett of Massachusetts. This party declared that it recognized “no political principle other than the constitution of the country, the union of the states, and the enforcement of the laws.” The republican national convention assembled at Chicago on May 16, and nominated for president Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, and for vice president Hannibal Hamlin of Maine. The portion of the platform adopted by the convention relating to slavery was as follows: “That the maintenance of the principle promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the federal constitution, ‘that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,’ is essential to the preservation of our republican institutions; and that the federal constitution, the rights of the states, and the union of the states, must and shall be preserved. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the states, and especially the right of each state to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of powers on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depend; and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any state or territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes. That the new dogma that the constitution, of its own force, carries slavery into any or all of the territories of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy, at variance with the explicit provisions of that instrument itself, with contemporaneous exposition, and with legislative and judicial precedent; is revolutionary in its tendency, and subversive of the peace and harmony of the country. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is that of freedom; that, as our republican fathers, when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory, ordained that ‘no person should be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law,’ it becomes our duty, by legislation whenever such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provision of the constitution against all attempts to violate it; and we deny the authority of congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals to give legal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States.” In the presidential election of Nov. 6, 1860, Mr. Lincoln received the electoral votes of all the free states (except three votes in New Jersey, which were given to Mr. Douglas), to the number of 180, and was elected. Mr. Bell received the votes of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, 39; Mr. Douglas the 9 votes of Missouri, which added to 3 from New Jersey gave him a total of 12 votes; and the remaining southern states cast their 72 electoral votes for Breckinridge. The popular vote for Lincoln was 1,866,452; for Douglas, 994,139; for Breckinridge, 669,082; for Bell, 575,193; and 575,327 votes were cast for fusion tickets opposed to Lincoln. The total vote was 4,680,193. When this result became known, the legislature of South Carolina ordered the election of a convention to consider the question of secession. The convention assembled Dec. 17, and on Dec. 20 unanimously adopted a secession ordinance, declaring that “the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other states, under the name of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved.” The alleged reason for this action was hostility on the part of the successful party to the institution of slavery. Before the end of May, 1861, 11 states had passed ordinances of secession, in the following order: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. The western portion of Virginia refused to be bound by the ordinance of that state, and in 1863 was admitted into the Union as a separate state under the name of West Virginia. In eastern Tennessee also the prevailing sentiment continued favorable to the Union. On Feb. 4, 1861, a congress, composed of delegates from the states that had then seceded, assembled at Montgomery, Ala., and framed a constitution for the “Confederate States of America.” Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was chosen president, and Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia vice president; a government was organized, and measures were taken to create an army. The senators and representatives from the seceded states withdrew from the United States congress. Nothing was done by President Buchanan's administration to thwart the purposes of the secessionists, who proceeded to seize the arsenals, custom houses, navy yards, and forts throughout the south. At the close of his term only Fort Sumter at Charleston, S. C., and Fort Pickens at Pensacola, Fla., with the posts on the Florida keys, remained in the possession of the government in the seven states that had then seceded. Various measures were proposed looking to conciliation, but without effect. For details of these, as well as of the progress of secession and the organization of the confederacy, see Confederate States of America. In his inaugural address, March 4, 1861, President Lincoln declared that the accession of a republican administration afforded no ground to the southern states for apprehending any invasion of their rights, and that the power confided to him would be used “to hold, occupy, and possess the property and places belonging to the government, and collect the duties and imposts; but, beyond what may be necessary for these objects, there will be no invasion, no using of force against or among the people anywhere.” “The course here indicated will be followed, unless current events and experience shall show a modification or change to be proper.” (See Lincoln, Abraham.) He appointed as his cabinet William H. Seward, secretary of state; Salmon P. Chase, of the treasury; Simon Cameron, of war; Gideon Welles, of the navy; Caleb B. Smith, of the interior; Edward Bates, attorney general; and Montgomery Blair, postmaster general. The last two were from the slave states of Missouri and Maryland. In 1862 Cameron was succeeded by Edwin M. Stanton (Jan. 14) and Smith by John P. Usher; in 1864 Chase was succeeded by William P. Fessenden, Blair by William Dennison, and Bates by James Speed. Upon Lincoln's second inauguration (1865) Hugh McCulloch succeeded Fessenden. The army at the beginning of active measures on the part of the south was only 16,000 strong (on Jan. 1, 1861, it consisted of 16,402 officers and men, of whom 14,657 were present for duty), and by orders from Mr. Floyd, the secretary of war, who was himself a party to the secession movement, had been dispersed in the remotest parts of the country, while the navy was mostly absent on foreign stations. Under Floyd's orders also an extensive transfer of arms and ammunition from northern to southern arsenals was made during 1860. Before the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln Gen. Twiggs, commanding in Texas, had surrendered to the Texan authorities half the military force of the Union. Most of the army and many of the navy officers from the south resigned upon the secession of their states. The first warlike act was the bombardment by the confederates, under Gen. Beauregard, of Fort Sumter, which was commanded by Major Anderson with a garrison of 109 men. Fire was opened on April 12, 1861, and continued on the 13th, and Major Anderson was compelled to evacuate the fort on the 14th, sailing with his garrison to New York. (See Sumter, Fort.) The next day (April 15) President Lincoln issued a proclamation calling upon the governors of the several states for a force of 75,000 militia for three months. The utmost enthusiasm was aroused throughout the north. On the evening of the 16th several companies from Pennsylvania reached Washington, and on the 17th the 6th regiment of Massachusetts started for that city. On the 19th, in company with ten companies from Philadelphia, it reached Baltimore, where it was attacked by a party of secessionists, and three of its members were killed and eight seriously injured. The Philadelphia troops were compelled to return, but the 6th Massachusetts proceeded to Washington. On the 25th several other regiments reached that city. On May 13 Gen. B. F. Butler took military possession of Baltimore, repressing the secession element in that city. In the mean time the United States arsenal at Harper's Ferry (April 18), and the Gosport navy yard, near Norfolk, Va. (April 21), fell into the hands of the confederates. On April 19 and 27 the president issued proclamations declaring a blockade of the ports of the seceded states. On April 15 he called an extra session of congress to meet on July 4. This body made large appropriations for the organization and support of the army and navy, which were continued by subsequent congresses. Various loans were authorized and other financial measures adopted during the struggle, to which reference has been made in a previous portion of this article. The states and subordinate political bodies also promptly raised large sums in aid of the war, and did not relax their efforts till its close. Bounties were offered to soldiers enlisting, by the United States and by state and local authorities. On May 3, 1861, a second call was made by the president for 42,034 volunteers for three years, 22,714 men for the regular army, and 18,000 seamen. The acts of July 22, 25, and 31 authorized the president to accept not exceeding 1,000,000 volunteers for periods of from six months to three years. No formal call was made, but men came forward promptly under these acts, which were regarded in the apportionment of quotas as a call for 500,000 men for three years. On July 2, 1862, a call was made for 300,000 volunteers for three years, and on August 4 a draft was ordered of 300,000 men for nine months, to be made by the state authorities from the militia. On March 3, 1863, an act was passed providing for the enrolment and drafting of the military forces of the Union, and creating in the war department the bureau of the provost marshal general to carry it into effect. A draft was commenced under its provisions in July, which resulted in little direct benefit to the army, but served greatly to stimulate volunteering. This draft gave rise to severe riots in New York, continuing three days. On Oct. 17 a call was made for 300,000 volunteers for three years, followed by others on Feb. 1 and March 14, 1864, for 200,000 each for the same period. In April a draft was commenced to supply the deficiencies in these calls. On July 18 a call was made for 500,000 men for one, two, and three years, and on Dec. 19 another for 300,000 for the same periods; and these calls were followed by drafts. Recruiting was ordered to be discontinued on April 13, 1865. Simultaneously with the organization of the army measures were taken to enlarge the navy, which for service against the confederacy was largely recruited by the purchase of steamers and other vessels from the merchant marine.—On May 24, 1861, the national forces took possession of Arlington heights and Alexandria on the Potomac, opposite Washington. On the 27th federal troops under Gen. McClellan entered western Virginia. They soon obtained control of that part of the state, and at the close of the year scarcely any armed confederates were found W. of the Alleghanies in Virginia. On July 21 was fought the battle of Bull Run, near Manassas Junction, Va., the first of any magnitude during the war, in which the Union forces under Gen. McDowell were defeated by the confederates under Gen. Beauregard, and fell back in disorder to Washington. (See Bull Run.) Soon after Gen. McClellan was placed in command of the army of the Potomac, and began to reorganize and discipline his forces, in which occupation the rest of the summer and the following winter were quietly passed. On Aug. 29 Forts Hatteras and Clark, at Hatteras inlet, the main entrance to Pamlico sound on the coast of North Carolina, were taken by a military and naval expedition under Gen. Butler and Com. Stringham. On Oct. 29 a fleet of 75 vessels under command of Com. Du Pont, with transports conveying 10,000 men under Gen. T. W. Sherman, sailed from Hampton roads, and on the night of Nov. 3 arrived off Port Royal, S. C. On the 7th they attacked Forts Beauregard and Walker at the entrance of the harbor, and after a bombardment of nearly five hours put the garrisons to flight, thus securing the finest harbor on the southern coast. Meantime troops in aid of the confederacy had been organized in Missouri, and others had come in from Arkansas and Texas. On Aug. 10 a battle was fought at Wilson's creek, near Springfield, in the S. W. part of Missouri, between the confederates under Gen. McCulloch and the federals under Gen. Lyon. The former lost 265 killed, 800 wounded, and 30 missing; the latter 223 killed (including Gen. Lyon), 721 wounded, and 292 missing. After the battle the Union army, under Col. Sigel, fell back to Rolla in the central portion of the state. Gen. Fremont, having been appointed to the command of the western department, took the field in Missouri near the end of September, and by degrees drove the confederates under Gen. Price back to the S. W. corner of the state; but on Nov. 2 he was superseded by Gen. Hunter. The federal army again fell back to Rolla, the confederates advancing as it receded. On the 12th Gen. Halleck took command of the department, and by the end of December Price was again in full retreat toward Arkansas, losing within a few days 2,500 prisoners and a large amount of stores. A conspicuous incident of the struggle in Missouri was the defence of Lexington, on the Missouri river, against a greatly superior force, by 2,780 men under Col. Mulligan, who surrendered (Sept. 21) only after being three days cut off from water. About Oct. 1 the confederate army before Washington began to fall back, and the national lines to be pushed forward. On the 21st a portion of Gen. Stone's command, having crossed the Potomac at Ball's bluff, about midway between Harper's Ferry and Washington, was disastrously defeated by the confederate general Evans, with a loss of 1,000 out of 1,900 men. Col. Baker, United States senator from Oregon, was among the killed. On Oct. 31 Winfield Scott, general-in-chief of the armies of the United States, retired from active service, and was succeeded by Gen. McClellan. On Nov. 8 Capt. Wilkes, in command of the frigate San Jacinto, intercepted the British mail steamer Trent, from Havana for Southampton, and forcibly took from on board Messrs. Mason and Slidell, commissioners from the southern confederacy to England and France. The action was resented by the British government, and produced a great display of feeling against the United States. A war with England seemed imminent, when the president decided to surrender the commissioners to the British minister. On Dec. 20 Brig. Gen. Ord routed the confederates with heavy loss at Dranesville, on the road from Washington to Leesburg. In the west, Bishop Polk of Louisiana, serving as major general in the confederate army, had occupied Hickman and Columbus, Ky., on the Mississippi, and begun to fortify them. Gen. Grant, commander of the federal forces at Cairo, Ill., consequently took possession (Sept. 6) of Paducah, on the Ohio just below the mouth of the Tennessee. About the same time Gen. Zollicoffer led a confederate force from Tennessee into S. E. Kentucky. This was subsequently placed under Gen. G. B. Crittenden, and was defeated on Jan. 19, 1862, by Gen. G. H. Thomas at Mill Spring, Zollicoffer himself being killed. On Feb. 6 the federal commodore Foote, with a fleet of gunboats from Cairo, reduced Fort Henry on the E. bank of the Tennessee river in Tennessee; and on the 16th Fort Donelson, on the W. bank of the Cumberland, surrendered with about 13,000 men after some severe fighting to Gen. Grant. (See Fort Donelson and Fort Henry.) On the 15th Gen. Mitchel, advancing from Louisville, had occupied Bowling Green, Ky., a place of great natural strength, the confederate forces under Gen. A. S. Johnston retiring to Nashville, Tenn. That city was occupied by the federal forces on the 26th, Gen. Johnston retreating as far as Corinth, Miss.; and on March 2 Columbus, Ky., was evacuated by the confederates. The whole of Kentucky and a part of Tennessee were thus secured by the federal arms. To command the Mississippi, the confederates had fortified island No. Ten in a sharp bend of that river, a few miles above New Madrid, Mo., which was also fortified and defended by a confederate force. On March 3 Gen. Pope invested the town, which he took possession of on the 14th, the confederates having abandoned it during the preceding night, leaving 33 guns and a large quantity of small arms, ammunition, &c. Com. Foote, having in the mean time moved a fleet of gunboats down the river, opened on the island on the 15th. Two of the gunboats succeeded in running past it; and a canal 12 m. long having been cut through a peninsula on the Missouri side, enabling the fleet to get below it, Gen. Pope on April 7 crossed a portion of his troops to the E. side. The confederates, thus cut off from retreat, surrendered during the following night, and nearly 7,000 prisoners, 123 cannon, 7,000 stand of small arms, and an immense quantity of stores fell into the hands of the federals. The federal fleet proceeded down the river, and after some opposition from forts and gunboats received the surrender of Memphis on June 6. The command was now devolved on Com. Davis, Com. Foote having been disabled by a wound. The fleet continued its course down the river, reaching Vicksburg, Miss., before the end of June, where the first serious obstacle was encountered. In the mean time the federal forces under Gen. Grant had advanced from Fort Donelson up the Tennessee river, and when encamped in the vicinity of Shiloh church, Tenn., near Pittsburgh Landing on the river, were attacked by the confederates under Gens. A. S. Johnston and Beauregard, who had advanced from Corinth, about 20 m. distant. The battle, which at first threatened to overwhelm the federals, raged two days (April 6 and 7), when the confederates fell back to Corinth, leaving the field in the possession of the Union army. (See Shiloh.) After the battle Gen. Halleck assumed command of the Union army, and with augmented forces operated against Corinth, which the confederates evacuated on May 29. About the same time Gen. Mitchel entered N. Alabama, capturing Huntsville and other points, and destroying much confederate property. A confederate force had entered New Mexico from Texas early in 1862, but they were driven out before the close of the spring, and subsequently that territory was unmolested. A victory was gained by the national forces under Gen. Curtis at Pea Ridge, Ark., March 7 and 8, over the armies of Van Dorn, Price, and McCulloch, which had just been driven out of Missouri. Gen. Curtis subsequently met with little resistance, and in July occupied Helena on the Mississippi. During the latter half of the year there were numerous conflicts in Missouri and Arkansas between small forces of confederates and federals, the advantage being in favor of the latter. The battle of Prairie Grove, Ark., was fought on Dec. 7, the Union forces being commanded by Gens. Herron and Blunt, and the confederates by Gen. Hindman. The latter retreated during the ensuing night, leaving the federals in possession of the field. Ship island, about 10 m. from the coast of Mississippi, had been occu- pied in the latter part of 1861, and here troops were collected for the capture of New Orleans, to be under the command of Gen. Butler, who reached the island March 25, 1862. New Orleans was defended by Forts Jackson and St. Philip, on opposite sides of the Mississippi, about 83 m. below the city. Both of these works were of great strength, and between them the passage had been barred by chains and hulks. On April 18 a bombardment was commenced by a federal fleet of 47 vessels, carrying 289 guns and 21 mortars, the whole commanded by Oapt. Farragut, the mortar fleet being under the special command of Capt. Porter. On the morning of the 24th, the barriers having been previously removed, Capt. Farragut ran past the forts with a part of his fleet, destroyed a squadron of the enemy's rams and gunboats, silenced the batteries above the forts, and reached New Orleans on the 25th. Gen. Lovell, in command of the confederate troops, evacuated the city on his arrival, and destroyed all the cotton, sugar, and other valuable stores. Forts Jackson and St. Philip surrendered to Capt. Porter on the 28th. Gen. Butler now moved up with his army, took formal possession of New Orleans (May 1), and placed it under martial law. Farragnt's fleet passed up the river, captured Baton Rouge, and afterward proceeded to Vicksburg, the only remaining stronghold of the confederates on the Mississippi, of which a bombardment was begun on June 26. On the morning of the 28th Capt. Farragut with seven vessels passed the city, and joined Capt. Davis's flotilla from Memphis. The siege of Vicksburg was abandoned about the end of July, Capt. Farragut, who had repassed the batteries, dropping down the river with his fleet. On Aug. 5 the confederate Gen. Breckinridge was repulsed in an attack on Baton Rouge by Gen. Williams, who fell at the moment of victory. In December Gen. Butler was superseded by Gen. Banks. Another expedition, under the command of Gen. Burnside and Com. Goldsborough, sailed from Hampton roads Jan. 12, 1862, entered Pamlico sound by way of Hatteras inlet, and attacked Roanoke island, which the confederates had strongly fortified. The troops landed Feb. 7, and on the following day stormed the intrenchments, and obliged about 2,700 of the enemy to surrender. On the 9th the fleet passed up the sound to Elizabeth City, N. C., and destroyed the confederate flotilla. On March 14 Gen. Burnside captured New Berne after a severe battle, taking 500 prisoners and 69 guns, and immediately afterward marched a force thence to Beaufort, which made no resistance; but Fort Macon, which defended the entrance to it from the sea, held out until April 25. Washington, Plymouth, and other towns on the coast were also occupied. On April 11 Fort Pulaski, on Cockspur island at the mouth of the Savannah river, was reduced by bombardment from batteries on Tybee island. On March 8 the confederate ironclad Virginia (formerly Merrimack), coming out from Norfolk, attacked the federal fleet in Hampton roads, and destroyed the frigates Cumberland and Congress. During the ensuing night the ironclad Monitor, under command of Lieut. Worden, arrived from New York, and in the morning engaged the Virginia, which retired after a protracted contest. (See Hampton Roads.) On May 10 Norfolk was occupied without resistance by a detachment from Fortress Monroe under Gen. Wool, and the Virginia was blown up to prevent it from falling into his hands. In June, 1862, Gen. Buell left Corinth, Miss., and moved east, threatening Chattanooga, Tenn. Gen. Bragg, in command of the confederates, thereupon moved from Tupelo, Miss., through N. Alabama and Georgia, reaching Chattanooga in advance of Buell. Toward the end of August he started on an invasion of Kentucky, which his forces entered from E. Tennessee. On the 30th a corps under Kirby Smith encountered a raw Union force under Gen. Manson at Richmond, Ky., and totally defeated it with a loss of several thousand in disabled and prisoners. Lexington was occupied on Sept. 4. On the 17th Bragg captured Munfordsville, with the Union force there of about 2,000 men under Col. Wilder, and on Oct. 1 entered Frankfort. In the mean time Buell had marched by way of Nashville, which he left strongly garrisoned, to Louisville, where his army arrived between Sept. 25 and 29. On Oct. 1 he began to move against Bragg, who slowly retreated to Perryville, where he made a stand, and on the 8th a battle ensued, in which the confederates lost 2,500 men and the federals more than 4,000. During the succeeding night Bragg continued his retreat, and joining Kirby Smith passed into E. Tennessee. On the 30th Buell was superseded by Maj. Gen. Rosecrans. The confederates under Gen. Price having occupied Iuka, Miss., Gen. Rosecrans attacked that place on Sept. 19, and severe fighting ensued, which was ended by darkness. During the succeeding night Price retreated, and at Ripley united with a stronger confederate force under Gen. Van Dorn, who soon advanced against Corinth, now defended by Gen. Rosecrans. The attack was commenced on Oct. 3, and ended on the following day with a strong and determined assault, which was repulsed with great loss, the federal pursuit continuing as far as Ripley. (See Corinth, vol. v., p. 354.) Gen. Rosecrans, having assumed command in Kentucky, began on Nov. 10 to move to Nashville. On Dec. 26 he began to march thence upon Murfreesboro, where Bragg's forces were concentrated; he encountered some opposition, and reached Stone river near that place on the 29th and 30th. Here bloody engagements occurred, Dec. 31, 1862, and Jan. 2, 1863, which resulted in the abandonment of Murfreesboro by the confederates during the night of Jan. 3-4. (See Murfreesboro.) The other operations in this vicinity during the winter and spring were confined to cavalry raids. On Nov. 28, 1862, Gen. Grant, in command in W. Tennessee, commenced an advance into Mississippi with the design of operating against Vicksburg. He had reached Oxford when, on Dec. 20, a blow was struck at his communications in the capture of Holly Springs by Van Dorn, who took more than 1,000 prisoners and destroyed a vast quantity of munitions and stores, compelling Grant to abandon the movement. On Oct. 8 Galveston, Texas, was occupied by a naval force, and was held till Jan. 1, 1863, when it was retaken by Gen. Magruder.—Operations of greater magnitude had in the mean while taken place on the eastern theatre of the war. About April 1, 1862, Gen. McClellan, who now had command only of the department of the Potomac, transferred his forces to Fortress Monroe, and began a movement upon Richmond up the peninsula between the York and James rivers. On the 4th an advance was made upon Yorktown, which was besieged for a month, when it was abandoned by the confederates. McClellan then continued his advance, and a series of bloody battles was fought, viz.: at Williamsburg, May 5; Hanover Court House, May 27; Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, May 31 and June 1; Mechanicsville, June 26; Cold Harbor, June 27; Savage's Station, June 29; Frazier's Farm, June 30; and Malvern Hill, July 1, on the James. During the night of July 1 Gen. McClellan withdrew his troops to Harrison's Landing, 7 m. below Malvern Hill, where he remained till about the middle of August, when his army was transferred to the Potomac. The confederate army in this campaign was at first commanded by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who was succeeded by Gen. Robert E. Lee. Soon after the battle of Malvern Hill it retired to Richmond, to assume the offensive against Washington. (For a detailed account of the peninsular campaign, see Chickahominy.) In the mean time a confederate force under Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson and federal forces under Gens. Banks and Fremont had been operating in the Shenandoah valley. (See Cross Keys.) Several battles were fought, and about the middle of June Jackson was summoned with the greater part of his force to Richmond. In July Gen. Pope was placed in command of the federal army of Virginia, consisting of the forces that had been operating in the valley and of those under Gen. McDowell covering Washington. About the same time Gen. Halleck was summoned from the west to act as general-in-chief at Washington. On Aug. 9 a portion of Pope's army under Banks was repulsed with loss at Cedar mountain, near Culpeper Court House, by a superior body of confederates under Jackson, who formed the van in Lee's offensive operations. On Aug. 29 and 30 occurred the second battle of Bull Run, between the Union army under Pope and the confederate forces under Jackson and Longstreet, in which the latter had the advantage. (See Bull Run.) Pope retreated within the defences of Washington and resigned, Gen. McClellan assuming command of the remnant of his army. Lee moved to the Potomac above Washington and crossed into Maryland. McClellan soon started to meet him, and encountered portions of the enemy on Sept. 14 at Turner's and Crampton's gaps in the South mountain, from which they were driven after severe fighting. The next day Harper's Ferry, with 11,583 men, 73 guns, 13,000 small arms, and other stores, was surrendered to a detachment of Lee's army under Jackson. McClellan, advancing, found Lee on the 15th strongly posted across Antietam creek near the village of Sharpsburg, where on the two following days a bloody but indecisive battle was fought. (See Antietam, Battle of.) On the night of the 18th Lee retreated into Virginia. McClellan crossed the Potomac about Nov. 1, and advanced to Warrenton, near the Rappahannock. On the 7th he was directed to turn over the command to Gen. Burnside, who moved down the Rappahannock to Fredericksburg, which was summoned without effect on the 21st. Lee had made a parallel movement down the S. bank of the river, and strongly intrenched himself on the bluffs behind the town. On Dec. 13 Burnside crossed the river and made repeated attacks on the enemy's position, but was repulsed with great slaughter, and on the 15th returned to the N. bank. (See Fredericksburg, Battle of.) On Jan. 26, 1868, Burnside was superseded by Gen. Joseph Hooker. About the close of April Hooker began to cross the Rappahannock, and concentrated his forces at Chancellorsville, where a bloody engagement ensued, May 24, in which the Union army was worsted by the forces under Lee, Hooker recrossing to the N. side of the river. In this battle Jackson was mortally wounded. (See Chancellorsville, Battle of.) About the beginning of June Lee, again assuming the offensive, advanced into the Shenandoah valley, capturing Winchester on the 15th, whence he drove a federal force under Gen. Milroy, taking many prisoners. The main body of the confederate army crossed the Potomac above Harper's Ferry, June 24-25, and marching across Maryland entered Pennsylvania. Hooker had begun on June 13 to move north, so as to cover Washington, and on the 26th crossed the Potomac about half way between Washington and Harper's Ferry, advancing to Frederick, Md. On the following day he resigned his command, in consequence of a difference with Gen. Halleck respecting the disposition of a force at Maryland Heights opposite Harper's Ferry, and on the 28th was succeeded by Gen. Meade. The latter advanced into Pennsylvania, and on July 1, 2, and 3 the two armies met in the great battle of Gettysburg, which ended in the discomfiture of the confederate army. (See Gettysburg, Battle of.) On the 4th Lee began his retreat, and on the 13th recrossed the Potomac at one of the points where he had crossed on his advance. Meade crossed a little below Harper's Ferry on the 18th, and reached Warrenton on the 25th, where he was soon confronted by Lee on the other side of the Rappahannock. Few important movements were made by either army during the remainder of the year, and the campaign of 1863 closed with the abortive attempt of Meade upon Lee's position on Mine run, a small affluent of the Rapidan, at the end of November.—About Dec. 20, 1862, Gen. W. T. Sherman with 30,000 men proceeded down the Mississippi from Memphis, and on the 29th assaulted the fortifications and batteries commanding Vicksburg from the north. The assault was repelled with a loss of nearly 2,000, and the forces a few days after were withdrawn to Milliken's Bend, where on Jan. 4, 1863, Gen. McClernand assumed command. An expedition into Arkansas was immediately undertaken for the capture of Fort Hindman at Arkansas Post on the Arkansas river, which was reduced on the 11th, the federals suffering a loss of 977 and capturing 17 guns, several thousand prisoners and small arms, and a large quantity of munitions and stores. Returning from this expedition, the forces were moved down the Mississippi, and on the 22d landed at Young's Point on the W. bank, about 9 m. above Vicksburg, where Gen. Grant arrived and assumed chief command, Feb. 2. Two months were now spent in unavailing attempts to flank the defences of Vicksburg by means of a canal at this point and through various bayous. Finally, a part of Admiral Porter's fleet and several transports having run past the batteries of Vicksburg and Warrenton and Grand Gulf below, a portion of Grant's army, which had marched down the W. bank of the Mississippi, crossed the river on April 30. Grand Gulf, being thus taken in the rear, was abandoned on May 3, and a few days after Grant was joined by Sherman's corps, which had remained above Vicksburg. An advance was then made up the left bank of the Big Black river, encountering some opposition at Raymond (May 12) and Jackson (May 14). On the 16th a battle was fought at Champion Hills, between Jackson and Vicksburg, by Grant's forces, against Gen. Pemberton, who had marched out of Vicksburg with the design of taking Grant in the rear. Pemberton was driven back with loss, and retreated to the Big Black river, across which he was driven the following day. The federal forces then advanced upon Vicksburg, and on the 19th the investment was complete. Porter immediately obtained control of the Yazoo river. On the 19th and 22d unsuccessful assaults were made, in the latter of which the loss was nearly 3,000. On July 3, the last day of the battle of Gettysburg, Gen. Pemberton, reduced by famine, surrendered with 27,000 men, and on the 4th Grant occupied the city. The result of this campaign rent the confederacy in twain, and was the severest blow it had yet received. On July 16 Gen. Sherman drove out of Jackson Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who during the siege had been operating in the rear of Grant. On July 3 Helena, Ark., held by Gen. Prentiss with 3,800, was attacked by about 7,700 confederates under Gen. Holmes, who were repulsed with a loss of nearly 1,700. In Louisiana Gen. Banks invested Port Hudson on the Mississippi in May, 1863, and on the 27th made an assault which was repulsed with a loss of about 1,850 men. The place was then closely besieged, and surrendered on July 8 with 6,408 men. Other operations were carried on during the year in Louisiana between Gens. Banks and Taylor, but they were not decisive. Early in September an expedition under Gen. Franklin, consisting of 4,000 men and several gunboats, was despatched from New Orleans to proceed against Houston, Texas, by way of Sabine pass; but the gunboats, being disabled in an attack on the fortifications at Pass Franklin, returned to New Orleans. On Oct. 26 a new expedition, consisting of 6,000 men under Banks, started for the Rio Grande, and landed at Brazos Santiago Nov. 2. Having taken possession of Brownsville and other points in W. Texas, Banks left Gen. Dana in command and returned to New Orleans. After abandoning Murfreesboro, Bragg had concentrated the greater part of his forces at Shelbyville and Tullahoma, where they were strongly intrenched. Rosecrans remained quietly at Murfreesboro till June 23, 1863, when he advanced, and took possession of Shelbyville on the 27th and of Tullahoma on the 30th, forcing Bragg to retreat to Chattanooga. The federal advance reached the Tennessee river Aug. 21, and by Sept. 8 the army was all across the stream, concentrating at Trenton, Ga., some miles S. of Chattanooga, which was occupied by a detachment the next day, Bragg retiring into Georgia and posting his troops in the vicinity of Chickamauga creek, E. of Trenton. Here, Sept. 19 and 20, occurred a severe engagement, in which the federals were worsted and fell back to Chattanooga, where they were besieged by Bragg. (See Chickamauga, Battle of.) On Oct. 23 Gen. Grant arrived and took command. Reinforcements under Hooker had previously arrived from the east, and others from the west under Sherman came subsequently. A series of movements was at once initiated, which after much hard fighting resulted in driving Bragg from Chattanooga (Nov. 25) and forcing him to retreat into Georgia. (See Chattanooga.) Gen. Burnside, after being relieved from command on the Rappahannock, had been assigned to the command of the department of the Ohio, and having organized a force of about 20,000 men at Camp Nelson near Richmond, Ky., began on Aug. 16 an advance on Knoxville, which was occupied on Sept. 1. East Tennessee, where the army was enthusiastically received by the population, was thus restored to the control of the Union with little opposition, the greater part of the confederate forces having been withdrawn to aid Bragg at Chickamauga. On Nov. 17 Longstreet, with forces drawn from Bragg, began a siege of Knoxville, which continued till the beginning of December, when, upon the approach of Sherman to the relief of the city, the confederates retreated into Virginia. A confederate cavalry force under Gen. Morgan, starting on June 27 from Sparta, Tenn., had made a raid, which created great excitement, through Kentucky and S. Indiana into Ohio, where before the end of July they were nearly all captured or destroyed. On Aug. 10 Gen. Steele set out from Helena, Ark., with 12,000 men and 40 guns, for the capture of Little Rock, and, advancing against some opposition, occupied that city on Sept. 10. Other operations in Arkansas and Missouri during the year were of minor importance. On April 6 an attack was made on Charleston by a fleet of ironclads under Com. Du Pont, which was repelled by the fire of Fort Sumter. On July 10 a force was landed by Gen. Gillmore, then in command in South Carolina, on Morris island at the entrance of Charleston harbor, and on the following day an ineffectual attack was made on Fort Wagner, a strong earthwork at its N. end. On the 18th an assault was made in force, which was repulsed with a loss of 1,500 men. The fort was then besieged by regular approaches, and was abandoned on Sept. 7. It was afterward, with other batteries on the island, turned against Charleston, which was nearly destroyed by the bombardment. On the night of Sept. 8 an attempt to carry Fort Sumter by assault was made by a flotilla of boats from Admiral Dahlgren's fleet, which was repulsed with a loss of about 80 killed and wounded and 120 prisoners. The principal occurrence in North Carolina during 1863 was the ineffective siege of the town of Washington in the early part of April by a confederate force under Gen. D. H. Hill. An effort in February, 1864, to restore Florida to the Union by an expedition from Hilton Head, under Gen. Seymour, resulted disastrously. Landing at Jacksonville, he advanced west, and at Olustee on the 20th encountered a confederate force under Gen. Finnegan and was compelled to retreat to Jacksonville. Of about 5,000 men engaged, Seymour lost about 1,500 in killed and wounded; the confederate loss was less than 1,000. On April 20 Plymouth, N. C., was compelled to surrender to a confederate force under Gen. Hoke (see Plymouth), and as a consequence Washington was evacuated by the federals eight days later. On May 5 the confederate ironclad Albemarle, which had taken part in the attack on Plymouth, came out of the Roanoke river and was engaged by the gunboat Sassacus. Having received considerable injury, the Albemarle retreated up the river, and on Oct. 27 was sunk by a torpedo under the direction of Lieut. Cushing. On Oct. 31 Plymouth was retaken by the federal fleet. West of the Mississippi, the most important movement in 1864 was Banks's disastrous Red river campaign in the early spring. (See Louisiana, vol. x., p. 678, and Red River, vol. xiv., p. 237.) In Arkansas Gen. Steele moved S. from Little Rock, March 23-24, with 7,000 men, for the purpose of coöperating with Banks, and advanced as far as Camden on the Washita river, when, receiving news of the failure of Banks, he began a retreat on April 27, reaching Little Rock May 2. During this movement Steele had been repeatedly annoyed by the confederates, the most important engagements being at Marks's mill on April 25, when a detachment of three regiments was captured after a stout resistance by a superior force under the confederate Gen. Fagan, and at Jenkins's ferry on the Saline river, April 30, when a powerful attack by Kirby Smith was repulsed with great loss. In September and October Gen. Price with a considerable force made a raid through Missouri. Entering the state at the S. E. corner from Arkansas, he passed N. W. through the centre past Jefferson City to Lexington and Independence, whence he was driven south, escaping into W. Arkansas with a loss of 10 guns, much material, and nearly 2,000 prisoners. On April 12 Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi about 40 m. above Memphis, garrisoned by about 650 men, of whom half were colored, was taken by assault by the confederates under Gen. Forrest, and many of the garrison as well as non-combatants were killed after the capture. Gen. Sturgis with 12,000 men, being sent after Forrest, who was retreating, came up with and was routed by him at Guntown in N. Mississippi on June 10. Sturgis lost 3,000 or 4,000 men, mainly prisoners, and retreated to Memphis, pursued by Forrest. Another force of 12,000 men under Gen. A. J. Smith was then sent against Forrest, by which he was defeated with great loss at Tupelo, Miss., on July 14. In August Forts Gaines and Morgan, commanding the entrance to Mobile bay, were reduced by a fleet under Admiral Farragut, aided by a land force under Gen. Granger, and the confederate fleet there was destroyed. (See Mobile.)—Early in March, 1864, Gen. Grant was appointed lieutenant general and invested with the chief command of the Union armies, Gen. Halleck being relieved and assigned to duty in Washington as chief of staff to the army. Gen. Grant announced that his headquarters would be with the army of the Potomac in the field. On May 4 he began to cross the Rapidan and advance into the “Wilderness,” a region on the S. bank of that stream in Orange and Spottsylvania counties. Here (May 5 and 6) and at Spottsylvania Court House near by (May 8-21) followed a series of sanguinary engagements. (See Wilderness, Battles of the.) Grant then advanced by a series of flank movements to the Chickahominy, where on June 3 occurred the second battle of Cold Harbor, in which the federal assault on the confederate position was repulsed with great loss. (See Chickahominy, vol. iv., p. 416.) On the 12th, having determined to attack Richmond from the south, he began to move, crossing the Chickahominy below Lee's position, and effecting the passage of the James June 14-15. Lee thereupon retired within the intrenchments covering Richmond. On the 15th and 16th a part of the Union forces unsuccessfully assailed Petersburg, and on the 19th Grant began a regular siege. On July 30, a mine having been exploded, another attack was made, which was repulsed with loss. The siege of Petersburg and Richmond continued till April 3, 1865, when, after Lee's defeat at Five Forks (March 31, April 1), those places were occupied by the federals, having been evacuated by Lee during the preceding night. Grant vigorously pursued the retreating army, and at Appomattox Court House on the 9th compelled Lee to surrender the remnant of his forces, about 27,000 in all, an event which virtually terminated the war. (See Petersburg, Siege of.) Simultaneously with Grant's advance on Richmond, Gen. Sigel moved up the Shenandoah valley, and Gen. Crook from Charleston, W. Va., up the Kanawha valley. On May 15, 1864, Sigel was routed at Newmarket by Gen. Breckinridge, losing 700 men, 6 guns, and 1,000 small arms. Gen. Hunter, having superseded Sigel and having been somewhat strengthened, resumed the offensive. He was opposed by Gen. Jones, Breckinridge having been withdrawn to Richmond. The two armies met at Piedmont, near Staunton, June 5, when Jones was routed, losing 1,500 prisoners, 3 guns, and 3,000 small arms. Hunter advanced to Staunton, where he was joined by Crook, and advanced thence via Lexington on Lynchburg. Gen. Early being sent to the relief of this city from Richmond, Hunter retreated into West Virginia. Early then moved north, and on July 2-3 appeared on the Potomac. Crossing into Maryland, he threatened Washington and Baltimore, being stoutly but ineffectually opposed on the 9th by an inferior force under Gen. Wallace on the Monocacy river near Frederick, Wallace losing nearly 2,000 men in killed, wounded, and missing. Washington was saved by the timely arrival of troops ordered there by Gen. Grant. Early recrossed into Virginia, and on the 24th routed Gen. Crook near Winchester, inflicting a loss of 1,200. He then sent a body of cavalry on a raid into Pennsylvania, which burned Chambersburg, July 30. On Aug. 7 Gen. Sheridan was placed in command of the federal forces to operate in the Shenandoah valley. His force was soon raised to 30,000, Early opposing him with about 20,000. He defeated Early on Opequan creek near Winchester (Sept. 19), at Fisher's Hill 8 m. S. (Sept. 22), and on Cedar creek near by (Oct. 19), virtually clearing the valley of confederate troops. In the battle of Opequan creek he lost 3,000 men, and captured the same number of prisoners and 5 guns; in that of Fisher's Hill he took 1,100 prisoners and 16 guns. In the battle of Cedar creek Early surprised the Union camp at dawn in the absence of Gen. Sheridan, driving back the troops in confusion and capturing the camp and defences, 24 guns, and 1,200 prisoners. Sheridan, then at Winchester, being aroused by the firing, hurried to the front, and having reorganized his troops, retook the camp and guns in the afternoon, recovering many of the prisoners taken in the morning, and taking from the enemy 1,500 prisoners, 23 guns, and 1,500 small arms, besides equipments.—When Gen. Grant assumed the chief command, Gen. W. T. Sherman was placed in command of the division of the Mississippi, comprising the departments of the Ohio, the Cumberland, the Tennessee, and the Arkansas, and was to move against Atlanta, Ga., simultaneously with Grant's advance on Richmond. His forces for the campaign were encamped around Chattanooga, and consisted of a little less than 100,000 men, with about 250 guns, comprising the army of the Cumberland, Gen. Thomas; the army of the Tennessee, Gen. McPherson; and the army of the Ohio, Gen. Schofield. He was opposed by Gen. J. E. Johnston, with about 50,000 men, encamped at Dalton, Ga., organized in three corps under Hardee, Hood, and Polk. Sherman started on May 5, and gradually forced Johnston back, compelling him after much severe fighting to cross the Chattahoochee on July 10 and seek the intrenchments covering Atlanta. Here he was superseded by Hood, who made several attacks on Sherman, which were repulsed with great loss, and was compelled to abandon Atlanta on Sept. 1. (See Atlanta, and Sherman, William Tecumseh.) Having removed the inhabitants from the city and burned everything except the dwellings and churches, Gen. Sherman started near the middle of November for the coast, with about 60,000 men. Marching through the heart of Georgia without opposition, he reached the vicinity of Savannah. On Dec. 13 Fort McAllister on the Ogeechee river, in the rear of Savannah, was carried by assault by Gen. Hazen, and communication was then opened with the fleet. On the 21st Savannah was occupied, having been abandoned by its garrison during the preceding night. Sherman left Gen. Thomas in command in Tennessee. Hood, after abandoning Atlanta, had operated for a time upon Sherman's line of communication, and then moved into N. Alabama, whence, upon learning that Sherman had started for the coast, he advanced into Tennessee with about 55,000 men, and began to move on Nashville. On Nov. 30 he was opposed at Franklin by Gen. Schofield, who repelled repeated assaults, enabling the federal trains to cross the Harpeth river and reach Nashville. The federal loss was 189 killed, 1,033 wounded, and 1,104 missing; the confederate loss was reported by Thomas at 1,750 killed, 3,800 wounded, and 702 prisoners, while Hood admitted a total loss of 4,500. A little after midnight Schofield withdrew, and the next day reached Nashville. Hood established his lines S. of Nashville, and was attacked by Thomas on Dec. 15 and 16, and completely routed. He retreated with difficulty into Alabama, having suffered immense losses in disabled and prisoners. (See Nashville.) An attempt in December, by a fleet under Admiral Porter and a land force under Gen. Butler, to reduce Fort Fisher at the mouth of Cape Fear river, commanding the approach to Wilmington, N. C., failed; but on Jan. 15, 1865, it was carried by assault under Gen. Terry, aided by the fleet. During the following night the confederate works on the opposite side of the river were abandoned and blown up. The federal forces, reënforced by troops under Gen. Schofield, occupied Wilmington on Feb. 22, the confederates under Gen. Hoke retreating. On Feb. 1 Gen. Sherman started from Savannah on a northward movement through the Carolinas, and reached Columbia on the 17th. Gen. Hardee, being thus taken in the rear, evacuated Charleston, which was occupied by a detachment of Gen. Gillmore's forces on the 18th, and the same day the United States flag was raised over Fort Sumter. Sherman continuing his march reached Fayetteville, N. C., on March 12. On the 19th the left wing under Slocum encountered the confederate army under Gen. Johnston at Bentonville, repelled several assaults, and on the 21st, being reënforced, compelled it to retreat to Smithfield, covering Raleigh. Sherman then occupied Goldsboro, whence he advanced on April 10. Johnston retreated to and through Raleigh, and on April 26 surrendered his entire army, then reduced to about 81,000 men. In the mean time a cavalry force under Gen. Wilson had swept through Alabama from the north, and passed into Georgia, doing immense injury to the confederate resources. He occupied Selma on April 2, Montgomery on the 12th, and Columbus, Ga., on the 16th. At Selma he took 32 guns and 2,700 prisoners, and at Columbus 52 guns and 1,200 prisoners, and in both places destroyed numerous factories and a vast amount of stores. Toward the end of March operations were begun for the reduction of Mobile by Gen. Canby, with a force from New Orleans aided by a fleet under Admiral Thatcher. Spanish Fort and Blakely, commanding the city from the east, were taken on April 9, and Mobile was occupied on the 12th, Gen. Maury with 9,000 men fleeing up the Alabama river. (See Mobile.) On May 4 Gen. Taylor surrendered the confederate forces in Alabama to Gen. Canby. The last fight of the war occurred, May 13, on the Rio Grande in Texas, between Col. Barrett (federal) and Gen. Slaughter (confederate), the latter being victorious. The trans-Mississippi army of the confederates, the last in the field, was surrendered by Kirby Smith on May 26. Measures were immediately taken to disband the federal armies, and in a few months the greater part of the soldiers had returned to civil life.—The strength of the national armies at different periods was as follows: July 1, 1861, 186,751; Jan. 1, 1862, 575,917; Jan. 1, 1863, 918,191; Jan. 1, 1864, 860,737; Jan. 1, 1865, 959,460; May 1, 1865, 1,000,516. At the last date the number of men enrolled as subject to military duty, but not called out, was 2,254,063. The whole number of men called for by the government was 2,759,049; number furnished, 2,666,999 (equivalent to 2,135,000 for three years), of whom 186,097 were colored. This does not correctly represent the number of different persons under arms, as it includes reënlistments. A considerable number of men called out for short periods upon emergencies are not included. The total includes some who enlisted in the navy. Only a small number were obtained by the drafts, the result being as follows: held to personal service, 46,347; furnished substitutes, 73,607; paid commutation, 86,724; total, 206,678, to which should be added 87,588 credited to the states under the draft of 1862. The amount of commutation money received by the government was $26,866,316 78. The number of men who received the United States bounty ($100 to $400 each) was 1,722,690; amount paid,$300,223,500. The amount of bounties paid by states and local authorities, so far as returned, was $285,941,086. The casualties in the army numbered 280,739, viz.: 5,221 officers and 90,868 men killed in action or died of wounds, and 2,321 officers and 182,329 men died from disease or accident. These numbers do not include deaths after leaving the army from wounds or disease contracted in the service. The above statistics are compiled from the report of the provost marshal general (“Message and Documents, War Department, 1865-'6”).—During the war confederate cruisers, mostly built and fitted out in British ports, scoured the ocean. Evading vessels of war, they destroyed hundreds of merchantmen, doing irreparable injury to the commerce of the Union. The chief of these were the Alabama, Chickamauga, Florida, Georgia, Olustee, Shenandoah, Sumter, and Tallahassee. The Alabama, the most famous, commanded by Raphael Semmes, was sunk off Cherbourg, France, June 19, 1864, by the United States steamer Kearsarge, commanded by Capt. Winslow. A presidential proclamation of June 23, 1865, removed the blockade of all the ports in the southern states, and another of Aug. 29 annulled all restrictions upon trade with them. On April 2, 1866, the insurrection was proclaimed at an end in all the states except Texas, and there on Aug. 20. After the fall of Richmond President Davis of the confederacy fled south, and was captured at Irwinville, Ga., by Gen. Wilson's forces, May 10, 1865. He and some other prominent leaders were imprisoned for a time, but no man was punished for participation in the rebellion. On May 29, 1865, the president issued an amnesty proclamation, excepting 14 classes of those most prominent in the rebellion. This was followed by others on Sept. 7, 1867, July 4, 1868, and Dec. 25, 1868, the last making the amnesty universal.—A peculiar feature of the war was the voluntary organizations of citizens to promote the moral and physical welfare of the soldiers. The chief of these were the United States sanitary commission, the United States Christian commission, and the Western sanitary commission, organized in 1861. The sanitary commissions were designed to coöperate with the medical bureau of the war department, and performed valuable services in the prevention of disease, in supplying food, clothing, and hospital stores, in the relief of prisoners, and in other ways. They had branches throughout the north, and received large contributions in money and supplies. The Christian commission was composed of representatives of the young men's Christian associations, and performed services similar to those of the sanitary commissions, together with others of a more strictly religious character. Toward and after the close of the war various societies were organized for the relief of Union refugees from the south, the care of the freedmen, and the restoration of industry and education in the region devastated by war. By the act of March 3, 1865, the bureau of refugees, freedmen, and abandoned lands was created in the war department. (See Freedmen.) The question of emancipation early attracted the attention of the president and congress. On April 16, 1862, an act was passed abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia, and on June 9 another act declared that slavery should not thereafter exist in the territories. The act of July 17 declared that all slaves of persons who should thereafter be engaged in rebellion, escaping and taking refuge within the lines of the army, all slaves of such persons captured, or deserted and coming under the control of the United States, and all slaves of such persons found in any place occupied by rebel forces and afterward occupied by the federal forces, should be free. The same act authorized the president to receive into the military and naval service persons of African descent. On Jan. 1, 1863, the president issued a proclamation, in pursuance of a warning contained in a proclamation of Sept. 22, 1862, declaring free all persons held as slaves within the states or portions of states then in rebellion. (See Slavery.) On April 8, 1864, a joint resolution amending the federal constitution, by declaring that slavery shall not exist within the United States or any place subject to their control, passed the senate by a vote of 38 to 6, and on Jan. 31, 1865, it was approved by the house of representatives by a vote of 119 to 56. This, known as the thirteenth amendment, the secretary of state on Dec. 18, 1865, proclaimed ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the states, and consequently valid to all intents and purposes as a part of the constitution. The first step toward the reconstruction of loyal governments in the seceded states was the proclamation of President Lincoln of Dec. 8, 1863. This promised full pardon, with restoration of rights of property, except as to slaves, to all persons (with some exceptions) who had participated in the rebellion, upon condition that they should take and maintain an oath to support and defend the constitution of the United States and the union of the states thereunder, and to abide by all acts of congress and proclamations of the president having reference to slaves. It also provided that when in any of the seceded states persons, not less in number than one tenth of the votes cast at the presidential election of 1860 in that state, who had taken and not violated the oath and were qualified voters by law of the state in force immediately before secession, should reëstablish a republican government in no wise contravening the oath, such government should be recognized as the true government of the state. Under this scheme governments were organized in Louisiana and Arkansas in the early part of 1864, and in Tennessee early in 1865, but senators and representatives from those states were not admitted to congress. After the close of the war President Johnson recognized these governments, and also recognized Francis H. Pierpont as governor of Virginia, who after the admission of West Virginia had exercised jurisdiction in a few counties adjacent to Washington. On May 29, 1865, President Johnson appointed a provisional governor of North Carolina, and in June and July similar officers were appointed for Mississippi, Georgia, Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and Florida. It was made the duty of the provisional governor in each state to call a convention, the delegates to which were to be elected by those who were qualified voters by the laws in force in the respective states immediately previous to secession, and who had taken the oath prescribed by the amnesty proclamation of the same date, similar to that of Lincoln's, for the purpose of restoring these states to their constitutional relations to the federal government. Conventions were accordingly held during the year in all these states except Texas, where a convention met in 1866. Ordinances were passed abolishing slavery, declaring the debt incurred in aid of the confederacy void, and repealing the ordinances of secession. State officers and congressmen were elected, and the legislatures ratified the thirteenth amendment. But congress did not approve this scheme of reconstruction, and senators and representatives from those states were not admitted. On April 9, 1866, the “civil rights bill” was passed by congress over the president's veto; it enacted “that all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States; and such citizens of every race and color, without regard to any previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall have the same right in every state and territory in the United States to make and enforce contracts; to sue, be parties, and give evidence; to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real estate and personal property; and to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, and penalties, and to none other; any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom to the contrary notwithstanding.” The United States courts were given jurisdiction of offences against this act. On June 8 a joint resolution passed the senate by a vote of 33 to 11, and on the 13th was approved by the house by a vote of 138 to 36, proposing an amendment to the constitution, which is known as the fourteenth amendment. It provides that “all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside,” and that “no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States;” that when the right of suffrage in any state “is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 21 years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 21 years of age in such state;” that “the validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned;” and that “neither the United States, nor any state, shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave.” It also incapacitates from holding office certain classes of persons who shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof; but congress may by a vote of two thirds of each house remove such disability. Under this power the disabilities have been removed from great numbers by special acts, and by the act of May 22, 1872, from all “except senators and representatives of the 36th and 37th congresses, officers in the judicial, military, and naval service of the United States, heads of departments, and foreign ministers of the United States,” who joined the confederate cause. In July, 1866, senators and representatives were admitted from Tennessee, that state having ratified the fourteenth amendment. On Jan. 8, 1867, an act was passed over President Johnson's veto conferring the right of suffrage on colored citizens of the District of Columbia, and on the 24th a similar act became a law for the territories. The congressional plan of reconstruction was developed in the act of March 2 and the supplementary acts of March 23 and July 19, each of which was passed over the president's veto. These acts declared that “no legal state governments or adequate protection for life or property now exist in the rebel states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida, Texas, and Arkansas,” and divided them into five military districts. It was made the duty of the president to assign to the command of each of these districts an officer of the army not below the rank of brigadier general, and to detail a sufficient military force to enable each officer to enforce his authority. The district commanders were required to make a registration of voters, comprising male citizens of the United States 21 years old and upward, without regard to race, color, or previous condition, who had resided in the respective states one year and were not excluded from holding office by the fourteenth amendment. Upon registration voters were required to take and subscribe an oath, declaring among other things that they had not been disfranchised for participation in any rebellion or civil war against the United States; that they had never been members of any state legislature, nor held any executive or judicial office in any state, nor taken an oath in an official capacity to support the constitution of the United States, and afterward engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof; and engaging faithfully to support the constitution and obey the laws of the United States, and to encourage others to do so. Delegates were to be elected in the several states by the registered voters to conventions for framing new constitutions. Only when constitutions had been adopted conferring the right of suffrage on colored persons, and such constitutions had been approved by congress, and when the fourteenth amendment had been ratified by the legislatures of the respective states, were senators and representatives to be admitted. The conditions of these acts were complied with in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina in 1868, and in Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia in 1870. But in Georgia the subsequent action of the legislature in excluding colored members led to further measures on the part of congress, and delayed the final restoration of that state until 1870. The adoption of the fourteenth amendment was proclaimed on July 28, 1868. On Feb. 25, 1869, a joint resolution proposing an amendment to the constitution, known as the fifteenth amendment, passed the house of representatives by a vote of 144 to 44, and on the following day was approved by the senate by a vote of 39 to 13. Its adoption was proclaimed on March 30, 1870. The amendment is as follows: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”—The second election of Lincoln had taken place before the close of the war, and just previous to the election Nevada had been admitted into the Union. The national republican convention assembled at Baltimore on June 7, 1864, and nominated President Lincoln for reëlection, and for vice president Andrew Johnson of Tennessee. The platform adopted contained the following resolutions: “That it is the highest duty of every American citizen to maintain against all their enemies the integrity of the Union, and the paramount authority of the constitution and laws of the United States; and that, laying aside all differences of political opinion, we pledge ourselves as Union men, animated by a common sentiment, and aiming at a common object, to do everything in our power to aid the government in quelling by force of arms the rebellion now raging against its authority, and in bringing to the punishment due to their crimes the rebels and traitors arrayed against it. That, as slavery was the cause, and now constitutes the strength of the rebellion, and as it must be, always and everywhere, hostile to the principles of republican government, justice and the national safety demand its utter and complete extirpation from the soil of the republic; and that, while we uphold and maintain the acts and proclamations by which the government in its own defence has aimed a death blow at this gigantic evil, we are in favor furthermore of such an amendment to the constitution, to be made by the people in conformity with its provisions, as shall terminate and for ever prohibit the existence of slavery within the limits or the jurisdiction of the United States.” The national democratic convention assembled at Chicago on Aug. 29, and nominated Gen. George B. McClellan for president, and for vice president George H. Pendleton of Ohio. The platform declared adherence to the Union under the constitution, and contained the following resolution: “That this convention does explicitly declare, as the sense of the American people, that after four years of failure to restore the Union by the experiment of war, during which, under the pretence of a military necessity, or war power higher than the constitution, the constitution itself has been disregarded in every part, and public liberty and private right alike trodden down and the material prosperity of the country essentially impaired, justice, humanity, liberty, and the public welfare demand that immediate efforts be made for a cessation of hostilities, with a view to an ultimate convention of the states, or other peaceable means, to the end that at the earliest practicable moment peace may be restored on the basis of the federal union of the states.” The election took place on Nov. 8, the eleven seceded states not participating. McClellan and Pendleton received the electoral votes of New Jersey, Delaware, and Kentucky, 21; Lincoln and Johnson received those of all the other states, 212, and were elected. The popular vote was 2,213,665 for Lincoln, and 1,802,237 for McClellan. On March 4, 1865, Lincoln's second inauguration took place. On April 14 he was assassinated (see Lincoln, Abraham), and on the following day Vice President Johnson entered upon the duties of the presidency. In July, 1866, Postmaster General Dennison, Attorney General Speed, and Secretary of the Interior Harlan resigned, and were succeeded by Alexander W. Randall of Wisconsin, Henry Stanbery of Ohio, and Orville H. Browning of Illinois. The difference between the president and congress on the question of reconstruction led to his separation from the republican party, and to the passage on March 2, 1867, over his veto, of the “tenure of office” act, which took from the president the power to remove without the consent of the senate such civil officers as are appointed by the president with the consent of the senate. In August, 1867, Gen. Grant was appointed secretary of war ad interim in place of Mr. Stanton, suspended. When congress assembled in December, the president sent to the senate his reasons for the suspension, which that body did not approve; and thereupon in January, 1868, Gen. Grant surrendered the office to Mr. Stanton. On Feb. 21 the president issued an order removing Mr. Stanton from office and designating Gen. Lorenzo Thomas secretary of war ad interim; but as the senate had passed a resolution that the president did not possess the power of removal, Mr. Stanton refused to surrender the office. On the 24th a resolution for the impeachment of President Johnson was adopted by the house of representatives, and articles were subsequently drawn up charging him with high misdemeanors in office in the removal of Stanton and appointment of Thomas, and in attempting to bring congress into contempt and reproach. He was tried before the senate and acquitted in May, there being a majority against him, but not the necessary two-thirds vote. (See Johnson, Andrew.) Secretary Stanton thereupon resigned, and was succeeded by Gen. John M. Schofield. In July Mr. Stanbery was succeeded by William M. Evarts of New York as attorney general. One new state, Nebraska, was admitted during Mr. Johnson's administration, in February, 1867; and in the same year Alaska was purchased of Russia. On Feb. 22, 1868, a naturalization treaty was concluded with the North German confederation. The national republican convention assembled at Chicago on May 21, 1868, and nominated Gen. Ulysses S. Grant for president, and for vice president Schuyler Colfax of Indiana. The platform congratulated the country on the success of the reconstruction policy of congress; denounced all forms of repudiation as a national crime; declared that “the national honor requires the payment of the public indebtedness in the uttermost good faith to all creditors at home and abroad, not only according to the letter, but the spirit of the laws under which it was contracted;” and that “the guaranty by congress of equal suffrage to all loyal men at the south was demanded by every consideration of public safety, of gratitude, and of justice, and must be maintained; while the question of suffrage in all the loyal states properly belongs to the people of those states.” The national democratic convention assembled at New York on July 4, and nominated Horatio Seymour of New York for president and Francis P. Blair, jr., of Missouri, for vice president. The platform recognized the settlement of the questions of slavery and secession by the war or the voluntary action of the southern states; demanded the “immediate restoration of all the states to their rights in the Union under the constitution,” “amnesty for all political offences and the regulation of the elective franchise in the states by their citizens,” and “the abolition of the freedmen's bureau and all political instrumentalities designed to secure negro supremacy;” denounced the reconstruction acts of congress “as usurpations and unconstitutional, revolutionary, and void;” arraigned the republican party because, “instead of restoring the Union, it has, so far as in its power, dissolved it, and subjected ten states, in time of profound peace, to military despotism and negro supremacy;” and declared that “where the obligations of the government do not expressly state upon their face, or the law under which they were issued does not provide, that they shall be paid in coin, they ought, in right and in justice, to be paid in the lawful money of the United States.” The election took place on Nov. 3, Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas not voting. Seymour and Blair received the electoral votes of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Georgia, Louisiana, Kentucky, and Oregon, 80; Grant and Colfax received those of all the other states, 214, and were elected. The total popular vote was 5,716,788, of which 3,013,188 were for the Grant electors and 2,703,600 for the Seymour electors. This was the first presidential election in which any considerable number of colored voters participated. (See Grant, Ulysses S.) In 1872 President Grant was reëlected. On May 1 of that year a convention assembled at Cincinnati, composed of persons previously in sympathy with the republican party, but now dissatisfied with the administration of President Grant and opposed to his reëlection. They styled themselves “liberal republicans.” By this convention Horace Greeley of New York was nominated for president, and Benjamin Gratz Brown of Missouri for vice president. The platform opposed any reopening of the questions settled by the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments of the constitution, and the candidacy of any president for reëlection; demanded the immediate and absolute removal of all disabilities imposed on account of the rebellion, a thorough reform of the civil service as one of the most pressing necessities of the hour, and a speedy return to specie payments; denounced repudiation in every form and guise; and declared that “local self-government, with impartial suffrage, will guard the rights of all citizens more securely than any centralized power.” The national republican convention assembled at Philadelphia on June 6, and nominated President Grant for reëlection, and for vice president Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. The platform, appealing to the history of the party, recited that it had suppressed a gigantic rebellion, emancipated 4,000,000 slaves, decreed the equal citizenship of all, established universal suffrage, and, with unparalleled magnanimity, had punished no man for political offences; approved the action of congress in extending amnesty to those lately in rebellion; favored reform in the civil service; denounced repudiation of the public debt, in any form or disguise, as a national crime; announced a confident expectation of a speedy resumption of specie payment; declared that “the recent amendments to the national constitution should be cordially sustained because they are right, not merely tolerated because they are law, and should be carried out according to their spirit by appropriate legislation, the enforcement of which can safely be intrusted only to the party that secured those amendments;” that “neither the law nor its administration should admit any discrimination in respect of citizens by reason of race, creed, color, or previous condition of servitude;” and that “congress and the president have only fulfilled an imperative duty in their measures for the suppression of violent and treasonable organizations in certain lately rebellious regions, and for the protection of the ballot box.” The national democratic convention assembled at Baltimore on July 9, and nominated the same candidates and adopted the same platform as the Cincinnati convention. On Sept. 8 a convention of “straight-out democrats, opposed to the Baltimore nominations and platform, assembled at Louisville, Ky., and nominated Charles O'Conor of New York for president and John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts for vice president. Conventions were also held and nominations made by the “labor reform” and “temperance” parties. The candidates of the former declined, and no ticket was put in the field; the candidates of the latter were, for president James Black of Pennsylvania, for vice president John Russell of Michigan. The election, which took place on Nov. 5, resulted in the choice of Grant and Wilson, who each received 286 electoral votes. Greeley having died prior to the choice of president by the electors, the 66 votes of the opposition were given to various persons. Grant and Wilson received a majority of the popular vote in all the states except Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas, which voted for Greeley and Brown, and Louisiana, where the result was in dispute, two returns being made, one in favor of either party, both claimed to be legal and correct. No electoral votes were counted from Louisiana, nor from Arkansas (owing to certain irregularities), those states together being entitled to 14 votes. The popular vote, excluding Louisiana, which cast about 125,000 votes, was 6,337,662, of which 3,525,469 were for Grant, 2,777,096 for Greeley, 29,489 for O'Conor, and 5,608 for Black. The inauguration took place on March 4, 1873, and the cabinet was constituted as follows, the only change being in the secretary of the treasury: Hamilton Fish, secretary of state; William M. Richardson of Massachusetts, of the treasury; William W. Belknap, of war; George M. Robeson, of the navy; Columbus Delano, of the interior; George H. Williams, attorney general; and John A. J. Oreswell, postmaster general. In 1874 Mr. Richardson was succeeded by Benjamin H. Bristow of Kentucky, and Mr. Oreswell by Marshall Jewell of Connecticut; in 1875 Mr. Delano was succeeded by Zachariah Chandler of Michigan and Mr. Williams by Edwards Pierrepont of New York; and in 1876 Mr. Belknap was succeeded by Alphonso Taft of Ohio. In 1869 the Central and Union Pacific railroads were completed, opening a highway between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. One of the most prominent events of Grant's administration is the settlement of outstanding disputes with Great Britain, of which the principal related to the charge that the British government had failed in its duties as a neutral in allowing the construction and fitting out of confederate cruisers in British ports. The claims for damages on this account are known as the “Alabama claims.” After protracted correspondence it was agreed to appoint a joint high commission to negotiate a treaty. The commissioners on the part of the United States were Hamilton Fish, secretary of state; Samuel Nelson, associate justice of the supreme court; Robert O. Schenck, then minister to England; E. R. Hoar, late attorney general; and George H. Williams, then United States senator. Those on the part of Great Britain were Earl de Grey (now marquis of Ripon), Baron Grantham, Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, Sir Edward Thornton, Sir John Alexander Macdonald, and Montague Bernard. The commissioners assembled in Washington, Feb. 27, 1871, and on May 8 signed the treaty of Washington, the ratifications of which were exchanged at London on June 17. The treaty provided for the settlement of the Alabama claims by a tribunal of arbitration to meet at Geneva, Switzerland, and to be composed of five arbitrators, appointed one each by the president, the queen, the king of Italy, the president of the Swiss confederation, and the emperor of Brazil. Other claims of American citizens against the British government and of British subjects against the United States arising out of acts committed between April 13, 1861, and April 9, 1865, were to be referred to three commissioners, appointed, one by the president, one by the queen, and one by the two jointly, to meet in Washington. The conflicting claims of the two nations, growing out of the treaty of June 15, 1846, to San Juan and other islands between Washington territory and Vancouver island, were referred to the arbitration of the emperor of Germany. The treaty also contained certain stipulations respecting the navigation of rivers, lakes, and canals adjacent to the United States and Canada, and respecting the transit of goods through those countries, and provisions respecting the coast fisheries. (See Fisheries, vol. vii., p. 231.) Three commissioners, to sit at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and to be appointed, one by the president, one by the queen, and one by the two jointly, were provided for the determination of the claim of Great Britain to compensation for the rights of fishery granted by her. The Geneva tribunal was composed of the following arbitrators: Charles Francis Adams, appointed by the United States; Sir Alexander J. E. Cockburn, by Great Britain; Count Paolo Federigo Sclopis de Salerano, by Italy; Jakob Staempfli, by Switzerland; and Marcos Antonio d'Araujo, baron (afterward viscount) d'Itajubá, by Brazil. The tribunal convened on Dec. 15, 1871, the United States being represented by J. C. Bancroft Davis as agent, and Caleb Cushing, William M. Evarts, and Morrison R. Waite as counsel. On Sept. 14, 1872, a decision was rendered that Great Britain had failed in her duties as a neutral in the cases of the Alabama, Florida, Shenandoah, and their tenders, and awarded to the United States the sum of$15,500,000 in gold. This sum was promptly paid by Great Britain, and a commission, appointed under an act of congress, is now (1876) in session in Washington determining the rights of individual claimants. The San Juan question was decided in favor of the United States by the German emperor on Oct. 21, 1872. (See San Juan.) (See “Papers relating to the Treaty of Washington,” published by the department of state, 5 vols., 1872.) The Washington commission was composed of James S. Frazer, appointed by the United States; Russell Gurney, by Great Britain; and Count Corti, Italian minister at Washington, by the two jointly. It assembled Sept. 26, 1871, and adjourned Sept. 25, 1873, after making an award against the United States of $1,929,819. The Halifax commission has not yet (1876) been organized. For a notice of the negotiations respecting the annexation of Santo Domingo (1869-'71), see Grant, Ulysses S., vol. viii., p. 160. Since the outbreak of the Cuban rebellion, the relations between Spain and the United States have frequently been disturbed. The capture of the steamer Virginius on the high seas under the United States flag on Oct. 31, 1873, by the Spanish man-of-war Tornado, for a time threatened war. The Virginius was taken to a Cuban port, and several of those on board were summarily shot on the charge of being connected with the insurrection. On Dec. 16 the steamer was given up to the United States, and two days after the survivors of those on board were surrendered. In the spring of 1876 Spain paid the United States$80,000 for the relief of the families of those executed. In 1868 a secret organization, known as the Ku-Klux Klan, made its appearance in the south, and numerous outrages were committed by its members on colored citizens and others who favored the congressional plan of reconstruction. On April 20, 1871, congress passed an act to enforce the provisions of the fourteenth amendment, by which cognizance of these offences was given to the United States courts, and several convictions were had under its provisions. On May 31, 1870, an act had been passed (amended Feb. 28, 1871) to enforce the provisions of the fifteenth amendment, the design of which was to protect colored citizens in their right to vote. An act of March 1, 1875, prohibited the denial of equal rights in inns, public conveyances, theatres, &c., to any one on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. On May 10, 1876, an exhibition of American and foreign arts, products, and manufactures was opened at Philadelphia, under the auspices of the government, in accordance with the act of congress of March 3, 1871. The undertaking has been carried on chiefly by private enterprise and state appropriations, but the act of congress of Feb. 16, 1876, appropriated $1,500,000. (See Philadelphia.)—The following is a list of the presidents and vice presidents of the United States:  PRESIDENTS. States of which citizens. Terms. George Washington Virginia April 30, 1789, to March 4, 1797. John Adams Massachusetts March 4, 1797, to March 4, 1801. Thomas Jefferson Virginia March 4, 1801, to March 4, 1809. James Madison Virginia March 4, 1809, to March 4, 1817. James Monroe Virginia March 4, 1817, to March 4, 1825. John Quincy Adams Massachusetts March 4, 1825, to March 4, 1829. Andrew Jackson Tennessee March 4, 1829, to March 4, 1837. Martin Van Buren New York March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1841. William Henry Harrison[18] Ohio March 4, 1841, to April 4, 1841. John Tyler Virginia April 4, 1841, to March 4, 1845. James Knox Polk Tennessee March 4, 1845, to March 4, 1849. Zachary Taylor[18] Louisiana March 4, 1849, to July 9, 1850. Millard Fillmore New York July 9, 1850, to March 4, 1853. Franklin Pierce New Hampshire March 4, 1853, to March 4, 1857. James Buchanan Pennsylvania March 4, 1857, to March 4, 1861. Abraham Lincoln[18] Illinois March 4, 1861, to April 15, 1865. Andrew Johnson Tennessee April 15, 1865, to March 4, 1869. Ulysses S. Grant Illinois March 4, 1869 (still In office). VICE PRESIDENTS. John Adams Massachusetts April 21, 1789, to March 4, 1797. Thomas Jefferson Virginia March 4, 1797, to March 4, 1801. Aaron Burr New York March 4, 1801, to March 4, 1805. George Clinton[18] New York March 4, 1805, to April 20, 1812. Elbridge Gerry[18] Massachusetts March 4, 1813, to Nov. 23, 1814. Daniel D. Tompkins New York March 4, 1817, to March 4, 1825. John Caldwell Calhoun[19] South Carolina March 4, 1825, to Dec. 28, 1832. Martin Van Buren New York March 4, 1833, to March 4, 1837. Richard Mentor Johnson Kentucky March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1841. John Tyler Virginia March 4, 1841, to April 4, 1841. George Mifflin Dallas Pennsylvania March 4, 1845, to March 4, 1849. Millard Fillmore New York March 4, 1849, to July 9, 1850. William Rufus King[18] Alabama March 4, 1858, to April 18, 1853. John Cabell Breckinridge Kentucky March 4. 1857, to March 4, 1861. Hannibal Hamlin Maine March 4, 1861, to March 4, 1865. Andrew Johnson Tennessee March 4, 1865, to April 15, 1865. Schuyler Colfax Indiana March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1873. Henry Wilson[18] Massachusetts March 4, 1873, to Nov. 22 1875. The chief justices have been as follows: John Jay of New York, Sept. 26, 1789, to June 29, 1795; John Rutledge of South Carolina, July 1, 1795, to Dec. 15, 1795 (appointed in the recess of the senate, presided at the August term, rejected by the senate); Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, March 4, 1796, to October, 1800; John Marshall of Virginia, Jan. 31, 1801, to July 6, 1835; Roger Brooke Taney of Maryland, March 15, 1836, to Oct. 12, 1864; Salmon Portland Chase of Ohio, Dec. 6, 1864, to May 7, 1873; and Morrison Remich Waite of Ohio, appointed Jan. 21, 1874. William Cushing of Massachusetts, appointed Jan. 27, 1796, and John Jay, reappointed Dec. 19, 1800, declined.  Engd. by O.J. Stuart, N.Y.⁠  Engd. by O.J. Stuart, N.Y.⁠ 1. The thirteen original states. 2. Date when congress assumed exclusive jurisdiction. 3. Date of cession by Russia. 4. 1874. 5. Annexed to Boston in 1874. 6. Including civilized Indians. 7. Total males. 8. Total females. 9. Gold. 10. Mixed values. 11. Partly old and partly new measurement. 12. New measurement. 13. New measurements from 1866. 14. Included in these sums are certificates of deposit amounting to$31,730,000 in 1873, $58,760,000 in 1874, and$58,415,000 in 1875. These certificates are offset by notes held on deposit for their redemption, and should he deducted from the principal of the public debt in comparing with previous years.
15. No interest-bearing notes, but demand notes only, are included with legal-tender notes from Aug. 31, 1865, to Jan. 1, 1870.
16. Including the Geneva award, $15,500,000. 17. The total amount of circulation outstanding on Oct. 1, 1875 (2,302 banks), was$347,900,082, which amount includes the notes in circulation of banks which have failed, are in liquidation, and have deposited legal-tender notes under the act of June 20, 1874.
18. Died in office.
19. Resigned.