WARBLERS. Family MNIOTILTID^E
Warblers, as si %niily may be classed as the most beautiful, interesting and useful birds that- we nave. With few exceptions, they only return from their winter quarters a^tlje trees shoot forth their leaves or flowers, they feed largely among the foliage upon small, and mostly injurious, insects. They are very active and always flitting from branch to branch, showing their handsome plumage to the beat advantage. Their songs are simple but effectively delivered and the nests are 6f a high order of architecture.
- - < -T^rammm
()3(). *' BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER. Mnio tilta varia.
Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding, from the Gulf States north to the Hudson Bay region; winters from our southern borders to South America.
This striped black and white
Warbler is usually seen creeping
about tree trunks and branches
after the manner of a Nuthatch.
They are very active gleaners
and of inestimable value to man.
They, nest on the ground in woods or swamps, making their nest of strips of bark and grass, placed among the leaves usually beside stones,, stumps or fallen trees. Their three to five eggs are white, finely specked and wreathed with reddish brown. Size .65 x. 50. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 3, 1889. Nest of strips of bark on the ground in an old decayed stump.
Black and White Warbler
THE BIRD BOOK
637- PROTHONOTARY WARBLER.. Prothonotaria citrea.
Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States, north in the interior to Iowa and Illinois.
This species is often known as the Golden Swamp Warbler because of the rich golden yellow of the head and underparts. They frequent and nest in the vicinity of swamps or ponds, nesting in the cavities of trees or stubs at low Creamy white elevations, filling the cavity with leaves, moss and grasses, neatly cupped to receive the four to seven eggs, which are creamy or pinkish white, profusely spotted with reddish brown and chestnut. Size .72 x .55. Data. Quincy, Mo., June 1, 1897. 5 eggs. Nest in hole of a dead stub 6 feet up, in timber some distance from water; made of moss and grasses, lined with hair.
638. SWAINSON'S WARBLER. Helinaia swainsoni.
Range. South Atlantic and Gull States, north to Virginia and Indiana, and west to eastern Texas; winters in Mexico and the West Indies.
This species is brownish above t and white below, with a whitish superciliary stripe. It has been found breeding most numerously in thickets and tangled underbush about swamps and pools in any locality. Their nests are either in bushes or attached to upright rushes over water after the manner of the Long-billed Marsh Wren, being made of leaves, moss, rootlets, etc., lined with fine grasses or hair, and deeply cupped for the reception of the three or four unmarked white or bluioh white eggs which are laid during May or June. Size .75 x .58. Data. Near Charlestown, S. C., May 12, 1888, 3 eggs. Nest in canes 4 feet from ground, made of strips of rushes, sweet gum and water oak leaves, lined with pine needles.
63Q, WORM-EATING WARBLER. Helmitheros vermivorus.
Range. United States east of the Plains, breeding north to southern New England and Illinois; winters south of our borders.
This bird can be identified in all plumages by the three light buff and two black stripes on the crown White
and narrower black stripes through the eye. Their habits are similar to those of the Oven-bird, they
feeding largely upon the ground amid dead leaves. They are quite abundant in most localities in their range, nesting in hollows on the ground in open woods or shrubbery on hill sides; the nest is made of leaves, grasses and rootlets, lined with hair or finer grasses, and is usually placed under the shelter of some small bush. They lay (in May, June or July) three to six eggs, white, marked or blotched either sparingly or heavily with chestnut or lavender. Size .70 x .52.
640. BACHMAN'S WARBLER. bachmani.
Range. Southeastern United States, along the Gulf coast to Louisiana and north to Virginia and Missouri.
This species is one of the rarest of the Warblers, but is now much more abundant than twenty years ago, when it had apparently disappeared. They are greenish above, and yellow below, and on the forehead and shoulder, and with black patches on the crown and breast. They have been found breeding in Missouri, nesting on the ground like others of this genus; the eggs are white wreathed about the large end and sparingly specked over the whole surface with reddish brown and chestnut. Size .65 x .50.
(iH. BLUE-WINGED WARBLER. Vermivora vinus.
Bachman's Warbler Lawrence's Warbler
Range. Eastern United States, breeding north to southern New England and in the Mississippi Valley to Minnesota; winters south of our borders.
This common species has the crown and underparts yellow, line through the eye black, and white wing bars and spots on outer tail feathers. They breed most abundantly in the northern half of their United States range, placing their nests on the ground in thickets or on the * f $. - , edge of woods; the nests are made of strips of bark, usually grapevine, and leases, and are usually high and deeply cupped, 1 they are almost always placed among the upright shoots of young bushes. The eggs are white, finely specked with reddish brown with great variations as to markings. Size .65 x .50. Data. Old Saybrook, Conn., June 1, 1900. 5 eggs. Nest composed chiefly of dry beech leaves and strips of cedar bark, lined with shreds of bark and fine grass; situated on the ground among a bunch of weeds in the woods.
THE BIRD BOOK
642. GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER. Vermivora chrysoptera.
Range. Eastern United States, breeding north to the southern parts of the British Provinces, winters south of the United States.
This is a very handsome species with black throat and ear patches, and yellow crown and wing bars, the upper parts being gray and the lower white. They ^tfHfe^. frequent low fields or hillsides where they nest among weeds or vines, making the nest of strips of bark, grasses and fibres, and locating it close to the ground in clumps of weeds, low bushes or briers. The three to five eggs are white with a very great diversity of markings, either heavily or minutely spotted or wreathed with chestnut and gray. Size .62 x .50.
fM-3. LUCY'S WARBLER. Vermivora lucice.
Range. Western Mexico, north commonly to Arizona and casually to southern Utah.
This small gray and white Warbler is especially distinguished by a chestnut rump and patch in center of the crown. Besides nesting in forks of low bushes, this species is said to place the domiciles in almost any crevice or nook that suits their fancy, such as loose bark on tree trunks, holes in trees, or other birds' nests. The eggs which are usually laid during May are white, sparingly specked and wreathed with reddish brown. Size .60 x .50.
6l'k VIRGINIA'S WARBLER. I-'ermivora Virginia.
Range. Western Mexico, north to Arizona and New Mexico, and also less commonly to Colorado.
This species is similar to the last but has the rump and a patch on the breast, yellow. They are found quite abundantly in some localities, usually on mountain ranges, nesting in hollows on the ground beside rocks, stumps or in crevices among the rocks; the nests are made of fine strips of bark and ^ffiH^. grasses, skillfully woven together, and the three to five eggs are pure white, specked arid wreathed with reddish brown. Size .62 x .50.
615. NASHVILLE WARBLER. Vermivora rubricapilla rubricapilla.
Range. North America east of the Plains, breeding from New York and Illinois north to Hudson Bay and Labrador; winters south of our borders.
This small species is yellow below and greenish above, with an ashy gray head and neck, enclosing a chestnut crown patch. Tiiey breed abundantly in New England, usually on side hills covered with White clumps of young pines, the nests
being placed flush with the surface of the ground and usually covered with overhanging grass; they are made of grasses and pine needles, the eggs are white, finely specked with bright reddish brown. Size .60 x .45. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 23, 1895. Nest of pine needles and grasses in hollow in the moss on a scrubby pine hillside.
()km. CALAVERAS WARBLER. Vermivora rubricapilla gutturalis.
Range. Western United States, breeding on ranges from California and Idaho north to British Columbia; winters in Mexico.
A slightly brighter colored form of the last species. Their habits are the same and the eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the eastern bird.
Vermiiora celata celata.
Nashville Warbler Orange-crowned Warbler
Range. North America, chiefly in the interior, breeding north of the States except in the Rockies south to Arizona and New Mexico; winters in the Gulf States and southward.
This plainly clad, greenish colored species has a concealed patch of orange brown on the crown. They have been found breeding about Hudson Bay and in the Mackenzie River district, placing their nests in hollows on the ground, usually on the side of banks or hills and concealed by small tufts of grass or bushes. The three or four eggs are white, speckled with reddish Size .64 x .45.
GiCa. LUTESCENT WARBLER. Vermivora celata lutescens.
Range. Pacific coast, breeding from California to Alaska; winters in Mexico.
Similar to the last but more yellowish below. They make their nests of leaves, rootlets, moss, etc., lined with hair, and placed on the ground, concealed by tufts of grass or by bushes. The eggs are like those of the last. Data. Danville, Gal., April 21, 1898. Nest on the ground on a side hill; among weeds in the shade of a large oak.
THE BIRD BOOK
646b. DUSKY WARBLER. dida.
Vermivora celata sor
Range. Santa Barbara Islands, off California. Said to be duller colored and darker than the others. The eggs cannot be distinguished.
647. TENNESSEE WARBLER. Vermivora peregrina.
Range. Eastern North America, breeding from the northern tier of states, northward; winters to northern South America.
This species has greenish upper parts, white lower parts and super- $ V '..-. ciliary line, and gray crown and ^/ N nape. They nest either on the '**". ground or at low elevations in bushes, making the structure of grasses and fibres, lined with hair; they are found on wild, tangled
mountain ranges. The eggs are pure white, sparingly specked with reddish brown. Size .62 x .45.
648. PARULA WARBLER. Compsothli/pis americana americana.
Range. Eastern United States, breeding in the southern half.
The upper parts of this handsome species are bluish gray with a greenish patch in the middle of the back; the throat and breast are yellow with a patch of black and chestnut. They are abundant birds in suitable localities, breeding in swamps, especially those with old or dead trees covered with hanging moss (usnea). The nests may be found at any height from the ground, and are usually made by turning and gathering up the ends of the hanging moss to form a pocket, which is lined with fine grass or hair. The four to six eggs are white or creamy white, wreathed with specks of reddish brown and chestnut. Size .64 x .44.
648a. NORTHERN PARULA WARBLER. Compsothlypis americana usnece.
Range. Northern half of eastern United States and southern Canada; winters from the Gulf States southward.
The nesting habits of the northern form of the Blue-yellow-backed Warbler are in all respects like those of the last, and like them, where moss grown swamps are not to be found, they have been known to construct nests of moss suspended from branches of trees, or to nest in bunches of dead leaves. Data. Oxford, Mass., June 7, 1895. Nest in a dead pine swamp; made in end of hanging moss about 6 feet from the ground. Large colony breeding.
SENNETT'S WARBLER. piti ayumi nigrilora.
Range. Eastern Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.
This species is similar to the Parula but is more extensively yellow below, and has black lores and ear coverts. Their habits are the same as those of the last and their nests are generally placed in hanging moss, and are also said to have been found hollowed out in the mistletoe which grows on many trees in southern Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the last.
650. CAPE MAY WARBLER. Dendroica tigrina.
> , Range. Eastern North America,
breeding from northern New England and Manitoba northward; winters south of the United States.
This beautiful Warbler is yellow below and on the rump, streaked on the breast and sides with black; the ear coverts and sometimes the throat are chestnut. They are very local in their distribution both during migrations and in their breeding grounds. They nest in the outer branches of trees, preferably conifers, making the nest of slender twigs, rootlets, grasses, etc., lined with hair; the four or five eggs are white, variously specked with reddish brown and lilac; size .65 x .48.
6*51. OLIVE WARBLER. Peucedramus olivaceus.
Range. Mountains of New Mexico and Arizona southward.
This peculiar species may readily be recognized by its saffron or orangebrown colored head and neck, with broad black bar through the eye. They nest at high elevations in coniferous trees on the mountain sides, placing their nests either on the horizontal boughs or forks at the end of them. The nests are very beautiful structures made of moss, lichens, fine rootlets and grasses and setting high on the limb like those of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. The eggs are grayish white with a bluish tinge, thickly speckled with blackish; size .64 x .48. Data. Huachuca Mts., Arizona, June 21, 1901. Nest in a sugar ( pine near extremity of branch, 25 feet from the ground and 20 feet out from the trunk of the tree; composed of lichens and fine rootlets, lined with plant down.
THE BIRD BOOK
652. YELLOW WARBLER. cestiva.
Cape May Warblers
Ragne. Breeds in the whole or North America; winters south of our borders.
This well known and very common species is wholly yellow, being more or less greenish on the back, wings and tail, and the male is streaked on the sides with chestnut. They nest anywhere in trees or bushes, either in woods, pastures, parks or dooryards, and their sprightly song is much in evidence throughout the summer. The nests are usually placed in upright crotches or forks, and are made of vegetable fibres and fine grasses compactly woven together and lined with plant down and hair; the eggs, which are laid in May or June, are greenish white, boldly specked in Greenish endless patterns with shades of brown and lilac; size .65 x .50.
()52n. SONORA YELLOW WARBLER. Dendroica cestiva sonorana.
Range. Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas, southward.
This form is brighter yellow, especially above, than the last. The nesting habits are the same and the eggs indistinguishable from those of the preceding.
()f>2b. ALASKA YELLOW WARBLEH. Dendroica
cestiva rubiginosa. Range. Breeds in Alaska and on the coast
south to Vancouver; winters south of the United States.
Similar to the common Yellow Warbler but slightly darker above; its eggs* and nesting habits are the same.
J. B. Pardoe NEST OF YELLOW WARBLER
THE BIRD BOOK
653. MANGROVE WARBLER. Dendroica bryanti castaneiceps.
Range. Southern Lower California and western Mexico and Central America.
This species is very similar to the Yellow Warbler but the eutire head and neck of the male are yellowish chestnut. Their nesting habits or eggs do not vary in any essential particular from those of the common Yellowbirds of the United States.
654. BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER. droica ccerulescens ccerulescens.
Range. Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States northward; winters in the Gulf States and southward.
These black-throated bluish-backed Warblers are abundant in swampy woodland both during migrations and at their breeding grounds; either sex can readily be identified in any plumage, by the presence of a small white spot at the base of the primaries. They nest in underbrush or low bushes only a few inches above the ground, making the nests of bark strips, moss rootlets, etc., lined with fine grasses or hair; the eggs are pale buffy white more or less dotted with pale brownish; size .65 x .50. Data. Warren, Pa., June 9, 1891. 3 eggs. Nest one foot from the Buffy white g rou nd in brush; made of fine pieces of rotten wood, laurel bark and lined with fine grasses.
654a. CAIRNS WARBLER. Dendroica ccerulescens cairnsi.
Range. Mountain ranges of North Carolina to Georgia.
A darker form whose habits and eggs are identical with those of the last.
655. MYRTLE WARBLER. Dendroica coronata.
Range. Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States northward. Winters in the southern half of eastern United States.
This beautiful gray, white and / black Warbler can readily be iden tified by its yellow rump, side patches and crown patch. It is one of our most common species during migrations when it is found west to the Rockies and casually far ther. They nest on the lower branches of coniferous trees, making their homes of rootlets, plant fibres and grasses; during June or the latter part of May, three or four eggs are laid; they are white, spotted with several shades of brown and lilac; size .70 x .50. Data. Lancaster, N. H., June 7, 1888. Nest in a small spruce, about 6 feet up; made of fine twigs, lined with leathers.
656. AUDUBON'S WARBLER. boni auduboni.
Range. Mountain ranges of western
States from British Columbia to Mexico. This bird resembles the last in the location of ^^^^ the yellow patches but has a yellow instead of a white throat, and is otherwise differently marked. They are as abundant in suitable localities as are the Myrtle Warblers in the east, nesting on the outer branches of coniferous trees at any
height from the ground. The nests are made of
bark strips, rootlets, plant fibre, grasses and pine
needles, the three to five eggs are greenish or bluish white marked with brown
and lilac; size .68 x .52. The one figured is from a beautiful set of four in Mr.
0. W. Crandall's collection, and the ground color is a delicate shade of blue.
Data. Spanaway, Washington, April 23, 1902. Nest on the limb of a large fir
in a clump of three in prairie country.
656a. BLACK-FRONTED W T ARBLER. Dendroica auduboni nigrifrons.
Range. Mountains of southern Arizona and Mexico.
Similar to the preceding, but with the forehead and ear coverts black. Their nests and eggs are in no way different from those of Audubon's Warbler.
THE BIRD BOOK
657- MAGNOLIA WARBLER. nolia.
Range. North America east of the Rockies, breeding from northern United States to Hudson Bay region and in the Alleghanies, south to Pennsylvania. Winters south of our borders. This species, which is one of the most beautiful of the Warblers, is entirely yellow below and on the rump, the breast and sides being heavily streaked with black; a large patch on the back and the ear coverts are black. They build in coniferous trees at any elevation from the ground, making their nests of rootlets and grass stems, usually lined with hair; the eggs are dull white, White
specked with pale reddish brown; size .65 x .48. Data. Worcester, Mass., May 30, 1895. 4 eggs. Nest of fine rootlets and grasses about 30 feet up on the end of a limb of a pine overhanging a brook.
658. CERULEAN WARBLER. Dendroica coerulea Range. United States east of the Plains, breeding chiefly in the northern half of the Mississippi Valley, rare east of the Alleghanies and casual in New England. These beautiful Warblers are light blue gray above, streaked with black on back, white below, with a grayish blue band on breast and streaks on the sides; they have two wide white wing bars and spots on the outer tail feathers. They are found chiefly in the higher trees where they glean on the foliage; they build also usually above twenty feet from the ground in any kind of tree, placing the nests well out on the horizontal limbs, generally in a fork. The nests are made of rine strips of bark, fibres, rootlets, etc., lined with hair; the eggs are white or pale bluish white, specked with reddish brown; size .62 x .48. Data. Fargo, Ontario, June 2, 1901. Nest in a burr oak, 18 feet from the ground on a horizontal limb.
THE BIRD BOOK
Chestnut-sided Warblers Bay-breasted Warblers
659- CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER. Dendroica pensylvanica.
Range. United States, east of the Plains, breeding in the Middle States and Illinois, north to Manitoba and New Brunswick. Winters south of our border.
The adults of this handsome species may readily be known by the white underparts and the broad chestnut stripe on the flanks; the crown is yellow. They frequent low brush in open woods or on hillsides and pastures, nesting at low elevations, usually below three feet from the ground, and often concealing their nests beneath the leaves in the tops of low small bushes. The nests are made of grasses, weed stems and some fibres, but they do not have as wooly an appearance as those of the Yellow Warblers which nest in the same localities and similar locations. Their eggs are white or creamy white (never greenish white), specked with brown and gray. Size .65 x .50. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 6, 1890. Nest in the top of a huckleberry bush, 2 feet from the ground; made of grasses and plant fibres. Bird did not leave nest until touched with the hand.
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER. Dendroica castanea.
Range. North America, east of the Plains, breeding from northern United States north to the Hudson Bay; winters in Central and South America.
This species has the crown, throat and sides a rich chestnut; forehead and face black; underparts white. They nest in coniferous trees in swampy places, making their nests of bark shreds and rootlets and placing them in horizontal forks at elevations of from five to thirty feet from the ground. The three or four eggs are laid late in May or during June; they are white, usually quite heavily spotted and blotched with reddish brown, umber and grayish. Size .70 x .50.
661. BLACK-POLL WARBLER. Dendroicu striata.
Range. North America, east of the Rockies, breeding from northern United States north to Labrador and Alaska; winters in South America. This black and white Warbler has
a solid black cap, and the under parts are white, streaked witii
black on the sides. In the woods
they bear some resemblance to the
Black and White Warbler, but do
not have the creeping habits of that species. During migrations they are found in equal abundance in swamps or orchards. In their breeding range, they nest at low elevations in stunted pines or spruces, making their nests of rootlets and lichens, lined with feathers. The eggs are dull whitish, spotted or blotched with brown and neutral tints. Size .72 x .50. Data. Grand Manan, N. B., June 12, 1883. Nest and four eggs on branch of a stunted spruce 2 feet from the ground.
662. BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER. Dendroica
Range. North America, east of the Plains, breeding from Massachusetts and Minnesota north to Hudson Bay; south in the Alleghanies to the Carolinas. Winters in Central and South America.
This species is, without exception, the most exquisite of the family; the male can always be known by the bright orange throat, breast and superciliary stripe, the upper parts being largely black. They arrive with us when the apple trees are in bloom and after a week's delay pass on to more northerly districts. Their nests are constructed of rootlets, fine weed stalks and grasses, lined with hair, and are placed on horizontal limbs of coniferous trees. The three or four eggs are greenish white, speckled, spotted and blotched with reddish brown and neutral tints. Size .70 x .48. Data. Lancaster, Mass., June 21, 1901. Nest in a white pine, 38 feet from the ground on Greenish whit a limb 4 feet from the trunk; composed of fine rootlets and hair, resembling the nest of a Chipping Sparrow.
BLACKBURN! AN WARBLERS
663. YELLOW-THRAOTED WARBLER. Dendroica dominica dominica.
Range. South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to Virginia and casually farther; winters in Florida and the West Indies.
This species has gray upper parts with two white wing bars, the throat, breast and superciliary line are yellow, and the lores, cheeks and streaks on the sides are black. These birds nest abundantly in the South Atlantic States, \ usually in pines, and either on horizontal limbs or in bunches of Span- ^ reen j sh white ish moss. The nests are made of slender pieces of twigs, rootlets and strips of bark, and lined with either hair or feathers, the eggs are three to five in number, pale greenish white, specked about the large end with reddish brown and gray. Size .70 x .50. Data. Raleigh, N. C., May 3, 1890. Nest 43 feet up on limb of pine; made of grasses and hair.
663a. SYCAMORE WARBLER. inica albilora.
Range. Mississippi Valley, breeding north to Ohio and Illinois, and west to Kansas and Texas; winters south of the United States.
This bird is precisely like the last except that the superciliary stripe is usually white. Their nesting habits are precisely like those of the last, and the nests are usually on horizontal branches of sycamores; the eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the Yellow-throated Warbler.
Yellow-throated Warblers Grace's Warblers
664. GRACE'S WARBLER. Dendroica gracice.
Range. Southwestern United States, abundant in Arizona and New Mexico.
This Warbler is similar in markings and colors to the Yellowthroated variety except that the cheeks are gray instead of black. The nesting habits of the two species are the same, these birds building high in coniferous trees; the nests are made of rootlets and bark shreds, lined with hair or feathers; the eggs are white, dotted with reddish brown and lilac. Size .68 x .48. White
THE BIRD BOOK
Black-throated Warblers Golden-cheeked Warblers
665. BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER. Den droica nigrescens.
Range. United States from the Rockies to the Pacific coast and north to British Columbia; winters south of our borders.
The general color of this species is grayish above and white below as is a superciliary line and stripe down the side of the throat; the crown, cheeks and throat are black and there is a yellow spot in front Greenish white of the eye. They inhabit woodland and thickets and are common in such localities from Arizona to Oregon, nesting usually at low elevations in bushes or shrubs; the the nests are made of grasses and fibres, woven together, and lined with hair or fine grasses, resembling, slightly, nests of the Yellow Warbler. The eggs are white or greenish white, specked with reddish brown and umber. Size .65 x .52. Data. Waldo, Oregon, June 1, 1901. Nest 3 feet from the ground in a small oak in valley. Collector, C. W. Bowles. (Crandall collection.)
666. GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER. Dendroica
Range. Central and southern Texas south to Central America.
This beautiful and rare species is entirely black above and on the throat, enclosing a large bright yellow patch about the eye and a small one on the crown. In their very restricted United States range,
the birds are met with in cedar timber where they nest at low elevations in the upright forks of young trees of this variety. Their nests are made of strips of cedar bark, interwoven with plant fibres and spider webs making compact nests, which they line with hair and feathers. Their three or four eggs are white, dotted and specked with reddish brown and umber. Si2e .75 x .55.
667- BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER. Dendroica virens.
Range. Eastern United States, breeding from southern New England, South Carolina in the Alleghanies, and Illinois north to Hudson Bay; winters south of the United States.
These common eastern birds are similar to the last but the entire upper parts are olive greenish. They are nearly always found, and always nest, in pines, either groves or hillsides covered with young pines. The nest are usually placed out among the pine needles where they are very difficult to locate, and resemble nests of the Chipping Sparrow. I have found them at heights ranging from six to forty or fifty feet from the ground. The three or four eggs, which they lay in June, are white, wreathed and speckled with brownish and lilac. Size .60 x .50.
TOWNSEND'S WARBLER. townsendi.
Range. Western United States, from the Rockies to the Pacific and from Alaska southward; winters in Mexico.
This is the common western representative of the last species, and is similar but has black ear patches and the crown is black. They nest in coniferous woods throughout their United States and Canadian range, the nests being placed at any height from the ground and being constructed like those of the Black-throated Green. Their eggs are not distinguishable from those of the latter. Size .60 x .50.
Warbler Townsend's Warblers
THE BIRD BOOK
669- HERMIT WARBLER. Dendroica occidentalis.
Range. Western United States and British Columbia chiefly on the higher ranges. Winters south to Central America.
This peculiar species has the entire head bright yellow and the throat black; upperparts grayish, underparts white. They are found nesting in wild rugged country, high up in pine trees, the nests being located among bunches of needles so that they are very difficult to find. The nests are made of rootlets, shreds of bark, pine needles, etc., lined with fine grasses or hair. The three or four eggs are laid during June or the latter part of May; they are white or creamy white, and sometimes with a faint greenish tinge, specked and wreathed with brown and lilac gray. Size .68 x .52.
670. KIRTLAND'S WARBLER. landi.
Range. Eastern United States; apt to be found in any of the South Atlanic, Middle or Central States, and in Ontario, Canada. Winters in the Bahamas where by far the greater number of specimens have been found.
This very rare Warbler is bluish gray above, streaked with black, and yellow below with the throat and sides streaked. Until the summer of 1903, the locality where they bred was a mystery. The capture of a specimen, in June, in Oscodo Cc., Michigan, led to the search for the nests by N. A. Wood, taxidermist for the Michigan Museum at Ann Arbor. He was successful in his quest and found two nests with young and one egg. The nest in which the egg was found contained two young birds also. It was in a depression in the ground at the foot of a Jack pine tree and only a few feet from a cart road. The nest was made of strips of bark and vegetable fibres, lined with grass and pine needles. The egg is white, sprinkled with brown in a wreath about the large end. Size .72 x .56. It is estimated that there were thirteen pairs of the birds in this colony.
671. PINE WARBLER. Dendroica
Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern British Provinces; winters in the Gulf States and southward.
This common eastern species is greenish above and dull yellowish below, streaked with dusky on the sides. They are almost exclusively found in pine woods, either light or heavy growth, where they can always be located by their peculiar, musical lisping trill. They nest high in these trees, placing their nests in thick bunches of needles, so that they are very difficult to locate. They nest from March in the south to May in the northern states, laying three or four dull whitish eggs, specked or blotched with shades of brown and lilac; size .68 x .52. Data. Worcester, Mass., May 28, 1891. Nest 30 feet up in a pine; made of pine needles and rootlets.
672. PALM WARBLER. palmarum.
Range. Interior of North America, breeding about Hudson Bay and northward and wintering in the lower Mississippi Valley and the West Indies.
This species is brownish yellow
above and yellow on the throat and
breast, the crown and streaks on
the sides are chestnut. They are
found during migrations on or near
the ground on the edges of woods
or thickets and along roadsides; have a peculiar habit of "teetering" their tail which will readily identify them. They nest on the ground in, or on the edges of swampy places, lining the hollow with grasses and rootlets. In May or June they lay three or four eggs which are creamy white, variously specked with brown and lilac; size .68 x 52.
672a YELLOW PALM WARBLER. Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea.
Range. Eastern North America, breeding from Nova Scotia, northward.
This is the common Yellow Red-poll Warbler of the eastern states, and is very abundant during migrations. Their habits are the same, if not identical with the interior species. Their nests are also like those of the last, placed on the ground and the eggs are indistinguishable.
C. A. Reed
PRAIRIE WARBLER NEST
6'73- PRAIRIE WARBLER. Dendroica discolor.
Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to Massachusetts and Ontario; winters in southern Florida and the West Indies.
A species readily recognized by its bright yellow underparts and the black stripes on the face and sides; several bright chestnut spots are in the middle of the greenish back. These birds will be found on dry scrubby hillsides and valleys, where they nest in low bushes, and the male will be found in the tops of the tallest lookout trees delivering his quaint and very peculiar lisping song. Their nests are handsomely made of vegetable fibres and grasses, closely woven together and lined with hair; this structure is placed in the top of low bushes so that it is well concealed by the upper foliage. Their three to five eggs are whitish, specked and spotted with shades of brown and neutral tints; size .64 x .48. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 23, 1891. Nest in the top of a young walnut, two feet from ground; made of plant fibres and grasses. Four eggs
674. OVEN-BIRD. Seiurus aurocapillus.
Range. North America east of the Rockies, breeding from the middle portions of the United States, north to Labrador and Alaska. Winters from the Gulf States southward.
This species is fully as often known as the Golden-crowned Thrush, because of its brownish orange crown bordered with black. They are woodland birds exclusively and nest on the ground, arching the top over with rootlets or leaves, the nest proper being made of grasses and leaf skeletons. As they are concealed so effectually, the nests are usually found by flushing the bird. The four to six eggs are white, slightly glossy and spotted, blotched or wreathed with reddish brown and lilac; size .80 x .60. Data. Old Saybrook, Conn., June 19, 1899. Domed nest with a side entrance on the ground in woods.
C. A. Reed
ARCHED NEST OF OVEN-BIRD
J. B. Canfleld NEST AND EGGS OF LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH
PERCHING BIRDS *** White
675. WATER-THRUSH. Seiurus novebora censis noveboracensis.
Range. Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States north to Hudson Bay and Newfoundland. Winters from the Gulf to South America.
This species is uniform brownish olive above and white below, streaked heavily with blackish; it has a whitish superciliary line. It is known in most of the United States only as a migrant, being found in moist woods or swampy places. They nest in such localities in their breeding range, placing their nests among the cavities of rootlets and stumps, the nest being made of moss, leaves and rootlets. Their eggs are white, profusely specked and blotched with reddish brown and lavender gray. Size .80 x .60. Data. Listowell, Ontario, May 28, 1895. Nest in a turned-up root over water; made of moss, grass and hair. Collector, Wm. L. Kells. This set of five is in the collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall.
6?5a. GRINNELL'S WATER-THRUSH. Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis.
Range. Western North America, migrating between the Mississippi Valley and the Rockies; breeds from northern United States north to Alaska; winters in the south.
This sub-species is said to be very slightly larger, darker on the back, and paler below. Their nesting habits and eggs are identical with those of the last.
Louisiana Water Thrush Water-Thrush
676. LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH. Seiurus motacilla.
Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf, north to southern New England, Ontario and Minnesota; winters south of our borders.
This species is similar to the last but is larger, grayer and less distinctly streaked on the underparts. They nest in swampy places, concealing their home in nooks among roots of trees or under overhanging banks, the nest being made of leaves, moss, mud, grasses, etc., making a bulky structure. The eggs, which are laid in May and number from four to six, are white, spotted and blotched with chestnut and neutral tints. Size .76 x .62.
THE BIRD BOOK
677- KENTUCKY WARBLER. Oporornis formosus.
Range. Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to New York and Michigan; winters south of the United States to South America.
Crown and ear coverts black, underparts and line over eye yellow; x^-*<~ -< no white in the plumage. Thesbirds are found in about such local- Bggy^-iflV ities as are frequented by Ovenbirds, but with a preference for woods which are low and damp. White They are locally common in some of the southern and central states. They are active gleaners of the underbrush, keeping well within the depths of tangled thickets. Like the Maryland Yellowthroat, which has similar habits to those of this bird, they are quite inquisitive and frequently come close to you to investigate or to scold. They nest on the ground in open woods or on shrubby hillsides, making large structures, of leaves and strips of bark, lined with grasses. The eggs are white, sprinkled with dots or spots of reddish brown and gray. Size .70 x .55. Data. Greene Co., Pa., May 26, 1894. 4 eggs. Nest a mass of leaves, lined with rootlets, placed on the ground at the base of a small elm sprout in underbrush on a hillside.
678. CONNECTICUT WARBLER. Oporonis
Range. Eastern United States; known to breed only in Manitoba and Ontario.
These birds have greenish upperparts and sides, yellowish underparts, and an ashy gray head, neck and breast; they have a complete whitish ring about the eye, this distinguishing them in any plumage from the two following species. As they do most of their feeding upon the ground and remain in the depths of the thickets, they are rarely seen unless attention is drawn to them. They are quite abundant in New England in fall migrations, being found in swampy thickets. They have been found breeding in Ontario by Wm. L. Kells, the nest being on the ground in the woods among raspberry vines. It was made of leaves, bark fibres, grass, rootlets and hair. The eggs are white, specked with brown and neutral tints. Size .75 x .55.
679- MOURNING WARBLER. Oporornis phila. delphia.
Range. Eastern United States, breeding from
northern New England, Pennsylvania, (Philadelphia) and Nebraska northward.
Very similar to the last but with no eye ring and a black patch on the breast. The habits and nesting habits of this species are very similar to those of agilis, the nest being on or very close to the ground. White With the exception of on mountain
ranges it breeds chiefly north of our borders.
The eggs are white, specked with reddish brown.
Size .72 x .55. They cannot be distinguished from
those of the last. Data. Listowell, Ontario, June
5, 1898. Nest in a tuft of swamp grass in low
ground; not very neatly made of dry leaves,
grasses and hair. Collector, Wm. L. Kells. (Cran dall collection.)
680. MACGILLIVRAY WARBLER. Oporornis tolmiei.
Range. Western United States from the Rockies to the Pacific, breeding north to British Columbia; winters in Mexico and Central America. ' Similar to the last but with white
spots on the upper and lower eyelids, black lores, and the black patch on the breast mixed with gray. These ground inhabiting birds are found in tangled thickets and shrubbery where they nest at low elevations, from one to five feet from the ground. Their nests are made of grasses and shreds of bark, lined with hair and finer grasses, and the eggs are white, specked, spotted and blotched with shades of brown and neutral tints; size .72 x .52. Data. Sonoma, Cal., May 17, 1897. A small nest, loosely made of grasses (wild oats) lined with finer grasses; placed in blackberry vines 14 inches from the ground in a slough in the valley.
THE BIRD BOOK
Maryland Yellow-throats Belding's Yellow-throat
681. MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis trichas trichas.
Range. Eastern United States; this species has recently been still further sub-divided so that this form is supposed to be restricted to the south Atlantic coast of the United States.
The Maryland Yellow-throat is represented in all parts of the United States by one of its forms. They are ground loving birds, frequenting swamps and thickets where they can be located by their loud, unmistakable song of "Witchery, witchery, witch." They nest on or very near the ground, making their nests of grass, lined with hair; these are either in hollows in the ground at the foot of clumps of grass or weeds, or attached to the weed stalks within a few inches of the ground. They lay from three to five eggs in May or June; these are white, specked about the larger end with reddish brown and umber, and with shell markings of stone gray. Size .70 x .50. All the sub-species of this bird have the same general habits of this one and their eggs cannot be distinguished from examples of the eastern form; the birds, too, owing to the great differences in plumage between individuals from the same place, cannot be distinguished with any degree of satisfaction except by the ones who "discovered" them.
68 la. WESTERN YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis.
Range. This variety, which is said to be brighter yellow below, is ascribed to the arid regions of western United States; not on the Pacific coast.
68 Ib. FLORIDA YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis trichas ignota.
Range. South Atlantic and Gulf coast to Texas.
681c. PACIFIC YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis trichas arizela.
Range. Pacific coast from British Columbia southward. 68 le. SALT MARSH YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis trichas sinuosa.
Range. Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay.
682. BELDING'S YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis
Range. Lower California.
This peculiar species is like the common Yellow-throat but has the black mask bordered by yellow instead of white, and the black on the forehead extends diagonally across the head from in front of one eye to the rear of the other. Theii habits are like those of the other Yellow-throats and the nests are similar to those of the latter, which are frequently placed in cane over the water. Nests found by Mr. Walter E. Bryant were situated in clumps of "cat-tails" between two and three feet above the water; the nests were made of dry strips of these leaves, lined with fibres; the eggs were like those of the common Yellow-throats but larger; size .75 x .56.
682.1. Rio GRANDE YELLOW-THROAT. Chamcethlypis poliocephala.
Range. Mexico north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.
This Yellow-throat has the crown and ear coverts gray, only the lores and forehead being black. The nests and eggs of these birds, which are fairly common about Brownsville, Texas, do not differ from those of the other Yellow-throats.
683. YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT. Icteria virens virens.
Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf coast north to southern New England and Minnesota.
This strange but handsome species is very common in underbrush and thickets in the south; they are usually shy and endeavor, with success, to keep out of sight, but their strange song and calls, consisting of various whistles and squawks mingled together, are often heard. Their nests are built in bushes or briars at low elevations, being made of grass, strips of bark and leaves, lined with finer grass; their eggs are white, sharply speckled and spotted with various shades of brown and lavender; size .90 x .70.
Rio Grande Yellow-throat Yellow-breasted Chat
LONG-TAILED CHAT. Icteria virens longicauda.
Range. United States west of the Plains, breeding from Mexico to British Columbia.
This bird is said to be grayer and to have a slightly longer tail than the last. Its nesting habits and eggs are precisely the same.
THE BIRD BOOK
684. HOODED WARBLER. Wilsonia citrina.
Range. Eastern United States, ^ fc breeding north to southern New England and Michigan; winters south of our borders.
This yellow and greenish species can be identified by its black head, neck and throat, with the large yellow patch about the eye and the forehead. The members of this genus are active fly-catchers, darting into the air after passing insects in the manner of the Flycatchers. They frequent tangled thickets where they build their nests within a few inches of the ground, making them of leaves, bark and grass, lined with hair; the four or five eggs are white, specked with reddish brown and neutral tints; size .70 x .50. Data. Doddridge Co., Mo., May 29, 1897. Nest one foot from the ground in a small bush; made of leaves, strips of bark and fine grasses.
685. WILSON'S WARBLER. Wilsonia pusilla
Range. Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States northward; south to Central America in winter.
These handsome little black-capped flycatching Warblers are abundant during migrations, especially in the spring, being found on the edges of woods and in orchards. They nest on the ground, usually on the edges of swamps, embedding their nests in the ground under the shelter of low branches or on the edges of banks; the nest is oi! bark strips, fibres and leaves, and the eggs are white, specked with reddish brown; size .60 x .50.
685a. PILEOLATED WARBLER. Wilsonia pusilla pileolata.
Range. Western United States, breeding in the Rocky Mountain region from Mexico to Alaska; winters south of the United States.
Similar to the eastern form but the yellow underparts and greenish back are brighter. Like the last species, this form nests on the ground or very close to it, in weeds or rank undergrowth, in swamps. Their eggs which are laid in May or June are not distinguishable from those of the last.
685b. GOLDEN PILEOL/ATED WARBLER. Wilsonia pusilla chryseola.
Range. Pacific coast of North America, breeding from southern California in mountain ranges north to British Columbia.
686. CANADIAN WARBLER. Wilsonia canaden sis.
Range. Eastern North America, breeding from Mass., New York, and Michigan north to Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters in Central America.
This handsome Warbler is plain , , v gray above and yellow below, with
a black stripe down the sides of
the neck and across the breast in
a broken band. They frequent
swamps or open woods with a
heavy growth of underbrush, where they build their nests on or very close to the ground. I have always found them in Massachusetts nesting about the roots of laurels, the nests being made of strips of bark, leaves and grass; in June or the latter part of May they lay from three to five white eggs, specked and wreathed with reddish brown and neutral tints; size .68 x .50. Data. Worcester, Mass., June 10, 1891. Nest on the ground under laurel roots in swampy woods; made entirely of strips of laurel bark lined with fine grass.
687. AMERICAN REDSTART. Setophaga
Range. North America, chiefly east of the Rockies, breeding in the northern half of the United States and north to Labrador and Alaska; winters south of our borders.
The male of this handsome, active and well known species is black with a white belly, and orange patches on the sides, wings and bases of outer tail feathers. They breed abundantly in swamps, open woods or thickets by the roadside, placing their nests in trees or bushe? at elevations of from three to thirty feet above ground and usually in an upright fork. The nests are very compactly made of fibres and grasses, felted together, and lined with hair. Their eggs are white, variously blotched and spotted with brown and gray; size .65 x .50. Data. Chili, N. Y., June White 1, 1894. Nest, a cup-shaped structure of plant fibres lined with fine grasses and hair; 4 feet from the ground in the crotch of a small chestnut.
C. A. REED
MALE REDSTART FEEDING YOUNG
688. PAINTED REDSTART. Setophaga picta.
Range. Southern New Mexico and Arizona, southward.
This beautiful Redstart is black with a large white patch on the wing coverts, white outer tail w , . feathers, and with the belly and
middle of the breast bright red. These active birds, which have all the habits and mannerisms of the common species, nest on the ground in thickets or shrubbery usually near water, and generally conceal their homes under overhanging stones or stumps; the nests are made of fine shreds of bark and grasses, lined with hair; the eggs are white, dotted with reddish brown; size .65 x .48. Data. Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, May 31, 1900. Nest of fine bark and grass under a small bush on the ground.
689. RED-BELLIED REDSTART. Setophaga mini at a.
Range. Mexico; admitted to our avifauna on the authority of Giraud as having occurred in Texas.
This species is similar to the last, but has a chestnut crown patch, more red on the underparts, and less white on the tail; it is not probable that their nesting habits or eggs differ from the last.
690. RED-FACED WARBLER. rubrifrons.
Range. Southern Arizona and New Mexico, southward.
This attractive little Warbler is quite common in mountain ranges of the southern Arizona. They nest on the ground on the side hills, concealing the slight structure of grasses and rootlets under overhanging shrubs or stones. Their eggs are specked and blotched with light reddish brown and lavender. Size .64 x .48. Data. Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, May 31, 1902. Nest in a depression under a tuft of grass growing about 8 feet up on the side of a bank.