The Bird Book/Warblers, Kinglets, Gnatcatchers

The Bird Book by Chester A. Reed
Warblers, Kinglets, Gnatcatchers: Family Sylviidae


KENNICOTT'S WILLOW WARBLER. Acanthopneuste borealis.

Range. Asia, casually found in Alaska.

This species breeds in the extreme northern parts of Asia, and I believe its eggs have never been found on this continent. They build their nests of moss and grasses, on the ground in open woods, concealing them under tufts of grass or tussocks of earth. The three to five eggs are white, spotted with pale reddish brown. Size .70 x .50.

748. GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET. Regulus satrapa satrapa.

Range. North America, breeding from northern United States northward,

and south in the Rockies to Mexico, and in the Alleghanies to the Carolinas;

winters throughout the United States.

This rugged little fellow appears to be perfectly content in our northern states even during the most severe winters and leaves us early in the spring for his breeding grounds farther north. They are usually found in company with Chickadees and, like them, may be seen hanging to twigs in all sorts of positions as Grav thev search for their meagre fare. Their nests are large, round

structures of green moss, bark strips and fine rootlets, very

thickly lined with soft feathers; these are placed in forks or partially suspended

among the branches of spruce trees, usually high above the ground. During

June they lay from five to ten eggs of a dull whitish or grayish color, spotted

heavily with pale brown and lilac. Size .55 x .42,


748a. WESTERN GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET. Regulas satrapa olivaceus.

Range. Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska.

This variety is said to be brighter colored than the last; its habits and eggs are the same in all particulars.

749. RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET. Regulus calendula calendula.

Range North America, breeding from the northern border of the United States northward, and farther south in mountain ranges; winters in southern United States.

This little bird is of the size of the Golden-crowned Kinglet long) and has a partially concealed patch of red on the crown, not bordered by black and yellow as is the last species. Their nests are similar in construction to those of the last species and are situated in coniferous trees at any altitude from the ground. Their four to nine eggs are creamy white, finely specked with reddish brown. Size .56 x .44.

White (4.25 inches

Golden-crowned Kinglets

C. A. Smith



74<9a. SITKA KINGLET. Regulas calendula grinnelli.

Range. Pacific coast, breeding in Alaska. Said to be brighter than the preceding va riety.

749b. DUSKY KINGLET. Regulus calendula obscurus.

Range. Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

This species nests during March in the large cypress and pine groves at high elevations above the ground. The nests are similar in construction to those of the common Rubycrown, and the eggs are scarcely different from some specimens of that species; white, dotted and wreathed with reddish brown. Size .56 x .43.

751. BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER. Polioptila ccerulea ccerulea.

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Range. United States, east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to the Middle and Central States; casually north to Massachusetts and Minnesota.

These graceful birds are bluish gray above with a black forehead and central tail feathers, and white underparts. They are common in wooded districts in the south, where they saddle their beautiful nests upon horizontal branches or in crotches usually at quite an elevation from the ground; they resemble large Ruby-throated Hummers' nests but the walls are jfr V-V-. much higher and thicker; they are made of plant fibres and ^f%T down, lined with cottony substances and hair, and covered on tt^'-v'-., ', the outside with lichens to match the limb upon which it is

Bluish white

placed. Their eggs are bluish white, specked with reddish chestnut. Size .58 x .45. Data. Chattanooga, Tenn., April 30, 1900. Nest of moss, covered with lichens and lined with hair and feathers; 20 feet from the ground in a small tree.

75 la. WESTERN GNATCATCHER. Polioptila ccerulea obscura.

Range. Western United States and Lower California.

The habits and eggs of this sub-species are the same as those of the eastern bird, and the nests do not differ except, perhaps, in less ornamentation of the exterior.

752. PLUMBEOUS GNATCATCHER. Polioptila plumbea.

Range. Mexican boundary from western Texas to southern California.

This species has a bright shining black crown and more black on the tail than the eastern Gnatcatcher. They saddle their nests upon the branches of trees or in upright forks, usually at an elevation of ten feet or more from the ground; the nests are made of plant fibres and fine bark strips, compactly felted toGreenish blue gether, and with little, if any, ornamental lichens on the exterior. Their eggs are pale greenish blue, spotted with reddish brown, and vary from three to five in number. Size .54 x .44.



753. BLACK-TAILED GNATCATCHER. optila calif ornica.


Blue-gray Gnatcatcher

Range. Pacific coast of southern California and northern Lower California.

This bird is very similar to the last but has still less white on the outer tail feathers. Like the last, the nests of this species usually lack the exterior covering of lichens, being made of vegetable fibres and plant down, firmly quilted together and saddled on horizontal limbs or placed in forks of trees at any Grayish whlte height from the ground. Their eggs are grayish white, specked with bright reddish brown. Size .55 x .44. Data. Escondido, Cal., May 17, 1903. 5 eggs. Nest on a large limb of a sycamore, 30 feet above ground; made of weed fibres, etc., lined with hair and fine fibres.