The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night/Volume 16

I Inscribe This Final Volume To The Many Excellent Friends Who Lent Me Their Valuable Aid In Copying And Annotating The Thousand Nights and a Night


We here begin, [FN#184] with the aidance of Allah Almighty, and invite the History of the Tarjumánah [FN#185] and the Kahramanah [FN#186] and the young man, the King's son, and whatso happed between them of controversy and of contention and interrogation on various matters.

It is related (but Allah is All-knowing anent what passed and preceded us of the histories belonging to bygone peoples) that there reigned in a city of Roum [FN#187] a King of high degree and exalted dignity, a lord of power and puissance.  But this Sovran was issue-less, so he ceased not to implore Allah Almighty that boon of babe might be vouchsafed to him, and presently the Lord had pity upon him and deigned grant him a man-child.  He bade tend the young Prince with tenderest tending, and caused him to be taught every branch of knowledge, and the divine precepts of wisdom and morals and manners; nor did there remain aught of profitable learning wherein the Youth was not instructed; and upon this education the King expended a mint of money.  Now after the Youth grew up Time rounded upon the Sovran his sire and his case was laid bare and he was perplext as to himself and he wotted not whatso he should ever do.  Presently his son took heart to direct him aright, and asked, "O my father, say me, wilt thou give ear to that wherewith I would bespeak thee?"  "Speak out," quoth the King, "that is with thee of fair rede;" and quoth the youth, "Rise, O my sire, that we depart this city ere any be ware of our wending; so shall we find rest and issue from the straits of indigence now closing around us.  In this place there is no return of livelihood to us and poverty hath emaciated us and we are set in the sorriest of conditions than which naught can be sorrier."  "O my child," quoth his sire in reply, "admirable is this advice wherewith thou hast advised us, O my son, pious and dutiful; and be the affair now upon Allah and upon thee."  Hereupon the Youth gat all ready and arising one night took his father and mother without any being cognisant; and the three, entrusting themselves to the care of Allah Almighty, wandered forth from home.  And they ceased not wandering over the wilds and the wolds till at last they saw upon their way a large city and a mighty fine; so they entered it and made for a place whereat they alighted.  Presently the young Prince arose and went forth to stroll about the streets and take his solace; and whilst he walked about he asked concerning the city and who was its Sovran.  They gave him tidings thereof saying, "This be the capital of a Sultan, equitable and high in honour amongst the Kings."  Hereupon returning to his father and mother, quoth he to them, "I desire to sell you as slaves to this Sultan, [FN#188] and what say ye?"  Quoth they, "We have committed our case to Almighty Allah and then to thee, O our son; so do whatso thou wishest and judgest good."  Hereat the Prince, repairing to the Palace, craved leave to enter to the King and, having obtained such permission, made his obeisance in the presence.  Now when the Sultan looked upon him he saw that his visitor was of the sons of the great, so he asked him, "What be thy need, Ho thou the Youth?" and the other made answer, "O my lord, thy slave is a merchant man and with me is a male captive, handy of handicraft, God-fearing and pious, and a pattern of honesty and honour in perfect degree: I have also a bondswoman goodly in graciousness and of civility complete in all thou canst command of bondswomen; these I desire to vend, O my lord, to thy Highness, and if thou wouldst buy them of thy servant they are between thy hands and at thy disposal, and we all three are thy chattels."  When the King heard these pleasant words spoken by the Youth, he said to him, "And where are they?  Bring them hither that I behold them; and, if they be such as thou informest me, I will bid them be bought of thee!"  Hereupon the Prince fared forth and informed his parents of this offer and said to them, "Rise up with me that I vend you and take from this Sultan your price wherewith I will pass into foreign parts and win me wealth enough to redeem and free you on my return hither.  And the rest we will expend upon our case."  "O our son," said they, "do with us whatso thou wishest."  Anon, [FN#189] the parents arose and prepared to accompany him and the Youth took them and led them into the presence of that Sultan where they made their obeisance, and the King at first sight of them marvelled with extreme marvel and said to them, "Are ye twain slaves to this young man?"  Said they, "Yes, O our lord;" whereupon he turned to the Youth and asked him, "What be the price thou requirest for these two?"  "O my lord," replied he, "give me to the price of this man slave, a mare saddled and bridled and perfect in weapons and furniture; [FN#190] and, as for this bondswoman, I desire thou make over to me as her value, a suit of clothes, the choicest and completest."  Accordingly the Sultan bade pay him all his requirement, over and above which he largessed him with an hundred dinars; and the Youth, after obtaining his demand and receiving such tokens of the royal liberality, kissed the King's hands and farewelled his father and mother.  Then he applied himself to travel, seeking prosperity from Allah and all unknowing whither he should wend.  And whilst he was faring upon his wayfare he was met by a horseman of the horsemen, [FN#191] and they both exchanged salutations and welcomings, when the stranger was highly pleased at the politeness of the King's son and the elegance of his expressions.  Presently, pulling from his pocket a sealed letter wrapt in a kerchief he passed it over to the Youth, saying, "In very sooth, O my brother, affection for thee hath befallen my heart by reason of the goodliness of thy manners and elegance of thine address and the sweetness of thy language; and now I desire to work thy weal by means of this missive."  "And what of welfare may that be?" asked the Prince, whereto the horseman answered, "Take with thee this letter and forthwith upon arriving at the Court of the King whither thou art wending, hand to him this same; so shalt thou obtain from him gain abundant and mighty great good and thou shalt abide with him in degree of highmost honour.  This paper (gifted to me by my teacher) hath already brought me ample livelihood and prodigious profit, and I have bestowed it upon thee by reason of thine elegance and good breeding and thy courteousness in showing me respect."  Hereat the Youth, the son of the King, answered him, "Allah requite thee with weal and grant thou gain thy wish;" and so saying accepted the letter of that horseman with honest heart and honourable intent, meditating in his mind, "Inshallah ta'ála--an it be the will of God the Greatest I shall have good fortune to my lot by the blessing of this epistle; then will I fare and set free my father and my mother."  So the Prince resumed his route and he exulted in himself especially at having secured the writ, by means whereof he was promised abundant weal.  Presently, it chanced that he became drowthy with excessive drowth that waxed right sore upon him and he saw upon his path no water to drink; and by the tortures of thirst he was like to lose his life.  So he turned round and looked at the mare he bestrode and found her covered with a foam of sweat wholly unlike her wonted way.  Hereat dismounting he brought out the wrapper wherein the letter was enrolled and loosing it he mopped up therewith his animal's sweat and squeezing it into a cup he had by him drank it off and found to his joy that he was somewhat comforted.  Then, of his extreme satisfaction with the letter, he said to himself, "Would Heaven I knew that which is within, and how the profit which the horseman promised should accrue to me therefrom.  So let me open it and see its contents that my heart may be satisfied and my soul be joyed."  Then he did as he devised and perused its purport and he mastered its meaning and the secret committed to it, which he found as follows, "O my lord, do thou straightway on the arrival of him who beareth these presents slay him, nor leave him one moment on life; because this Youth came to me and I entreated him with honour the highmost that could be of all honouring, as a return for which this traitor of the salt, this reprobate betrayed me in a daughter that was by me.  I feared to do him dead lest I come to shame amongst the folk and endure disgrace, I and my tribe, wherefore I have forwarded him to thy Highness that thou mayest torture him with torments of varied art and end his affair and slaughter him, thus saving us from the shame which befel us at the hands of this reprobate traitor." [FN#192]  Now when the young Prince read this writ and comprehended its contents, he suspected that it was not written concerning him and he took thought in himself, saying, "Would Heaven I knew what I can have done by this horseman who thus seeketh diligently to destroy my life, for that this one had with him no daughter, he being alone and wending his way without any other save himself; and I made acquaintance with him nor passed there between us a word which was unworthy or unmeet.  Now this affair must needs have one of two faces; to wit, the first, that such mishap really did happen to him from some youth who favoureth me and when he saw the likeness he gave me the letter; or, on the second count, this must be a trial and a test sent to me from Almighty Allah, and praise be to God the Great who inspired me to open this missive.  At any rate I thank the Most Highest and laud Him for His warding off the distress and calamity descending upon me and wherefrom He delivered me."  Then the young Prince ceased not wending over the wildest of wolds until he came to a mighty grand city which he entered; and, hiring himself a lodging in a Khan, [FN#193] dismounted thereat; then, having tethered his mare and fed her with a sufficiency of fodder, he fared forth to walk about the thoroughfares.  Suddenly he was met by an ancient dame who considered him and noted him for a handsome youth and an elegant, tall of stature and with the signs of prosperity showing manifest between his eyes.  Hereat he accosted her and questioned her of the city folk and their circumstances, whereto the old woman made reply with the following purport, "Here in our city reigneth a King of exalted dignity and he hath a daughter fair of favour, indeed the loveliest of the folk of her time.  Now she hath taken upon herself never to intermarry with any of mankind unless it be one who can overcome her with instances and arguments and can return a sufficient reply to all her questions; and this is upon condition that, should he come off vanquisher, he shall become her mate, but if vanquished she will cut off his head, and on such wise hath she done with ninety-and-nine men of the noblest blood, as sons of the Kings and sundry others.  Furthermore, she hath a towering castle founded upon the heights that overfrown the whole of this city whence she can descry all who pass under its walls."  As soon as the young Prince heard these words from the love of the King's daughter and he passed that night as it were to him the longsomest of nights, nor would he believe that the next morn had morrowed.  But when dawned the day and anon showed its sheen and shone, he arose without let or stay and after saddling his mare mounted her and turned towards the palace belonging to the King's daughter; and presently reaching it, took his station at the gateway.  Hereat all those present considered him and asked him saying, "What be the cause of thy standing hereabouts?" whereto he answered, "I desire speech with the Princess."  But when they heard these words, all fell to addressing him with kindly words and courteous and dissuading him from his desire and saying, "Ho thou beautiful youngling! fear [FN#194] Allah and pity thyself and have ruth upon thy youth; nor dare seek converse with this Princess, for that she hath slain fourscore and nineteen men of the nobles and sons of the kings and for thee sore we fear that thou shalt complete the century."  The Prince, however, would not hear a word from them nor heed their rede; neither would he be warned by the talk of others than they; nay he persisted in standing at the Palace gateway.  And presently he asked admission to go in to the King's daughter; but this was refused by the Princess, who contented herself with sending forth to him her Tarjumánah, her Linguist-dame, to bespeak him and say, "Ho thou fair youth! art thou ready and longing to affront dangers and difficulties?"  He replied, "I am."  "Then," quoth she, "hie thee to the King the father of this Princess and show thyself and acquaint him with thine affair and thine aim, after which do thou bear witness against thyself in presence of the Kazi that an thou conquer his daughter in her propositions and she fail of replying to a query of thine thou shalt become her mate; whereas if she vanquish thee she shall lawfully cut off thy head, [FN#195] even as she hath decapitated so many before thy time.  And when this is done come thou back to us."  The Prince forthright fared for the monarch and did as he was bidden; then he returned to the Linguist-dame and reported all his proceedings before the King and eke the Kazi.  After this he was led in to the presence of the Princess and with him was the afore-mentioned Tarjumánah who brought him a cushion of silk for the greater comfort of his sitting; and the two fell to questioning and resolving queries and problems in full sight of a large attendance.  Began the Tarjumánah, interpreting the words of her lady who was present, "Ho thou the Youth! my mistress saith to thee, Do thou inform me concerning an ambulant moving sepulchre whose inmate is alive."  He answered and said, "The moving sepulchre is the whale that swallowed Jonas (upon whom be the choicest of Salams! [FN#196]), and the Prophet was quick in the whale's belly."  She pursued, "Tell me concerning two combatants who fight each other but not with hands or feet, and who withal never say a say or speak a speech."  He answered saying, "The bull and the buffalo who encounter each other by ramming with horns."  She continued, "Point out to me a tract of earth which saw not the sun save for a single time and since that never."  He answered saying, "This be the sole of the Red Sea when Moses the Prophet (upon whom be The Peace!) smote it with his rod and clove it asunder so that the Children of Israel crossed over it on dry ground, which was never seen but only once." [FN#197]  She resumed, "Relate to me anent that which drank water during its life-time and ate meat after its death?"  He answered saying, "This be the Rod [FN#198] of Moses the Prophet (upon whom be The Peace!) which, when a living branch [FN#199] struck water from its living root and died only when severed from the parent tree.  Now Almighty Allah cast it upon the land of Egypt by the hand of Moses, what time this Prophet drowned Pharaoh and his host [FN#200] and therewith clove the Red Sea, after which that Rod became a dragon and swallowed up the wands of all the Magicians of Misraim."  Asked she, "Give me tidings of a thing which is not of mankind nor of the Jánn-kind, neither of the beasts nor of the birds?"  He answered saying, "This whereof thou speakest is that mentioned by Solomon, to with the Louse, [FN#201], and secondly the Ant."  She enquired, "Tell me to what end Almighty Allah created the creation and for what aim of wisdom did He quicken this creation and for what object did He cause death to be followed by resurrection and resurrection by the rendering men's accounts?"  He answered saying, "God created all creatures that they might witness His handicraft, and he did them die that they might behold his absolute dominion and He requickened them to the end that they learn His All-Might, and He decreed their rendering account that they might consider His wisdom and His justice."  She questioned him saying, "Tell me concerning three, of whom my first was not born of father and mother and yet died; and my second was begotten of sire and born of woman yet died not, and my third was born of father and mother yet died not by human death?"  He answered saying, "The first were Adam and Eve, [FN#202] the second was Elias [FN#203] the Prophet and the third was Lot's wife who died not the death of the general, for that she was turned into a pillar of salt."  Quoth she, "Relate to me concerning one who in this world had two names?" and he answered saying, "This be Jacob, sire of the Twelve Tribes, to whom Allah vouchsafed the title of Israel, which is Man with El or God." [FN#204]  She said, "Inform me concerning the Nákús, or the Gong, [FN#205] who was the inventor thereof and at what time was it first struck in this world?"  He answered saying, "The Gong was invented by Noah, who first smote upon it in the Ark."  And after this she stinted not to question him nor he to ree her riddles until evening fell, when quoth the King's daughter to the Linguist-dame, "Say thou to the young man that he may now depart, and let him come to me betimes next morning when, if I conquer him, I will give him drink of the cup his fellows drained; and, should he vanquish me, I will become his wife."  Then the Tarjumánah delivered her message word for word, and the Youth went forth from the Princess with fire aflame in his heart and spent the longest of nights hardly believing that the morn would morrow.  But when day broke and the dawn came with its sheen and shone upon all mankind, he arose from his sleep and fared with the first light to the palace where the King's daughter bade the Linguist-dame introduce him, and when he came in ordered him to be seated.  As soon as he had taken seat she gave her commands to the Tarjumánah, who said, "My lady directeth thee to inform her what may be the tree bearing a dozen boughs, each clothed with thirty leaves and these of two colours, one half white and the other moiety black?"  He answered saying, "Now that tree is the year, and its twelve branches are the dozen months, while the thirty leaves upon each of these are the thirty white days and the thirty black nights."  Hereat quoth she, "Tell me, what tree was it bore many a bough and manifold leaves which presently became flesh and blood?"  He answered saying, "This was the Rod of Moses the Prophet (upon whom be The Peace!) which was at first a tree but which after cutting became a serpent with flesh and blood."  Continued she, "Inform me what became of Moses' Rod and Noah's Ark, and where now be they?"  He answered saying, "They are at this tide sunken in the Lake of Tabariyyah, [FN#206] and both, at the end of time, will be brought out by a man hight Al-Násirí. [FN#207]  She pursued, "Acquaint me with spun yarn, whence did it originate and who was it first practised spinning the same?"  He answered, saying, "Almighty Allah from the beginning of mankind ordered the Archangel Gabriel to visit Eve and say to her, 'Spin for thyself and for Adam waistcloths wherewith ye may veil your persons.'" [FN#208]  She enquired, "Tell me concerning the Asáfír, [FN#209] and why they were so called, and who first named them with such name?"  He answered saying, "There was in the days of the Moses the Prophet (upon whom be The Peace!) a fowl called Fír, and in the time of Solomon the King (upon whom be The Peace!) all the birds paid him obedience, even as did all the beasts, and albeit each and every created thing was subject to the Prophet, withal this Fír would not show submission: so the Wise King sent a body of birds to bring him into the presence, but he refused to present himself.  Presently they returned to the Prophet who asked them, "Where be Fír?" and they answered, "O our lord, 'Asá Fír,' [FN#210] whence that name hath clung to the fowls."  She resumed, "Inform me of the two Stationaries and the two Moveables and the two Conjoineds and the two Disjoineds by jealousy and the twain which be eternal Foes."  He answered saying, "Now the two Stationaries be Heaven and Earth and the two Moveables are the Sun and the Moon; the two Conjoineds are Night and Day and the two Disjoineds by jealousy are the Soul and the Body and the two Hostiles are Death and Life." [FN#211]  On this wise the Linguist-dame ceased not to question him and he to reply solving all her problems until eve closed in.  Then she bade him go forth that night and on the next day come again to her.  Accordingly, the young Prince returned to his Khan and no sooner had he made sure that the morn had morrowed than he resolved to see if that day would bring him aught better than had come to him before.  So arising betimes he made for the palace of the King's daughter and was received and introduced by the Tarjumánah who seated him as was her wont and presently she began, saying, "My lady biddeth thee inform her of a thing which an a man do that same 'tis unlawful; and if a man do not that same 'tis also unlawful."  He answered, saying, "I will: this be the prayer [FN#212] of a drunken man which is in either case illegal."  Quoth she, "Tell me how far is the interval between Heaven and Earth?" and he answered saying, "That bridged over by the prayer of Moses the Prophet [FN#213] (upon him be The Peace!) whom Allah Almighty saved and preserved."  She said, "And how far is it betwixt East and West?" whereto he answered saying, "The space of a day and the course of the Sun wending from Orient unto Occident."  Then she asked, "Let me know what was the habit [FN#214] of Adam in Paradise?" and he answered saying, "Adam's habit in Eden was his flowing hair." [FN#215]  She continued, "Tell me of Abraham the Friend (upon whom be The Peace!) how was it that Allah chose him out and called him 'Friend?'" [FN#216]  He answered saying, "Verily the Lord determined to tempt and to test him albeit he kenned right clearly that the Prophet was free of will yet fully capable of enduring the trial; natheless, He resolved to do on this wise that he might stablish before men the truth of His servant's trust in the Almighty and the fairness of his faith and the purity of his purpose.  So the Lord bade him offer to Him his son Is'hák [FN#217] as a Corban or Sacrifice; and of the truth of his trust he took his child and would have slain him as a victim.  But when he drew his knife with the purpose of slaughtering the youth he was thus addressed by the Most Highest Creator, 'Now indeed well I wot that thou gatherest [FN#218] me and keepest my covenant: so take thou yonder rain and slay it as a victim in the stead of Is'hák.'  And after this he entitled him 'Friend.'"  She pursued, "Inform me touching the sons of Israel how many were they at the time of the going forth from Egypt?"  He answered, saying, "When they marched out of Misraim-land they numbered six hundred thousand fighting [FN#219] men besides women and children."  She continued, "Do thou point out to me, some place on earth which is higher than the Heavens;" and he answered saying, "This is Jerusalem [FN#220] the Exalted and she standeth far above the Firmament."  Then the Youth turning to the Linguist-dame, said, "O my lady, long and longsome hath been the exposition of that which is between us, and were thy lady to ask me for all time questions such as these and the like of them, I by the All-might of Allah shall return a full and sufficient answer to one and all.  But, in lieu of so doing, I desire of thy mistress the Princess to ask of her one question and only one: and, if she satisfy me of the significance I claim therefor, let her give me to drain the cup of my foregoers whom she overcame and slew; and if she fail in the attempt she shall own herself conquered and become my wife--and The Peace!" [FN#221]  Now this was said in the presence of a mighty host there present, the great of them as well as the small thereof; so the Tarjumánah answered willy-nilly, "Say, O Youth, whatso is the will of thee and speak out that which is in the mind of thee."  He rejoined, "Tell thy lady that she deign enlighten me concerning a man who was in this condition.  He was born and brought up in the highest of prosperity but Time turned upon him and Poverty mishandled him; [FN#222] so he mounted his father and clothed him with his mother [FN#223] and he fared forth to seek comfort and happiness at the hand of Allah Almighty.  Anon Death met him on the way and Doom bore him upon his head and his courser saved him from destruction whenas he drank water which came neither from the sky nor from the ground.  Now see thou who may be that man and do thou give me answer concerning him." [FN#224]  But when the Princess heard this question, she was confused with exceeding confusion touching the reply to be replied in presence of a posse of the people, and she was posed and puzzled and perplext to escape the difficulty and naught availed her save addressing the Tarjumánah and saying, "Do thou bid this Youth wend his ways and remove himself until the morrow."  The Linguist-dame did as she was bidden, adding, "And on the morrow (Inshallah!) there shall be naught save weal;" and the Prince went forth leaving the folk aghast at the question he had urged upon the King's daughter.  But as soon as he left her the young lady commanded the Tarjumánah to let slaughter somewhat of the most toothsome poultry and to prepare them for food as her mistress might direct her; together with dainty meats and delicate sweetmeats and the finest fruits fresh and dried and all manner of other eatables and drinkables, and lastly to take a skin-bottle filled with good old wine.  Then she changed her usual garb and donned the most sumptuous dress of all her gear; and, taking her Duenna and favourite handmaiden with a few of her women for comitive, she repaired to the quarters of the Youth, the King's son; and the time of her visit was the night-tide.  Presently, reaching the Khan she said to her guardian, "Go thou in to him alone whilst I hide me somewhere behind the door and do thou sit between his hands;" after which she taught the old woman all she desired her do of dissimulation and artifice.  The slave obeyed her mistress and going in accosted the young man with the salam; and, seating herself before him, said, "Ho thou the Youth!  Verily there is here a lovely damsel, delightsome and perfect of qualities, whose peer is not in her age, and well nigh able is she to make the sun fare backwards [FN#225] and to illumine the universe in lieu thereof.  Now when thou wast wont to visit us in the apartment of the Princess, this maiden looked upon thee and found thee a fair youth; so her heart loved thee with excessive love and desired thee with exceeding desire and to such degree that she insisted upon accompanying me and she hath now taken station at thy door longing to enter.  So do thou grant her permission that she come in and appear in thy presence and then retire to some privacy where she may stand in thy service, a slave to thy will." [FN#226]  The Prince replied, "Whoso seeketh us let enter with weal and welfare, and well come and welcome and fair welcome to each and every of such guests."  Hereat the Princess went in as did all those who were with her, and presently after taking seat they brought out and set before the Youth their whole store of edibles and potables and the party fell to eating and drinking and converse, exchanging happy sayings blended with wit and disport and laughter, while the Princess made it her especial task to toy with her host deeming that he knew her not to be the King's daughter.  He also stinted not to take his pleasure with her; and on this wise they feasted and caroused and enjoyed themselves and were cheered and the converse between them was delightful.  The Duenna, however, kept plying the Prince with wine, mere and pure, until she had made him drunken and his carousal had so mastered him that he required her person of her; however she refused herself and questioned him of the enigma wherewith he had overcome her mistress; whilst he, for stress of drunkenness, was incapacitated by stammering to explain her aught thereof.  Hereupon the Princess, having doffed her upper dress, propped herself sideways upon a divan cushion and stretched herself at full length and the Youth for the warmth of his delight in her and his desire to her anon recovering his speech explained to her the reply of his riddle.  The King's daughter then joyed with mighty great joy as though she had won the world universal; [FN#227] and, springing to her feet incontinently, of her extreme gladness she would not delay to finish her disport with her wooer; but ere the morning morrowed she departed and entered her palace.  Now in so doing she clean forgot her outer robes and the wine-service and what remained of meat and drink.  The Youth had been overcome with sleep and after slumbering he awoke at dawn when he looked round and saw none of the company about him; withal he recognised the princely garments which were of the most sumptuous and costly, robes of brocade and sendal and suchlike, together with jewels and adornments: and scattered about lay sundry articles of the wine-service and fragments of the food they had brought with them.  And from these signs of things forgotten he learnt that the King's daughter had visited him in person and he was certified that she had beguiled him with her wiles until she had wrung from him the reply of his question.  So as soon as it was morning-tide he arose and went, as was his wont, to the Princess's palace where he was met by the Tarjumánah who said to him, "O Youth, is it thy pleasure that my lady expound to thee her explanation of the enigma yesterday proposed by thee?"  "I will tell the very truth," answered he; "and relate to thee what befel me since I saw you last, and 'twas this.  When I left you there came to me a lovely bird, delightsome and perfect of charms, and I indeed entertained her with uttermost honour and worship; we ate and we drank together, but at night she shook her feathers and flew away from me.  And if she deny this I will produce her plumage before her father and all present."  Now when the Sovran, the sire of the Princess, heard these words concerning his daughter, to wit, that the youth had conquered her in her contention and that she had fared to his quarters to the end that she might wring from him an explanation of the riddle which she was unable to ree or reply thereto, he would do naught else save to summon the Cohen [FN#228] and the Lords of his land and the Grandees of his realm and the Notables of his kith and kin.  And when the Priest and all made act of presence, he told them the whole tale first and last; namely, the conditions to the Youth conditioned, that if overcome by his daughter and unable to answer her questions he should be let drain the cup of destruction like his fellows, and if he overcame her he should claim her to wife.  Furthermore he declared that the Youth had answered, with full and sufficient answer, all he had been asked without doubt or hesitation; while at last he had proposed to her an enigma which she had been powerless to solve; and in this matter he had vanquished her twice (he having answered her and she having failed to answer him).  "For which reason," concluded the King, "'tis only right that he marry her; even as was the condition between them twain; and it becometh our first duty to adjudge their contention and decide their case according to covenant and he being doubtless the conqueror to bid write his writ of marriage with her.  But what say ye?"  They replied, "This is the rightest of redes; moreover the Youth, a fair and a pleasant, becometh her well and she likewise besitteth him; and their lot is a wondrous."  So they bade write the marriage writ and the Cohen, arising forthright, pronounced the union auspicious and began blessing and praying for the pair and all present.  In due time the Prince went in to her and consummated the marriage according to the custom stablished by Allah and His Holy Law; and thereafter he related to his bride all that had betided him, from beginning to end, especially how he had sold his parents to one of the Kings.  Now when she heard these words, she had ruth upon his case and soothed his spirit saying to him, "Be of good cheer and keep thine eyes clear and cool of tear."  Then, after a little while the Princess bestowed upon her bridegroom a mint of money that he might fare forth and free his father and his mother.  Accordingly the Prince, accepting her largesse, sought the King to whom he had pledged his parents (and they were still with him in all weal and welfare) and going in to him made his salam and kissed ground and told him the whole tale of the past and the conditions of death or marriage he had made with the King's daughter and of his wedding her after overcoming her in contention.  So the monarch honoured him with honour galore than which naught could be more; and, when the Prince paid him over the moneys, he asked, "What be these dirhams?"  "The price of my parents thou paidest to me," answered the other.  But the King exclaimed, "I gave thee not to the value of thy father and mother moneys of such amount as this sum.  I only largessed thee with a mare and a suit of clothes which was not defraying a debt but presenting thee with a present and thereby honouring thee with due honour.  Then Alhamdolillah-laud be to the Lord, who preserved thee and enabled thee to win thy wish, and now arise and take thy parents and return in safety to thy bride."  The Prince hereupon thanked him and praised Allah for the royal guerdon and favours and the fair treatment wherewith he had been entreated; after which he craved leave to receive his parents in charge and wend his ways.  And when permission was granted to him, he wished all good wishes to the King and taking his father and his mother in weal and welfare he went his ways with them, in joy and gladness and gratitude for all blessings and benefits by Allah upon him bestowed, till he had returned to his bride.  Here he found that his father-in-law had deceased during his absence, so he took seat in lieu of him upon the throne of the kingdom; and he and his consort, during all the days of their life in this world, ceased not eating and drinking in health and well-being and eating and drinking in joy and happiness and bidding and forbidding until they quitted this mundane scene to the safeguard of the Lord God.  And here endeth and is perfected the history of the Youth, the King's son, and the sale of his parents and his falling into the springes of the Princess who insisted upon proposing problems to all her wooers with the condition that if they did not reply she would do them drain the cup of destruction and on this wise had slain a many of men; and, in fine, how she was worsted by and she fell to the lot of this youth whom Allah gifted with understanding to ree all her riddles and who had confounded her with his question whereto she availed not to reply; when his father-in-law died, succeeded to the kingdom which he ruled so well. [FN#229]

NOTE TO P. 82. {footnote [FN#219] }

The Músà (Moses) of the Moslems is borrowed from Jewish sources, the Pentateuch and especially the Talmud, with a trifle of Gnosticism which, hinted at in the Koran (chapt. xviii.), is developed by later writers, making him the "external" man, while Khizr, the Green prophet, is the internal.  But they utterly ignore Manetho whose account of the Jewish legislator (Josephus against Apion, i. cc. 26, 27) shows the other or Egyptian part.  Moses, by name Osarsiph=Osiris-Sapi, Osiris of the underworld, which some translate rich (Osii) in food (Siph, Seph, or Zef) was nicknamed Mosheh from the Heb. Mashah=to draw out, because drawn from the water [FN#230] (or rather from the Koptic Mo=water ushe=saved).  He became a priest an An or On (Heliopolis), after studying the learning of the Egyptians.  Presently he was chosen chief by the "lepers and other unclean persons" who had been permitted by King Amenophis to occupy the city Avaris lately left desolate by the "Shepherd Kings."  Osarsiph ordained the polity and laws of his followers, forbidding them to worship the Egyptian gods and enjoining them to slay and sacrifice the sacred animals.  They were joined by the "unclean of the Egyptians" and by their kinsmen of the Shepherds, and treated the inhabitants with a barbarity more execrable than that of the latter, setting fire to cities and villages, casting the Egyptian priests and prophets out of their country, and compelling Amenophis to fall back upon Ethiopia.  After some years of disorder Sethos (also called Ramesses from his father Rampses) son of Amenophis came down with the King from Ethiopia leading great united forces, and, "encountering the Shepherds and the unclean people, they defeated them and slew multitudes of them, and pursued the remainder to the borders of Syria."  Josephus relates this account of Manetho, which is apparently truthful, with great indignation.  For the prevalence of leprosy we have the authority of the Hebrews themselves, and Pliny (xxvi. 2), speaking of Rubor Egyptus, evidently white leprosy ending in the black, assures us that it was "natural to the Egyptians," adding a very improbable detail, namely that the kings cured it by balneF (baths) of human blood. [FN#231]  

Schiller (in "Die Sendung Moses") argues that the mission of the Jewish lawgiver, as adopted son (the real son?) of Pharoah's daughter, became "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," by receiving the priestly education of the royal princes, and that he had advanced from grade to grade in the religious mysteries, even to the highest, in which the great truth of the One Supreme, the omniscient, omnipotent God was imparted, as the sublime acme of all human knowledge, thus attributing to Moses before his flight into Midian, an almost modern conception of an essentially anthropomorphous Deity.

Further, that his conscious mission when he returned to Egypt was not merely the deliverance of his people from the Egyptian yoke, but the revelation to them of this great conception, and so the elevation of that host of slaves to the position of a nation, to whose every member the highest mystery of religion should be known and whose institutions should be based upon it.  It is remarkable that Schiller should have accepted the fables of Manetho as history, that he should not have suspected the fact that the Egyptian priest wrote from motives of personal spite and jealousy, and with the object of poisoning the mind of Ptolemy against the learned Jews with whom he stood on terms of personal friendship.  Thus he not only accepts the story that the Hebrews were expelled from Egypt because of the almost universal spread of leprosy among them, but explains at length why that loathsome and horrible disease should have so prevailed.  Still Schiller's essay, written with his own charming eloquence, is a magnificent eulogy of the founder of the Hebrew nation.

Goethe ("Israel in der Wüste"), on the other hand, with curious ingenuity, turns every thing to the prejudice of the "headstrong man" Moses, save that he does grant him a vivid sentiment of justice.  He makes him both by nature and education a grand, strong man, but brutal (roh) withal.  His killing the Egyptian is a secret murder; "his dauntless fist gains him the favour of a Midianitish priest-prince . . . . under the pretence of a general festival, gold and silver dishes are swindled (by the Jews under Moses's instigation) from their neighbours, and at the moment when the Egyptians believe the Israelites to be occupied in harmless feastings, a reversed Sicilian vesper is executed; the stranger murders the native, the guest the host; and, with a horrible cunning, only the first-born are destroyed to the end that, in a land where the first-born enjoyed such superior rights, the selfishness of the younger sons might come into play, and instant punishment be avoided by hasty flight.  The artifice succeeds, the assassins are thrust out instead of being chastised."  (Quoted from pp. 99-100 "The Hebrews and the Red Sea," by Alexander W. Thayer; Andover, Warren F. Draper, 1883.)  With respect to the census of the Exodus, my friend Mr. Thayer, who has long and conscientiously studied the subject, kindly supplied me with the following notes and permitted their publication.

Trieste, October 11, 1887.

My Dear Sir Richard,

The points in the views presented by me in our conversation upon the Hebrews and their Exodus, of which you requested a written exposition, are, condensed, these:

Assuming that the Hebrew records, as we have them, are in the main true, i.e. historic, a careful search must reveal some one topic concerning which all the passages relating to it agree at least substantially.  Such a topic is the genealogies, precisely that which Philippsohn the great Jewish Rabbi, Dr. Robinson, of the Palestine researches, and all the Jewish and Christian commentators--I know no exception--with one accord, reject!  Look at these two columns, A. being the passages containing the genealogies, B. the passages on which the rejection of them is based: A. 1.  Genesis xxiv. 32 to xxv. 25 (Births of Jacob's sons). 2.  xxxv. 23-26 (Recapitulation of the above). 3.  xlvi. 8-27 (List of Jacob and his sons, when they came into Egypt). 4.  Ex. vi. 14-27 (Lineage of Aaron and Moses). 5.  Numb. xxxvi. 1-2 (Lineage of Zelophehad). 6.  Josh. vii. 17-18 (Lineage of Achan). 7.  Ruth iv. 18-22 (ditto of David). 8.  1 Chron. ii. 9-15 (ditto). 9.  Mat. i. 2-6 (ditto). 10.  Luke iii. 32-37 (ditto). 11.  Ezra vii. 1-5 (ditto of Ezra). The lists of Princes, heads of tribes, the spies, the commission to divide conquered Palestine, contain names that can be traced back, and all coincide with the above. B. 1.  Gen. xv. 13. 2.  Ex. xii. 40, 41. 3.  Acts vii. 6. These three give the 400 and the 430 years of the supposed bondage of the Bene Jacob, but are offset by Gen. xv. 16 (four generations) and Gal. iii. 17 (Paul's understanding of the 430 years).

4.  The story of Joseph, beginning Gen. xxxvii. 2, gives us the dates in his life; viz., 17 when sold, 30 when he becomes Prime Minister, 40 when his father joins him.

5.  1 Chron. vi. 1-15 (Lineage of Ezra's brother Jehozadak, abounding in repetitions and worthless).

1.  As between the two, the column A. is in my opinion more trustworthy than B.

2.  By all the genealogies of the Davidian line we have Judah No. 1, Solomon No. 12.  By Ezra's genealogy of his own family we have Levi No. 1, and Azariah (Solomon's High Priest) No. 12.  They agree perfectly.

3.  If there were 400 years of Hebrew (Bene Jacob) slavery between the death of Joseph and the Exodus, there were 400 - 80 = 320, between Joseph's death and the birth of Moses.  If this was so there is no truth in the accounts of Moses and Aaron being the great-grandchildren of Levi (Levi, Kohath, Amram, Aaron and Moses).  In fact, if Dr. Robinson be correct in saying that at least six generations are wanting in the genealogies of David (to fill the 400 years) the same must be lacking in all the early genealogies.  Reductio ad absurdum!

4.  Jacob, a young man, we will say of 40, is sent to Laban for a wife.  He remains in Padan Aram twenty years (Gen. xxxi. 38), where all his sons except Benjamin were born, that is, before he was 60.  At 130 he joined Joseph in Egypt (Gen. xlvii. 9).  Joseph, therefore, born in Padan Aram was now, instead of 40, over 70 years old!  That this is so, is certain.  In Judah's exquisite pleadings (Gen. xliv. 18-34) he speaks of Benjamin as "the child of Jacob's old age," "a little one," and seven times he calls him "the lad."  Benjamin is some years younger than Joseph, but when the migration into Egypt takes place-a few weeks after Judah's speech-Benjamin comes as father of ten sons (Gen. xlvi. 21), but here Bene Benjamin is used in its broad sense of "descendants," for in 1 Chron. vii. 6-12 we find that the "Bene" were sons, grandsons and great-grandsons.  To hold that Joseph at 40 had a younger brother who was a great-grandfather, is, of course, utterly absurd.

5.  According to Gen. xv. 18, the Exodus was to take place in the fourth generation born in Egypt, as I understand it.

Born in Egypt:--

Levi (father of) Kohath                          Judah (father of) Pharez, Hezron

1.  Amram                                             1.  Ram 2.  Aaron                                               2.  Amminadab 3.  Eleazar                                             3.  Nahshon 4.  Phinees                                             4.  Salma

A conspicuous character in Numbers (xiii. 6, 30; xiv. 24, etc.) is Caleb.  In the first chapter of Judges Caleb still appears, and Othniel, the son of his younger brother Kenaz, is the first of the so-called Judges (Jud. iii. 9).  This also disposes of the 400 years and confirms the view that the Exodus took place in the fourth generation born in Egypt.  Other similar proofs may be omitted--these are amply sufficient.

6.  What, then, was the origin of the notion of the 400 years of Hebrew slavery?

If the Egyptian inscriptions and papyri prove anything, it is this: that from the subjugation of Palestine by one of the Thormes down to the great invasion of the hordes from Asia Minor in the reign of Ramses III., that country had never ceased to be a Pharaonic province; that during these four or five centuries every attempt to throw off the yoke had been crushed and its Semitic peoples deported to Egypt as slaves; that multitudes of them joined in the Exodus under Moses, and became incorporated with the Hebrews under the constitution and code adopted at Horeb (=Sinai? or Jebel Araif?).  These people became "Seed of Abraham," "Children of Israel," by adoption, to which I have no doubt Paul refers in the "adoption" of Romans viii. 15-23; ix. 4; Gal. iv. 5; Eph. i. 5.  In the lapse of ages this distinction between Bene Israel and Bene Jacob was forgotten, and therefore the very uncritical Masorites in their edition of the Old Testament "confounded the confusion" in this matter.  With the disappearance of the 400 years and of the supposed two or three centuries covered by the book of Judges, the genealogies stand as facts.  The mistake in the case of the Judges is in supposing them to have been consecutive, when, in fact, as the subjugations by neighbouring peoples were local and extended only over one or two tribes, half a dozen of them may have been contemporaneous.

7.  Aaron and Moses were by their father Amram, great-grandchildren of Levi--by their mother his grandchildren (Ex. vi. 20).  Joseph lived to see his own great-grandchildren.  Moses must have been born before Joseph's death.

8.  There is one point determined in which the Hebrew and the Egyptian chronologies coincide.  It is the invasion of Judea by Shishak of Egypt in the fifth year of Rehoboam, son of Solomon (1 Kings xiv. 25).  Supposing the Egyptian chronology from the time of Minephtah II. to be in the main correct, as given by Brugsch and others, the thirteen generations, Judah--Rehoboam, allowing three to a century, take us back to just that Minephtah.  In his reign, according to Brugsch, Pharaoh sent breadstuffs to the Chittim in "the time of famine."  The Hebrew records and traditions connect Joseph's prime ministry with a famine.  By the genealogies it could have been only this in the time of Minephtah.

9.  The Bene Jacob were but temporary sojourners in Goshen and always intended to return to Canaan.  They were independent and had the right to do so.  See what Joseph says in Gen. i. 24-25.  But before this design was executed came the great irruption of the depopulated all Palestine, in the time of Ramses III.  Here was the opportunity for the Bene Jacob to enlarge their plans and to devise the conquest and possession of Palestine.  According to Josephus, supported by Stephen (Acts vii. 22), Moses was a man "mighty in works"-a man of military fame.  The only reasonable way of understanding the beginning of the Exodus story, is to suppose that, in the weakened condition of Ramses III., the Hebrew princes began to intrigue with the enslaved Semites-the Ruthenu of the Egyptian inscriptions--and this being discovered by the Pharaoh, Moses was compelled to fly.  Meantime the intrigues were continued and when the time for action came, under one of Ramses' weak successors, Moses was recalled and took command.

10.  This prepares us for the second query, which you proposed, that is as to the numbers who joined in the Exodus.

The Masoretic text, from which the English version of the Hebrew records is made, gives the result of the census at Sinai (=Horeb) as being 603,550 men, "twenty years old and upwards, that were able to go forth to war in Israel"-the tribe of Levi not included.  On this basis it has been generally stated, that the number of the Bene Israel at the Exodus was three millions.  Of late I find that two millions is the accepted number.  The absurdity of even this aggregate is manifest.  How could such a vast multitude be subsisted?  How kept in order?  How compelled to observe sanitary regulations?  Moreover, in the then enfeebled state of Egypt, why should 603,550 armed men not have marched out without ceremony?  Why ask permission to go to celebrate a sacrifice to their God?

But there is another series of objections to these two millions, which I have never seen stated or even hinted, to which I pray your attention.

The area of Palestine differs little from that of the three American States, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, the most densely peopled of the Union, containing by the last census a population of somewhat less than two and a half millions.

By the second Hebrew census (Numb. xxvi.) taken just before the death of Moses, the army was 601,730; from which the inference has always been drawn, that at least 2,000,000, in the aggregate, Levites 23,000 males still excepted, entered and possessed the conquered territories.

Take now one of the late maps of Palestine and mark upon it the boundaries of the tribes as given in the book of Joshua.  This second census gives the number of each tribal army to be inserted in each tribal territory.  Reuben, 43,750; Judah, 76,500; Benjamin, 45,600, etc., etc.  By Josh. xii. the land was then divided between some 40 petty kings and peoples, 31 of whom are named as having been subjected.  If, now, Joshua's army numbered over 600,000, why was not the conquest made complete?  Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut are divided into 27 counties.  Suppose, now, that these counties were each a separate and independent little kingdom dependent upon itself for defence, what resistance could be made to an army of 600,000 men, all of them grown up during forty years of life in a camp, and in the full vigour of manhood?  And yet Joshua was unable to complete his conquest!  Again, the first subjugation of a part of the newly-conquered territory as noted in the book of Judges, was Judah and Simeon by a king of Edom. [FN#232]  If Judah could put an army into the field of 76,500, and Simeon 22,500, their subjugation by a king of Edom is incredible, and the story absurd.  Next comes King Eglon of Moab and subjugates the tribes of Reuben and Gad, east of the Dead Sea and the Jordan.  And yet Reuben has an army of over 43,000, and Gad 45,000.  And so on.

With an army of 60,000 only, and an aggregate of half a million of people led out of Egypt, all the history becomes instantly rational and trustworthy.

There remains one more bubble to be exploded.

Look at these figures, in which a quadruple increase--at least 25 per centum too great--is granted. [FN#233] 1st Generation, the Patriarchs, in number 12 2nd  Generation, Kohath, Pharez, etc. 48 3rd  Generation, Amram, Hezron, etc. 192 4th  Generation, Aaron and Moses 768   Aggregate 1,020   Minus 25 per cent. for deaths, children, etc. 255   Actual number of Bene Jacob 765

But Jacob and his sons brought with them herdsmen, shepherds, servants, etc.  Bunsen puts the number of all, masters and men, at less than 2,000.

Let the proportion in this case be one able-bodied man in four persons, and the increase triple. 1st Generation, the Patriarchs, in number 500 2nd  Generation,  Kohath, Pharez, etc. 1,500 3rd  Generation,  Amram, Hezron, etc. 4,500 4th  Generation,  Aaron and Moses 13,500     20,000   Minus 25 per centum as above 5,000     15,000   Add the real Bene Jacob 765   Aggregate 15,765

Were these people, while Joseph is still alive, the subjects of slavery as described in Ex. i.?  Did they build Pithom and Ramses, store-cities?

The number is sufficient to lead in the great enterprise and to control the mixed multitude which was at Sinai, adopted as "Bene Israel," "Seed of Abraham," and divided among and incorporated with the tribes; but not sufficient to warrant the supposition that with so small a force the Hebrew leaders could for a moment have entertained the project of conquering Palestine.

A word more on the statement in Ex. i. 11: "And they built for Pharaoh store-cities, Pithom and Ramses."  All Egyptologists agree that these cities were built by Ramses II., or certainly not later than his reign.  If the Hebrew genealogies are authentic, this was long before the coming of Jacob and his sons into Egypt.

(Signed) A.W. Thayer


Here we begin with the aidance of Allah Almighty, the Tale of the Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad. [FN#234]

It is related (and Allah is All knowing!) of a certain man which was a Warlock, that Destiny crave him from town to town until at last he entered Baghdad city and dismounted at a Khán of the Khans where he spent the night of arrival. Then, rising betimes next morning, he walked about the highways and wandered around the lanes and he stinted not passing from market street to market street, solacing himself with a sight of many places, till he reached the Long Bazar, whence he could descry the whole site of the city. Now he narrowly considered the land, and, lo and behold! it was a capital sans peer amongst the cities, where-through coursed the Dajlah River blended with the River Furát [FN#235] and over the united stream were thrown seven bridges of boats; all these were bound one to other for the folk to pass over on their several pursuits, especially for the pleasure seekers who fared forth to the palm orchards and the vergiers abounding in fruits while the birds were hymning Allah, the Sole, the All-conquering. Now one day as this Warlock was amusing himself amongst the markets he passed by the shop of a Cook before whom were set for sale dressed meats of all kinds and colours; [FN#236] and, looking at the youth, he saw that he was rising fourteen and beautiful as the moon on the fourteenth night; and he was elegant and habited in a habit as it had just come from the tailor's hand for its purity and excellent fit, and one had said that he (the artisan) had laboured hard thereat, for the sheen of it shimmered like unto silver. [FN#237] Then the Warlock considering the face of this Cook saw his colour wan as the hue of metal leaves [FN#238] and he was lean of limb; [FN#239] so he took station facing him and said to him, "The Peace be upon thee, O my brother," and said the other in reply, "And upon thee be The Peace and the Truth of Allah and His blessings: so well come to thee and welcome and fair welcome. Honour me, O my lord, by suffering me to serve thee with the noonday meal." Hereat the Wizard entered the shop and the Kitchener took up two or three platters white as the whitest silver; and, turning over into each one a different kind of meat set them between the hands of the stranger who said to him, "Seat thee, O my son." And when his bidding was obeyed he added, "I see thee ailing and thy complexion is yellow exceedingly: what be this hath affected thee and what is thy disorder and what limb of thy limbs paineth thee and is it long since thou art in such case?" Now when the Cook heard this say he drew a sigh of regret from the depths of his heart and the soles of his feet and quoth he weeping, "Allah upon thee, O my lord, remind me not of that hath betided me!" But quoth the other, "Tell me what may be thy disease and whereof cost thou complain; nor conceal from me thy pain; for that I am a physician and by aidance of Allah an experienced; and I have a medicine for thy malady." Hereat the youth fell to moaning and groaning and presently replied, "In very sooth, O my lord, I have nor pain nor complaint, save that I am a lover." The Warlock asked, "Art thou indeed a lover?" whereto the Cook make answer, "And not only a lover but a lover parted from his beloved." "On whom hangeth thy heart, say me?" continued the Mediciner and the youth replied, "Leave me for the nonce till such time as I am quit of my business, and return to me about mid-afternoon, that I may inform thee of mine affair and acquaint thee with the case I am in." The Warlock rejoined, "Arise now to thy work lest it be miswrought by loitering;" and so saying he ate whatso of meats had been served up to him and fared forth to thread the Bazars of Baghdad and solace himself by seeing the city. But when it was the hour of Al 'Asr--the mid afternoon prayer--he went back to the Cook and found that by this time he had wrought all his work, and as soon as the youth sighted him he rejoiced in him and his spirits were cheered and he said in his mind, "Haply joy shall come to me from the healing hand of this Mediciner;" so he shut his shop and taking with him his customer tried him to his own home. Now this young Kitchener was of amplest means which he had inherited from either parent; so as soon as they entered his quarters he served up food and the two ate and drank and were gladdened and comforted. After this quoth the guest to his host, "Now relate to me the manner of thy story and what is the cause of thy disorder?" "O my lord," quoth the youth, "I must inform thee that the Caliph Al-Mu'tazid bi'llah, [FN#240] the Commander of the Faithful, hath a daughter fair of favour, and gracious of gesture; beautiful delightsome and dainty of waist and flank, a maiden in whom all the signs and signals of loveliness are present, and the tout ensemble is independent of description: seer never saw her like and relator never related of aught that eveneth her in stature and seemlihead and graceful bearing of head. Now albeit a store of suitors galore, the grandees and the Kings, asked her from the Caliph, her sire refused to part with her, nor gave her neither would he give her to any one thereof. And every Friday when fare the folk to the Mosques that they pray the prayers of meeting-day, all the merchants and men who buy and sell and the very artisans and what not, leave their shops and warehouses [FN#241] and taverns [FN#242] unbolted and wide open and flock to congregational devotions. And at such time this rare maiden cometh down from her palace and solaceth herself with beholding the Bazars and anon she entereth the Hammam and batheth therein and straightway goeth forth and fareth homewards. But one Friday said I to myself, 'I will not go to the Mosque, for I would fain look upon her with a single look;' and when prayer-time came and the folk flocked to the fane for divine service, I hid myself within my shop Presently that august damsel appeared with a comitive of forty handmaidens all as full moons newly risen and each fairer than her fellows, while she amiddlemost rained light upon them as she were the irradiating sun; and the bondswomen would have kept her from sight by thronging around her and they carried her skirts by means of bent rods [FN#243] golden and silvern. I looked at her but one look when straightway my heart fell in love to her burning as a live coal and from mine eyes tears railed and until now I am still in that same yearning, and what yearning!" And so saying the youth cried out with an outcry whereby his soul was like to leave his body. "Is this case still thy case?" asked the Warlock, and the youth answered, "Yes, O my lord;" when the other enquired, "An I bring thee and her together what wilt thou give me?" and the young Cook replied, "My money and my life which shall be between thy hands!" Hereupon quoth the Mediciner, "Up with thee and bring me a phial of metal and seven needles and a piece of fresh Lign-aloes; [FN#244] also a bit of cooked meat, [FN#245] and somewhat of sealing-clay and the shoulder-blade of a sheep together with felt and sendal of seven kinds." The youth fared forth and did his bidding, when the Sage took the shoulder-blades and wrote upon them Koranic versets and adjurations which would please the Lord of the Heavens and, wrapping them in felt, swathed them with silken stuff of sevenfold sorts. Then, taking the phial he thrust the seven needles into the green Lign-aloes and set it in the cooked meat which he made fast with the sealing clay. Lastly he conjured over these objects with a Conjuration [FN#246] which was, "I have knocked, I have knocked at the hall doors of Earth to summon the Jánn, and the Jánn have knocked for the Jánn against the Shaytán." Hereat appeared to me the son of Al bin Imrán [FN#247] with a snake and baldrick'd with a basilisk and cried, "Who be this trader and son of a slave-girl who hath knocked at the ground for us this evening?" "Then do thou, O youth, reply, 'I am a lover and of age youthful and my love is to a young lady; and unto your gramarye I have had recourse, O folk of manliness and generosity and masterful deeds: so work ye with me and confirm mine affair and aid me in this matter. See ye not how Such an one, daughter of Such an one, oppression and wrong to me hath done, nor is she with me in affection as she was anon?' They shall answer thee, 'Let it be, as is said, in the tail;' [FN#248] then do thou set the objects upon a fire exceeding fierce and recite then over them, 'This be the business; and were Such-an-one, daughter of Such-an-one, within the well of Káshán [FN#249] or in the city Ispahan or in the towns of men who with cloaks buttoned tight and ever ready good fame to blight, [FN#250] let her come forth and seek union with the beloved.' Whereto she will reply 'Thou art the lord and I am the bondswoman.' " Now the youth abode marvelling at such marvel-forms and the Warlock having repeated to him these words three times, turned to him and said "Arise to thy feet and perfume and fumigate thy person and don thy choicest dress and dispread thy bed, for at this very hour thou shalt see thy mistress by thy side." And so saying the Sage cast out of hand the shoulder-blades and set the phial upon the fire. Thereupon the youth arose without stay or delay and bringing a bundle of raiment the rarest, he spread it and habited himself, doing whatso the Wizard had bidden him; withal could he not believe that his mistress would appear. However ere a scanty space of time had elapsed, lo and behold! the young lady bearing her bedding [FN#251] and still sleeping passed through the house door and she was bright and beautiful as the easting sun. But when the youth the Cook sighted her, he was perplex" and his wits took flight with his sense and he cried aloud saying, "This be naught save a wondrous matter!" "And the same," quoth the Sage, "is that requiredst thou." Quoth the Cook, "And thou, O my lord art of the Hallows of Allah," and kissed his hand and thanked him for his kindly deed. "Up with thee and take thy pleasure," cried the Warlock; so the lover crept under the coverlet into the bed and he threw his arms round the fair one and kissed her between the eyes; after which he bussed her on the mouth. She sensed a sensation in herself and straightway awaking opened her eyes and beheld a youth embracing her, so she asked him, "Ho thou, who art thou?" Answered he, "One by thine eyes a captive ta'en and of thy love the slain and of none save thyself the fain." Hereat she looked at him with a look which her heart for love longing struck and again asked him, "O my beloved; say me then, who art thou, a being of mankind or of Jánn-kind?" whereto he answered, "I am human and of the most honourable." She resumed, "Then who was it brought me hither to thee?" and he responded, "The Angels and the Spirits, the Jinns and the Jann." "Then I swear thee, O my dearling," quoth she, "that thou bid them bear me hither to thine arms every night," and quoth he, "Hearkening and obeying, O my lady, and for me also this be the bourne of all wishes." Then, each having kissed other, they slept in mutual embrace until dawn. But when the morning morrowed and showed its sheen and shone, behold, the Warlock appeared and, calling the youth who came to him with a smiling face, said to him, "How was it with thy soul this night?" [FN#252] and both lovers cried, "We were in the Garden of Paradise together with the Hur and Ghilman: [FN#253] Allah requite thee for us with all weal." Then they passed into the Hammam and when they had bathed, the youth said, "O my lord, what shall we do with the young lady and how shall she hie to her household and what shall be the case of me without her?" "Feel no grief," said the other, "and quit all care of anything: e'en as she came so shall she go; nor shall any of Almighty Allah's creatures know aught of her." Hereat the Sage dismissed her by the means which conveyed her, nor did she cease to bear her bedding with her every night and to visit the youth with all joyance and delight. Now after a few weeks had gone by, this young lady happening to be upon the terrace roof of her palace in company with her mother, turned her back to the sun, and when the heat struck her between the shoulders her belly swelled; so her parent asked her, "O my daughter, what hast thou that thou justest out after this wise?" "I wot naught thereof," answered she; so the mother put forth her hand to the belly of her child and found her pregnant; whereupon she screamed and buffeted her face and asked, "Whence did this befal thee?" The women-attendants all heard her cries and running up to her enquired, "What hath caused thee, O our lady, such case as this?" whereto she replied, "I would bespeak the Caliph." So the women sought him and said, "O our lord, thou art wanted by our lady;" and he did their bidding and went to his wife, but at first sight he noted the condition of his daughter and asked her, "What is to do with thee and what hath brought on thee such calamity?" Hereupon the Princess told him how it was with her and he exclaimed as he heard it, "O my daughter, I am the Caliph and Commander of the Faithful, and thou hast been sought to wife of me by the Kings of the earth one and all, but thou didst not accept them as connections and now thou doest such deed as this! I swear the most binding oaths and I vow by the tombs of my sires and my grandsires, an thou say me sooth thou shalt be saved; but unless thou tell me truth concerning whatso befel thee and from whom came this affair and the quality of the man's intention thee-wards, I will slaughter thee and under earth I will sepulchre thee." Now when the Princess heard from her father's mouth these words and had pondered this swear he had sworn she replied, "O my sire, albeit lying may save yet is truth-telling the more saving side. Verily, O my father, 'tis some time before this day that my bed beareth me up every night and carrieth me to a house of the houses wherein dwelleth a youth, a model of beauty and loveliness, who causeth every seer to languish; and he beddeth with me and sleepeth by my side until dawn, when my couch uplifteth me and returneth with me to the Palace: nor wot I the manner of my going and the mode of my coming is alike unknown to me." The Caliph hearing these her words marvelled at this her tale with exceeding marvel and fell into the uttermost of wonderment, but bethinking him of his Wazir, a man of penetrative wit, sagacious, astute, argute exceedingly, he summoned him to the presence and acquainted him as soon as he came with this affair and what had befallen his daughter; to wit, how she was borne away in her bed without knowing whither or aught else. Quoth the Minister after taking thought for a full told hour, "O Caliph of the Time and the Age, I have a device by whose virtue I do opine we shall arrive at the stead whither wendeth the Princess;" and quoth the Caliph "What may be this device of thine?" "Bid bring me a bag;" rejoined the Wazir, "which I will let fill with millet;” [FN#254] so they brought him one and he after stuffing the same with grain set it upon the girl's bed and close to her where lay her head, leaving the mouth open to the intent that when during the coming night her couch might be carried away, the millet in going and returning might be shed upon the path. "Allah bless thee, Ho thou the Wazir!" cried the Caliph: "this device of thine is passing good and fair fall it for a sleight than which naught can be slyer and good luck to it for a proof than which naught can be better proven." Now as soon as it was even-tide, the couch was carried off as had happened every night and the grain was strown broad cast upon the path, like a stream, from the gateway of the Palace to the door of the young Cook's lodging, wherein the Princess righted as was her wont until dawn of day. And when morn appeared the Sage came and carried off with him the youth to the Hammam where he found privacy and said to him, "O my son, an thou ask me aught touching thy mistress's kith and kin, I bid thee know that they have indeed discovered her condition and against thee they have devised a device." Exclaimed the youth, "Verily we are Allah's and unto Him are we returning! What may be thy rede in this affair? An they slay me I shall be a martyr on Allah's path; [FN#255] but do thou wend thy ways and save thyself and may the Almighty requite thee with all of welfare; thee, through whom mine every wish I have won, and the whole of my designs I have fulfilled; after which let them do with me as they desire." The Warlock replied, "O my son, grieve not neither fear, for naught shall befal thee of harm, and I purpose to show thee marvels and miracles wroughten upon them." When the youth heard these words his spirits were cheered, and joying with joy exceeding he replied, "Almighty Allah reward thee for me with fullest welfare!" Then the twain went forth the Hammam and tried them home. But as soon as morning morrowed, the Wazir repaired to the Caliph; and, both going to the Princess together, found her in her bower and the bag upon her bed clean empty of millet, at sight of which the Minister exclaimed, "Now indeed we have caught our debtor. Up with us and to horse, O Caliph of the Age, and sum and substance of the Time and the Tide, and follow we the millet and track its trail." The Com mender of the Faithful forthright gave orders to mount, and the twain, escorted by their host, rode forth on the traces of the grain till they drew near the house, when the youth heard the jingle and jangle [FN#256] of horses' tramp and the wrangle and cangle of men's outcries. Upon this said the Cook to the Warlock, "Here they draw near to seize me, O my lord, what is there now for me to do?" and said the other, "Rise and fill me an ewer with water then mount therewith to the terrace-roof and pour the contents round and about the house, after which come down to me." The youth did his bidding, and meanwhile the Caliph and the Wazir and the soldiery had approached the house when, lo and behold! the site had become an island amiddlemost a main dashing with clashing billows. [FN#257] But when the Commander of the Faithful sighted this sea, he was perplexed with mighty great perplexity and enquired of the Wazir, "At what time did such great water appear in this place?" The Minister replied, "I never knew that here was any stream, albe well I wot that the Tigris river floweth amiddlemost the capital; but this is a magical current." So saying he bade the soldiery urge their horses into the water sans fear, and every one crave as he had directed until all who entered lost their lives and a many of men were drowned. Hereupon cried the Prince of True Believers, "O Wazir, we are about to destroy our host and to fare with them!" and cried the other, "How shall we act, O Caliph of the Age? Haply our first, nay our best way, is to ask help of those within the house and grant to them indemnity while they exchange words with us and we see anon what will come of their affair." "Do as beseemeth thee," answered the Prince of True Believers; whereupon the Minister commanded his men to cry aloud upon the household and they sued for help during a length of time. But the Sage, hearing their shouts, said to the youth, "Arise and go up to the terrace and say to the Caliph of the Age, 'Thou art in safety; turn away thy steps hence and presently we will meet thy Highness in health and weal; otherwise [FN#258] thy daughter shall be lost and thine army shall be destroyed, and thou, O Commander of the Faithful, wilt depart and return as one outdriven. Do thou wend thy ways: this be not the mode of meeting us and in such manner there is no management.' " The Cook did as he was bidden, and when the twain heard his words, quoth the Wazir to the Caliph, "Verily these be naught save Magicians, otherwise they must be of the fulsomest of the Jann, for indeed never heard we nor saw we aught of this." Hereupon the Prince of True Believers turned his back upon the place and he sorrowful and strait of breast and disheartened of heart; so he went down to his Palace and sat there for a full-told hour when behold, the Warlock and the Cook appeared before him. But as soon as they stood in the presence the Caliph cried out, "O Linkman, bring me the head of yonder youth from between his shoulders!" Hereupon the Executioner came forward and tearing a strip off the youth's robe-skirt bandaged his eyes; then he walked thrice round about him brandishing his blade over the victim's head and lastly cried, "O Caliph of the Age, shall I make away with this youth?" Answered the Caliph, "Yes, after thou shalt have stricken off his head." Hearing this the Sworder raised his hand and smote, when suddenly his grip was turned backwards upon a familiar of his who stood beside him, and it lighted upon his neck with such force that his head hew off and fell at the Caliph's feet. The King and the Wazir, were perplexed at this affair, and the former cried out, "What be this? Art gone blind, O Bhang eater, that thy stroke hath missed the mark and thou hast not known thy familiar from this youth who kneeleth before thee? Smite him without delay!" Hereupon the Linkman again raised his hand to obey his lord, but the blow fell upon the neck of his varlet and the head flew off and rolled at the feet of the Caliph and his Chief Councillor. At this second mishap the wits of all present were bewildered and the King cried, "What business is this, O Wazir, whereto the other made answer, "O Caliph of the Time and rare gift of the Age and the Tide, what canst thou do, O my lord, with such as these? And whoso availeth to take away o' nights thy daughter upon her bed and dispread a sea around his house, the same also hath power to tear thy kingdom from thy grasp; nay more, to practice upon thy life. Now 'tis my rede that thou rise and kiss the hand of this Sage and sue his protection, [FN#259] lest he work upon us worse than this. Believe me, 'twere better for thee, O my lord, to do as I bid thee and thus 'twill be well for us rather than to rise up as adversaries of this man." Hearing such words from his Minister, the King bade them raise the youth from the strip of blood-rug and remove the bandage from before his eyes, after which he rose to his feet, and, kissing the Warlock’s hand, said to him, "In very sooth we knew thee not nor were we ware of the measure of thine excellence. But, O teacher of the Time and sum and substance of revolving Tide, why hast thou wrought to me on this wise in the matter of my daughter and destroyed my servants and soldiers?" "O Viceregent of Allah upon His Earth," replied the Sage, "I am a stranger, and having eaten bread and salt with this youth, I formed friendship and familiarity with him: then, seeing his case which was sad and his state which was marvellous as it had afflicted him with sickness, I took compassion upon him; moreover I designed to show you all what I am and what Almighty Allah hath taught me of occult knowledge. Hitherto there hath been naught save weal, and now I desire of thy favour that thou marry thy daughter to this youth, my familiar, for that she suiteth none other save himself." Quoth the Caliph, "This proceeding I look upon as the fittest and it besitteth us that we obey thy bidding." Presently he robed the youth with a sumptuous robe worth the kingdom of a King, and commanded him to sit beside the presence and seated the Sage upon a chair of ebony-wood. Now whilst they were in converse the Warlock turned round and beheld arear of the Caliph a hanging of sendal whereupon stood figured lions twain: so he signed with his hand to these forms which were mighty huge of limb and awesome to look upon, when each put forth his paw upon his fellow and both roared with roars like unto the bellow of ear-rending thunder. Hereat all present were perplex in the extreme and were in admiration at that matter and especially the Prince of True Believers who cried, "O Wazir what seest thou in this business?" The Wazir replied, "O Caliph of the Age, verily Allah Almighty to thee hath sent this Sage that He [FN#260] might show thee such marvels as these." Then the Warlock signalled with his hand to the lions which shrank till they became as cats which carried on the combat; and both Caliph and Wazir wondered thereat with excessive wonderment. Anon quoth the King to the Minister, "Bid the Sage display to us more of his marvels;" and accordingly the Wazir obeyed his lord's be hest, and the Warlock replied, "To hear is to obey." He then said, "Bring hither to me a chauldron full of water;" and when it was brought he asked the Courtiers, "Which of you would divert himself?" "I," quoth the Wazir; when quoth the Sage, "Do thou rise to thy feet and doff thy robes and gird thee with a zone:" whereto said the other, "Bring me a waistcloth;" and when it was brought he did therewith as he was bidden. Hereat said the Warlock, "Seat thee in the centre of the chauldron;" so he plunged into the water, but when he would have seated him amiddlemost thereof as ordered he saw only that he had entered a sea dashing with surges clashing wherein whoso goeth is lost to view, and whence whoso cometh is born anew; and he fell to swimming from side to side intending to issue forth, while the waves suffered him not to make the shore. And while he was in this case behold, a billow of the billows vomited [FN#261] him up from the sea to the strand and he stood on dry land, when he surveyed his person and suddenly saw that he had become a woman with the breasts of a woman and the solution of continuity like a woman, and long black hair flowing down to his heels even as a woman's. Then said he to himself, "O ill- omened diversion! What have I done with such unlucky disport that I have looked upon this marvel and wonder of wonderments, only to become a woman. [FN#262] Verily we are Allah's, and unto Him shall we return;" adding as he took thought of the matter and of what had befallen him, "There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great." Presently a Fisherman approached him and sighting a fair girl said, "This be none other than a blessed day which Allah hath opened to us with a beautiful maiden for quarry; and she is doubtless of the Daughters of the Deep, whom Allah Almighty hath sent to us that I may espouse her to my son." Hearing these words said the transformed to himself, "Now after being a Wazir I have become a woman and this be for that as tit for tat, [FN#263] and the wight furthermore desireth to see me married, and as for the Caliph and the kingdom and the countries, who shall now be able to offer them counsel?" But the Fisherman who for his joyance had no stomach to ply his pursuit, as was his custom, forthwith arose and taking with him the Daughter of the Deep led her to his house, and on entering the door cried aloud to his wife, "This day hath been a lucky for my fishing craft: during all these years it never befel me to happen upon a Mermaid save on this best-omened of all the days,ö adding, "Where is thy son, to whom Allah hath sent this Daughter of the Daughters of the Main; and hath made her his portion and vouchsafed her to his service? for 'tis my design to marry them." Replied the woman, "He hath taken the beasts and hath fared forth to pasture it and plough therewith; but right soon will he return. [FN#264] And whilst they were thus conversing the youth came forward, and the Wazir on sighting him groaned and cried, Well-away for me! this very night I shall become a bride for this blamed lad [FN#265] to sleep withal. And if I say to them, 'What intent have ye? Ye are in meanness and misery [FN#266] while I am Wazir to the Caliph;' they will never believe me for that I have become a woman, and all thereto appertaining now belongeth to me. Alack and alas for that I did with mine own self; indeed what business had I with such diversion?" Hereupon the fisherman called out, "O my son, up with thee and straightway take this Mermaid and marry her and abate her pucelage and be blessed with her and enjoy thy joy with her during all the days of thy life-tide: doubtless, O my child, thou art in all boon fortune, seeing that what good befel thee never betided any before thee nor will become the lot of one after thee." So the youth arose and for his delight hardly believing in his conquest, married her and lay with her and did away her maidenhead and on that very night she conceived by him. After nine months she bare him issue and the couple ceased not to be after this fashion till she had become a mother of seven. But the Wazir, of his stress and excess of the trouble and the travail he endured, said to himself, "How long shall last this toil and torment wherewith I am liver-smitten and that too by mine own consent? So e'en will I arise and hie me to this sea and hurl me the reinto and whatso shall become of me let it be: haply I may find rest from these torments into which I have fallen." And forthright he arose and sought the shore and did as he had devised, when a wave enveloped him and cast him deep into the depths and he was like to choke, when suddenly his head protruded from the chauldron and he was seated as before he had ducked it. Hereupon he saw the Caliph sitting in state with the Sage by his side and all the Lords of the land and the Notables of the commons awaiting the end of his adventure. So he gazed at them and showed a smiling face [FN#267] and laughed aloud when the Prince of True Believers asked him saying, "What hast thou seen, O Wazir?" So he repeated to the Sovran all he had sighted and everything that had come down upon his head, presently adding, "O Caliph of the Age and the sum and sub stance of the Time and the Tide, what be these marvels wrought by this Sage? Verily I have beheld the garths of Paradise [FN#268] with maidens of the Húr and the youths of Heaven, and wonderments galore unlooked upon by mankind at all, at all. But, an thou be pleased, O Commander of the Faithful, to espy these rare spectacles and marvellous conditions with thine own eyes, deign go down into the water; so shalt thou divert thyself with peregrine matters and adventures seld-seen." The Sultan, delighted at this rede, arose and doffed his dress; then, girding his loins with a zone, he entered the chauldron whereat the Sage cried out to him, "O my lord, sit thee down and duck thy head." But when this was done the Caliph found himself in a bottomless sea and wide dispread and never at rest by any manner of means, so he fell to swimming therein, when a huge breaker threw him high ashore and he walked up the beach mother-naked save for his zone. So he said in his mind, "Let me see what hath been wrought with me by the Sage and the Wazir who have thus practiced upon me and have cast me in this place; and haply they have married my daughter to the youth, and they have stolen my kingdom, the Sage becoming Sultan in my stead. And now let me ask myself, 'What had I to do with such damned diversion as this?'" But as he brooded over these thoughts and the like of them behold, a bevy of maidens came forwards to fill their pitchers from a fountain and a pool of sweet water lying beside the sea; and sighting him they exclaimed, "Thou, who art thou? say sooth be thou of man-kind or rather haply of Jinn-kind?" He replied, "I am a mortal and of the noblest-born; withal I am a stranger in the land and I wot not whither I should wend." "Of what country art thou?" asked they, and he answered, "I am from Baghdad." "Up with thee," quoth one of the damsels, "to yonder knoll, then down to the flat on the further side, and thou shalt sight a city whose name is 'Omán, [FN#269] whereinto do thou enter." The Caliph did her bidding, and no sooner had the people seen him stripped than they said one to other, "This man is a merchant who hath been shipwrecked;" so they gave him by way of almsgift a Tobe [FN#270] all tattered and torn wherewith he veiled his shame. And after so doing he fell to wandering about the city for pastime, and while walking about he passed into a Bazar and there sighted a cook, before whom he stood open mouthed (for indeed famine had thinned him), and he bethought him of what to do, and he knew not how to act. However the cook at first sight was certified of his being a foreigner, and haply a shipwrecked mariner so he asked him, "O my brother, why cost thou not come in and sit thee down, for thou art a stranger and without means; so in the way of Allah I would engage thy services and will pay thee daily two dirhams to provide thee with meat and drink." Answered the Caliph, "Hearing and obeying," after which he abode with the cook and served him and stinted not to serve him for a long time, saying in himself the while, "This for that is tit for tat! and after the Caliphate and commandment and happiness and honour, this day art thou left to lick the platters. What had I to do with such diversion as this? Withal 'tis fairer than the spectacle that anyone even my Wazir ever saw and the more excellent, for that I after being the Caliph of the Age, and the choice gift of the Time and Tide have now become the hireling of a cook. Would to Heaven I wot the sin which brought me hereto?" [FN#271] Now as he abode with the cook it befel him that one day he threaded the Jewellers' Bazar; for about that city was a sea-site whereinto the duckers and divers went down and whence they brought up pearls and corals and precious stones; and as he stood in the market-place, quoth he to himself, "Let me here become a broker in this market street and find rest from my groaning in labour and my licking of platters." As soon as morning morrowed he did on such wise, when suddenly a merchant approached him, hending in hand a costly gem whose light burned like a lamp or rather like a ray of sunshine, and 'twas worth the tribute of Egypt and Syria. Hereat the Caliph marvelled with exceeding marvel, and quoth he to the trader, "Say me, wilt thou sell this jewel?" and quoth the other, "Yes." So the Sultan taking it from him went about with it amongst the merchants, who seeing and considering it, wondered greatly at its beauty. Accordingly they bid for it fifty thousand diners, but the royal broker ceased not to bear it about and the buyers to increase their biddings till they offered an hundred thousand gold pieces. Thereupon the Caliph returned with it to the owner and accosted him saying, "Wilt thou sell it for the sum named?" and when the merchant consented, he continued, "I now go to receive its price, wherewith I will come back to thee." Then the broker went up to the buyer and said, "Bring hither its value and set it in my hand;" but the man asked him, "Where be its owner?" and the Caliph answered, "Its owner hath commissioned me to receive its price, after which he will come and recover the same from me." However the bidder retorted, "This be not fitting nor is it according to Holy Law: do thou bring me its owner; then come and let him pouch the price, for 'tis he hath sold it to me and thou art only our agent." Hereupon the Caliph went forth to seek the proprietor and wandered about a long while without finding him; after which he again accosted the purchaser, and said to him, "I am the rightful proprietor: place the price in my hand." The buyer arose to pay his debt, but before so doing he considered the jewel and saw that it was a bit of dark Sandarach; [FN#272] whereat he was sore perplex" and cried out to the Caliph, "O Satan, cost thou palm off false wares, the market-place of the merchants being under the orders of the Sultan?" But when the traders heard these words, they flocked around the pretended broker and having seized him they pinioned his elbows and dragged him before the Sovran of that city who, when they set the prisoner before him, asked, "What be the offence of this man?" "O our honoured lord," answered they, "this wight palmeth off false wares and swindleth the traders in the royal Bazar." So the King commanded them to hang him, whereat they charged his neck with chains and bared his head, and bade the cryer cry, "This be his award and the least of awards who forgeth counterfeits and who tricketh the merchant folk in the market-place of the Sultan." Hereat quoth the Caliph to himself, "I was not content with platter licking, which now appeareth to me a mighty pleasant calling but e'en I must become a broker and die sus. per coll. This be for that tit for tat; how ever, scant blame to the Time which hath charged me with this work." Now when they brought him to the hanging place and threw the loop around his neck and fell to hoisting him up, as he rose from the ground his eyes were opened and he found himself emerging from the chauldron, whilst the Wazir and the Sage and the youth were sitting and considering him. And the Minister catching sight of his lord sprang to his feet and kissed ground before him, and laughed aloud, and the Commander of the Faithful asked him, "Why this laughter?" Answered he, "O thou, the Prince of True Believers and God-guarded Sovran, my laughter and my gladness are for myself, seeing that I have recovered my identity after becoming a woman and being wedded to a ploughman, who eared the ground, and after bearing to him seven babes." Cried the Caliph, "Woe to thee, O dog, O son of a dog, thou west married and rejoicedst in children, whereas I this very moment from the hanging-place have come down." Then he informed the Wazir of all that had befallen him and the Minister did on like guise, whereat all those present laughed consumedly and marvelled at the words of the Warlock, and his proficiency in occult knowledge. Then the Kazi and witnesses were summoned with their writing gear and were bidden draw up the marriage-contract of the young Cook and the Caliph's daughter. After this the Sage sojourned with the Commander of the Faithful in highmost degree and most honourable dignity, and they abode eating and drinking and living the most delectable of lives and the most enjoyable with all manner of joy and jollity, till came to them the Destroyer of delights and the Divider of man's days and they departed life one and all.



Here we begin to indite the history of Sultan Habib and of what befel him with Durrat al-Ghawwas. [FN#378]

It is related (but Allah is All-knowing of His unknown and All-cognisant of what took place and forewent in the annals of folk!) that there was, in days of yore and in times and tides long gone before, a tribe of the tribes of the Arabs hight Banú Hilál [FN#379] whose head men were the Emir Hilál and the Emir Salámah. [FN#380] Now this Emir Salamah had well nigh told out his tale of days without having been blessed with boon of child; withal he was a ruler valiant, masterful, a fender of his foes and a noble knight of portly presence. He numbered by the thousand horsemen the notablest of cavaliers and he came to overrule three-score-and-six tribes of the Arabs. One chance night of the nights as he lay sleeping in the sweetness of slumber, a Voice addressed him saying, "Rise forthright and know thy wife, whereby she shall conceive under command of Allah Almighty." Being thus disturbed of his rest the Emir sprang up and compressed his spouse Kamar al-Ashráf; [FN#381] she became pregnant by that embrace and when her days came to an end she bare a boy as the full moon of the fulness-night who by his father's hest was named Habíb. [FN#382] And as time went on his sire rejoiced in him with joy exceeding and reared him with fairest rearing and bade them teach him Koran-reading together with the glorious names of Almighty Allah and instruct him in writing and in all the arts and sciences. After this he bestowed robes of honour and gifts of money and raiment upon the teachers who had made the Sultan [FN#383] Habib, when he reached the age of seventeen, the most intelligent and penetrating and knowing amongst the sons of his time. And indeed men used to admire at the largeness of his understanding and were wont to say in themselves, "There is no help but that this youth shall rise to dignity (and what dignity!) whereof men of highmost intellect shall make loud mention.” For he could write the seven caligraphs [FN#384] and he could recite traditions and he could improvise poetry; and, on one occasion when his father bade him versify impromptu, that he might see what might come thereof, he intoned,   “O my sire, I am lord of all lere man knows or knew-- * Have enformed my vitals with lore and with legend true;

  Nor cease I repeat what knowledge this memory guards * And my writ as ruby and pearl doth appear to view."

So the Emir Salamah his sire marvelled at the elegance of his son’s diction; and the Notables of the clan, after hearing his poetry and his prose, stood astounded at their excellence; and presently the father clasped his child to his breast and forthright summoned his governor, to whom there and then he did honour of the highmost. Moreover he largessed him with four camels carrying loads of gold and silver and he set him over one of his subject tribes of the Arabs; then said he to him, "Indeed thou hast done well, O Shaykh; so take this good and fare therewith to such a tribe and rule it with justice and equity until the day of thy death.” Replied the governor, "O King of the Age, I may on no wise accept thy boons, for that I am not of mankind but of Jinn-kind; nor have I need of money or requirement of rule. Know thou, O my lord, that erst I sat as Kázi amongst the Jinns and I was enthroned amid the Kings of the Jánn, whenas one night of the nights a Voice [FN#385] addressed me in my sleep saying, 'Rise and hie thee to the Sultan Habib son of the Emir Salamah ruler of the tribes of the Arabs subject to the Banu Hilal and become his tutor and teach him all things teachable; and, if thou gainsay going, I will tear thy soul from thy body.' Now when I saw this marvel-vision in my sleep, I straightway arose and repairing to thy son did as I was bidden.” [FN#386] But as the Emir Salamah heard the words of this Shaykh he bowed him down and kissing his feet cried, "Alhamdolillah--laud to the Lord, who hath vouchsafed thee to us of His bounty; and indeed thy coming to us was of good omen, O Judge of the Jann." "Where is thy son?" quoth the governor, and quoth the father, "Ready, aye ready;" then he summoned his child and when the Shaykh looked upon his pupil he wept with sore weeping and cried, "Parting from thee, O Habib, is heavy upon us," presently adding, “Ah! were ye to wot all that shall soon befal this youth after my departure and when afar from me!" [FN#387] Those present in the assembly at once asked saying,   "And what shall, O Shaykh, to us fall forthright?" * Quoth he, "Sore marvels shall meet your sight:

  No heart have I to describe it you." * Then approached Habib the same tutor-wight;

  And clasping the youth to the breast of him, * Kissed his cheek a-shrieking the shrillest shright. [FN#388]

Whereupon all about them were perturbed and were amated and amazed at the action of the Shaykh when, vanishing from their view, he could nowhere be seen. Then the Emir Salamah addressed the lieges saying, "Ho ye Arabs, who wotteth what presently shall betide my son? would Heaven I had one to advise him!” Hereupon said his Elders and Councillors, "We know of none." But the Sultan Habib brooded over the disappearance of his governor and bespake his sire weeping bitter tears the while, "O my father, where be he who brought me up and enformed me with all manner knowledge?" and the Emir replied, "O my son, one day of the days he farewelled us and crying out with a loud cry evanished from our view and we have seen him no more." Thereupon the youth improvised and said,   "Indeed I am scourged by those ills whereof I felt affray, ah! * By parting and thoughts which oft compellèd my soul to say, 'Ah!'

  Oh saddest regret in vitals of me that ne'er ceaseth, nor * Shall minished be his love that still on my heart doth prey, ah!

  Where hath hied the generous soul my mind with lere adorned? * And alas! what hath happened, O sire, to me, and well-away, ah!"

Hereat the Emir Salamah shed tears (as on like wise did all present) and quoth he to his son, "O Habib, we have been troubled by his action," and quoth the youth, "How shall I endure severance from one who fostered me and brought me to honour and renown and who raised my degree so high?" Then began he to improvise saying,   "Indeed this pine in my heart grows high, * And in eyeballs wake doth my sleep outvie:

  You marched, O my lords, and from me hied far * And you left a lover shall aye outcry:

  I wot not where on this earth you be * And how long this patience when none is nigh:

  Ye fared and my eyeballs your absence weep, * And my frame is meagre, my heart is dry."

Now whilst the Emir Salamah was sitting in his seat of dignity and the Sultan Habib was improvising poetry and shedding tears in presence of his sire, they heard a Voice which announced itself and its sound was audible whilst its personality was invisible. Thereupon the youth shed tears and cried, "O father mine, I need one who shall teach me horsemanship and the accidents of edge and point and onset and offset and spearing and spurring in the Maydán; for my heart loveth knightly derring-do to plan, such as riding in van and encountering the horseman and the valiant man." And the while they were in such converse behold, there appeared before them a personage rounded of head, long of length and dread, with turband wide dispread, and his breadth of breast was armoured with doubled coat of mail whose manifold rings were close-enmeshed after the model of Dáúd [FN#389] the Prophet (upon whom be The Peace!). Moreover he hent in hand a mace erst a block cut out of the live hard rock, whose shock would arrest forty braves of the doughtiest; and he was baldrick'd with an Indian blade that quivered in the grasp, and he bestrode, with a Samhari [FN#390] lance at rest, a bay destrier of black points whose peer was not amongst the steeds of the Arabs. Then he took his station standing as a vassal between the Emir Salamah's hands and he addressed a general salam and he greeted all that stood a-foot or were seated. His salute they repealed and presently the pages hastened forwards and aided him alight from his charger’s back; and after waiting for a full-told hour that he might take somewhat of repose, the stranger-knight and doughty wight advanced and said, "Ho thou the Emir, I came hither to fulfil the want whereof thou expressedst a wish; and, if such prove thy pleasure, I will teach thy son fray and fight and prowess in the plain of sword-stroke and lance-lunge. But ere so doing I would fain test thy skill in cavalarice; so do thou, O Emir, be first to appear as champion and single combatant in the field when I will show thee what horsemanship is." "Hearkening and obeying," replied the Emir, "and if thou desire the duello with us we will not baulk thee thereof." Hereat his Shaykhs and Chieftains sprang up and cried to him, “O Emir, Allah upon thee, do not meet in fight this cavalier for that thou wottest not an he be of mankind or of Jinn-kind; so be thou not deceived by his sleights and snares." "Suffer me this day," quoth the Emir, “to see the cavalarice of this cavalier, and, if over me he prevail, know him to be a knight with whom none may avail." Speaking thus the Emir arose and hied him to his tent where he bade the slaves bring forth the best of his habergeons; and, when all these were set before him, he took from them a Davidian suit of manifold rings and close-meshed, which he donned, and he baldrick'd himself with a scymitar of Hindi steel, hadst thou smitten therewith a cliff it had cleft it in twain or hadst thou stricken a hill it had been laid level as a plain; and he hent in hand a Rudaynían lance [FN#391] of Khatt Hajar, whose length was thirty ells and upon whose head sat a point like unto a basilisk's tongue; and lastly he bade his slaves bring him his courser which in the race was the fleetest-footed of all horses. Then the two combatants took the plain accompanied by the tribesmen nor did one of them all, or great or small, remain in camp for desire to witness the fight of these champions who were both as ravening lions. But first the stranger-knight addressed his adversary and speaking with free and eloquent tongue quoth he, "I will encounter thee, O Emir Salamah, with the encountering of the valiant; so have thou a heed of me for I am he hath overthrown the Champions some and all." At these words each engaged his foeman and the twain forwards pressed for a long time, and the Raven of cut-and-thrust croaked over the field of fight and they exchanged strokes with the Hindi scymitar and they thrust and foined with the Khatti spear and more than one blade and limber lance was shivered and splintered, all the tribesmen looking on the while at both. And they ceased not to attack and retire and to draw near and draw off and to heave and fence until their forearms ailed and their endeavour failed. Already there appeared in the Emir Salamah somewhat of weakness and weariness; natheless when he looked upon his adversary's skill in the tourney and encounter of braves he saw how to meet all the foeman's sword-strokes with his targe: however at last fatigue and loss of strength prevailed over him and he knew that he had no longer the force to fight; so he stinted his endeavour and withdrew from brunt of battle. Hereat the stranger-knight alighted and falling at the Emir's feet kissed them and cried, “O Sovran of the Age, I came not hither to war with thee but rather with the design of teaching thy son, the Sultan Habib, the complete art of arms and make him the prow cavalier of his day." Replied Salamah, "In very sooth, O horseman of the age, thou hast spoken right fairly in thy speech; nor did I design with thee to fight nor devised I the duello or from steed to alight; [FN#392] nay, my sole object was my son to incite that he might learn battle and combat aright, and the charge of the heroic Himyarite [FN#393] to meet with might." Then the twain dismounted and each kissed his adversary; after which they returned to the tribal camp and the Emir bade decorate it and all the habitations of the Arab clans with choicest decoration, and they slaughtered the victims and spread the banquets and throughout that day the tribesmen ate and drank and fed the travellers and every wayfarer and the mean and mesquin and all the miserables. Now as soon as the Sultan Habib was informed concerning that cavalier how he had foiled his father in the field of fight, he repaired to him and said, "Peace be with him who came longing for us and designing our society! Who art thou, Ho thou the valorous knight and foiler of foemen in fight?" Said the other, "Learn thou, O Habib, that Allah hath sent me theewards." "And, say me, what may be thy name?" "I am hight Al-'Abbús, [FN#394] the Knight of the Grim Face." "I see thee only smiling of countenance whilst thy name clean contradicteth thy nature;" quoth the youth. Presently the Emir Salamah committed his son to the new governor saying, "I would thou make me this youth the Brave of his epoch;" whereto the knight replied, "To hear is to obey, first Allah then thyself and to do suit and service of thy son Habib." And when this was determined youth and governor went forth to the Maydan every day and after a while of delay Habib became the best man of his age in fight and fray. Seeing this his teacher addressed him as follows. “Learn, O Sultan Habib, that there is no help but thou witness perils and affrights and adventures, wherefor is weak the description of describers and thou shalt say in thyself, 'Would heaven I had never sighted such and I were of these same free.' And thou shalt fall into every hardship and horror until thou be united with the beautiful Durrat al-Ghawwás, Queen-regnant over the Isles of the Sea. Meanwhile to affront all the perils of the path thou shalt fare forth from thy folk and bid adieu to thy tribe and patrial stead; and, after enduring that which amateth man’s wit, thou shalt win union with the daughter of Queen Kamar al-Zamán." [FN#395] But when Habib heard these words concerning the "Pearl of the Diver" his wits were wildered and his senses were agitated and he cried to Al-Abbús, "I conjure thee by Allah say me, is this damsel of mankind or of Jinn-kind." Quoth the other, "Of Jinn-kind, and she hath two Wazirs, one of either race, who overrule all her rulers, and a thousand islands of the Isles of the Sea are subject to her command, while a host of Sayyids and Sharífs [FN#396] and Grandees hath flocked to woo her, bringing wealthy gifts and noble presents, yet hath not any of them won his wish of her but all returned baffled and baulked of their will." Now the Sultan Habib hearing this from him cried in excess of perturbation and stress of confusion, "Up with us and hie we home where we may take seat and talk over such troublous matter and debate anent its past and its future." "Hearkening and obedience," rejoined the other; so the twain retired into privacy in order to converse at ease concerning the Princess, and Al-Abbus began to relate in these words--

 The History of Durrat al-Ghawwas.

Whilome there was a Sovran amongst the Kings of the Sea, hight Sábúr, who reigned over the Crystalline Isles, [FN#397] and he was a mighty ruler and a generous, and a masterful potentate and a glorious. He loved women and he was at trouble to seek out the fairest damsels; yet many of his years had gone by nor yet had he been blessed with boon of boy. So one day of the days he took thought and said in himself, "To this length of years I have attained and am well nigh at life's end and still am I childless: what then will be my case?" Presently, as he sat upon his throne of kingship, he saw enter to him an Ifrit fair of face and form, the which was none other than King 'Atrús [FN#398] of the Jánn, who cried, "The Peace be upon thee, Ho thou the King! and know that I have come to thee from my liege lord who affecteth thee. In my sleep it befel that I heard a Voice crying to me, 'During all the King’s days never hath he been vouchsafed a child, boy or girl; so now let him accept my command and he shall win to his wish. Let him distribute justice and largesse and further the rights of the wronged and bid men to good and forbid them from evil and lend not aid to tyranny or to innovation in the realm and persecute not the unfortunate, and release from gaol all the prisoners he retaineth.' At these words of the Voice I awoke astartled by my vision and I hastened to thee without delay and I come with design to inform thee, O King of the Age, that I have a daughter, hight Kamar al-Zaman, who hath none like her in her time, and no peer in this tide, and her I design giving thee to bride. The Kings of the Jann have ofttimes asked her in marriage of me but I would have none of them save a ruler of men like thyself and Alhamdolillah--glory be to God, who caused thy Highness occur to my thought, for that thy fame in the world is goodly fair and thy works make for righteousness. And haply by the blessing of these thou shalt beget upon my daughter a man child, a pious heir and a virtuous.” Replied the King, "Ho thou who comest to us and desirest our weal, I accept thine offer with love and good will." Then Sabur, the King of the Crystalline Isles, bade summon the Kazi and witnesses, and quoth the Ifrit, "I agree to what thou sayest, and whatso thou proposest that will I not oppose." So they determined upon the dowry and bound him by the bond of marriage with the daughter of Al-'Atrus, King of the Jinns, who at once sent one of his Flying Jann to bring the bride. She arrived forthright when they dressed and adorned her with all manner ornaments, and she came forth surpassing all the maidens of her era. And when King Sabur went in unto her he found her a clean maid: so he lay that night with her and Almighty Allah so willed that she conceived of him. When her days and months of pregnancy were sped, she was delivered of a girl-babe as the moon, whom they committed to wet-nurses and dry-nurses, and when she had reached her tenth year, they set over her duennas who taught her Koran-reading and writing and learning and belles-lettres; brief, they brought her up after the fairest of fashions. Such was the lot [FN#399] of Durrat al-Ghawwas, the child of Kamar al-Zaman, daughter to King 'Atrus by her husband King Sabur. But as regards the Sultan Habib and his governor Al-Abbus, the twain ceased not wandering from place to place in search of the promised damsel until one day of the days when the youth entered his father's garden and strolled the walks adown amid the borders [FN#400] and blossoms of basil and of rose full blown and solaced himself with the works of the Compassionate One and enjoyed the scents and savours of the flowers there bestrown; and, while thus employed, behold, he suddenly espied the maiden, Durrat al-Ghawwas hight, entering therein as she were the moon; and naught could be lovelier than she of all earth supplies, gracious as a Huriyah of the Virgins of Paradise, to whose praise no praiser could avail on any wise. But when the Sultan Habib cast upon her his eyes he could no longer master himself and his wits were bewildered from the excitement of his thoughts; so he regarded her with a long fixed look and said in himself, "I fear whenas she see me that she will vanish from my sight." Accordingly, he retired and clomb the branches of a tree in a stead where he could not be seen and whence he could see her at his ease. But as regards the Princess, she ceased not to roam about the Emir Salamah's garden until there approached her two score of snow-white birds each accompanied by a handmaid of moon-like beauty. Presently they settled upon the ground and stood between her hands saying, "Peace be upon thee, O our Queen and Sovran Lady." She replied, "No welcome to you and no greeting; say me, what delayed you until this hour when ye know that I am longing to meet the Sultan Habib, the dear one, son of Salamah, and I long to visit him for that he is the dearling of my heart. Wherefor I bade you accompany me and ye obeyed not, and haply ye have made mock of me and of my commandment." "We never gainsay thy behest," replied they, "or in word or in deed;" and they fell to seeking her beloved. Hearing this the Sultan Habib's heart was solaced and his mind was comforted and his thoughts were rightly directed and his soul was reposed; and when he was certified of her speech, he was minded to appear before her; but suddenly fear of her prevailed over him and he said to his thoughts, "Haply she will order one of the Jinns to do me die; so 'twere better to have patience and see what Allah shall purpose for me of His Almighty will." But the Princess and her attendants ceased not wandering about the garden from site to site and side to side till they reached the place wherein the Sultan Habib lay in lurking; when Durrat al-Ghawwas there stood still and said in herself, "Now I came not from my capital save on his account, and I would see and be seen by him even as the Voice informed me of him, O ye handmaidens; and peradventure hath the same informed him of me." Then the Princess and her suite, drawing still nearer to his place of concealment, found a lakelet in the Arab's garden brimful of water amiddlemost whereof stood a brazen lion, through whose mouth the water entered to issue from his tail. Hereat the Princess marvelled and said to her bondswomen, "This be none other than a marvellous lake, together with the lion therein; and when, by the goodwill of Almighty Allah, I shall have returned home, I will let make a lakelet after this fashion, and in it set a lion of brass." Thereupon she ordered them to doff their dress and go down to the piece of water and swim about; but they replied, "O our lady, to hear is to obey thy commandment, but we will not strip nor swim save with thee." Then she also did off her dress and all stripped themselves and entered the lakelet in a body, whereupon the Sultan Habib looked through the leaves to solace himself with the fair spectacle and he ejaculated, "Blessed be the Lord the best of Creators!" And when the handmaids waxed aweary of swimming, the Princess commanded them to come forth the water, and said, "Whenas Heaven willeth that the desire of my heart be fulfilled in this garden, what deem ye I should do with my lover?" and quoth they, "'Twould only add to our pleasure and gladness." Quoth she, "Verily my heart assureth me that he is here and hidden amongst the trees of yon tangled brake;" and she made signs with her hand whither Habib lay in lurking-place; and he, espying this, rejoiced with joy galore than which naught could be more, and exclaimed, "There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great; what meaneth this lady? Indeed, I fear to stay in this stead lest she come hither and draw me forth and put me to shame; and 'twere better that of mine own accord I come out of my concealment and accost her and suffer her to do all she designeth and desireth." So he descended from the topmost of the tree wherein he had taken refuge and presented himself before the Princess Durrat Al-Ghawwas, who drew near and cried to him, "O Habib, O welcome to Habib! and is it thus that we have travailed with love of thee and longing for thee, and where hast thou been all this time, O my dearling, and O coolth of my eyes and O slice of my liver?" Replied he, "I was in the head of yonder huge tree to which thou pointedst with thy finger." And as they looked each at other she drew nearer to him and fell to improvising,   "Thou hast doomed me, O branchlet of Bán, to despair * Who in worship and honour was wont to fare,--

  Who lived in rule and folk slaved for me * And hosts girded me round every hest to bear!"

And anon quoth the Sultan Habib, "Alhamdolillah--laud be to the Lord, who deigned show me thy face and thy form! Can it be thou kennest not what it was that harmed me and sickened me for thy sake, O Durrat al-Ghawwas?" Quoth she, "And what was it hurt thee and ailed thee?" "It was the love of thee and longing for thee!" "And who was the first to tell thee and make thee ware of me?" He replied saying, "One day it so befel, as I was amongst my family and my tribe, a Jinni Al-Abbus hight became my governor and taught me the accidents of thrust and cut and cavalarice; and ere he left he commended thy beauty and loveliness and foretold to me all that would pass between thee and me. So I was engrossed with affection for thee ere my eyes had sight of thee, and thenceforwards I lost all the pleasures of sleep, nor were meat and eating sweet to me, nor were drink and wine, draughts a delight to me: so Alhamdolillah--praise be to Allah, who deigned conjoin me in such union with my heart's desire!" Hereat the twain exchanged an embrace so long that a swoon came upon them and both fell to the ground in a fainting fit, but after a time the handmaidens raised them up and besprinkled their faces with rose-water which at once revived them. All this happened, withal the Emir Salamah wotted naught of what had befallen his son the Sultan Habib nor did his mother weet that had betided her child; and the husband presently went in to his spouse and said, "Indeed this boy hath worn us out: we see that o’ nights he sleepeth not in his own place and this day he fared forth with the dawn and suffered us not to see a sight of him." Quoth the wife, "Since the day he went to Al-Abbus, thy boy fell into cark and care;" and quoth the husband, "Verily our son walked about the garden and Allah knoweth that therefrom is no issue anywhither. So there shalt thou find him and ask him of himself." And they talked over this matter in sore anger and agitation. Meanwhile as the Sultan Habib sat in the garden with the handmaids waiting upon him and upon the Princess Durrat al-Ghawwas, there suddenly swooped upon them a huge bird which presently changed form to a Shaykh seemly of aspect and semblance who approached and kissing their feet humbled himself before the lover and his beloved. The youth marvelled at such action of the Shaykh, and signalled to the Princess as to ask, "Who may be this old man?" and she answered in the same way, "This is the Wazir who caused me forgather with thee;" presently adding to the Shaykh, "What may be thy need?" "I came hither for the sake of thee," he replied, "and unless thou fare forthright to thy country and kingdom the rule of the Jánn will pass from thy hand; for that the Lords of the land and Grandees of the realm seek thy loss and not a few of the nobles have asked me saying, O Wazir, where is our Queen? I answered, She is within her palace and to-day she is busied with some business. But such pretext cannot long avail, and thou, unless thou return with me to the region of thy reign there shall betray thee some one of the Marids and the hosts will revolt against thee and thy rule will go to ruin and thou wilt be degraded from command and sultanate." "What then is thy say and what thy bidding?" enquired she, and he replied, "Thou hast none other way save departure from this place and return to thy realm.” Now when these words reached the ear of Durrat al-Ghawwas, her breast was straitened and she waxed sorrowful with exceeding sorrow for severance from her lover whom she addressed in these words, "What sayest thou anent that thou hast heard? In very sooth I desire not parting from thee and the ruin of my reign as little do I design; so come with me, O dearling of my heart, and I will make thee liege lord over the Isles of the Sea and sole master thereof." Hereat the Sultan Habib said in his soul, "I cannot endure parting from my own people; but as for thee thy love shall never depart from thee:" then he spake aloud, "An thou deign hear me, do thou abandon that which thou purposest and bid thy Wazir rule over the Isles and thy patrial stead; so shall we twain, I and thou, live in privacy for all time and enjoy the most joyous of lives." "That may never be," was her only reply; after which she cried to the Wazir saying, "Carry me off that I fare to my own land." Then after farewelling her lover, she mounted the Emir-Wazir's back [FN#401] and bade him bear her away, whereat he took flight and the forty handmaidens flew with him, towering high in air. Presently, the Sultan Habib shed bitter tears; his mother hearing him weeping sore as he sat in the garden went to her husband and said, "Knowest thou not what calamity hath befallen thy son that I hear him there groaning and moaning”" Now when the parents entered the garden, they found him spent with grief and the tears trickled adown his cheeks like never-ceasing rain-showers; [FN#402] so they summoned the pages who brought cucurbits of rosewater wherewith they besprinkled his face. But as soon as he recovered his senses and opened his eyes, he fell to weeping with excessive weeping and his father and mother likewise shed tears for the burning of their hearts and asked him, "O Habib, what calamity hath come down to thee and who of his mischief hath overthrown thee? Inform us of the truth of thy case." So he related all that had betided between him and Durrat-al-Ghawwas, and his mother wept over him while his father cried, "O Habib, do thou leave this say and this thy desire cast away that the joys of meat and drink and sleep thou may enjoy alway." But he made answer, "O my sire, I will not slumber upon this matter until I shall sleep the sleep of death." "Arise thou, O my child," rejoined the Emir, "and let us return homewards,” [FN#403] but the son retorted, "Verily I will not depart from this place wherein I was parted from the dearling of my heart.” So the sire again urged him saying, "These words do thou spare nor persist in this affair because therefrom for thee I fear;” and he fell to cheering him and comforting his spirits. After a while the Sultan Habib arose and fared homewards beside his sire who kept saying to him, "Patience, O my child, the while I assist thee in thy search for this young lady and I send those who shall bring her to thee." "O my father," rejoined the son, "I can no longer endure parting from her; nay, 'tis my desire that thou load me sundry camels with gold and silver and plunder and moneys that I may go forth to seek her: and if I win to my wish and Allah vouchsafe me length of life I will return unto you; but an the term of my days be at hand then the behest be to Allah, the One, the Omnipotent. Let not your breasts be straitened therefor and do ye hold and believe that if I abide with you and see not the beloved of my soul I shall perish of my pain while you be standing by to look upon my death. So suffer me to wayfare and attain mine aim; for from the day when my mother bare me 'twas written to my lot that I journey over wild and wold and that I see and voyage over the seas seven-fold.” Hereupon he fell to improvising these verses,   "My heart is straitened with grief amain * And my friends and familiars have wrought me pain;

  And whene'er you're absent I pine, and fires * In my heart beweep what it bears of bane:

  O ye, who fare for the tribe's domain, * Cry aloud my greetings to friends so fain!"

Now when the Emir Salamah heard these his son's verses, he bade pack for him four camel loads of the rarest stuffs, and he largessed to him a she-dromedary laden with thrones of red gold; then he said to him, "Lo, O my son, I have given thee more than thou askedst.” “O my father," replied Habib, "where are my steed and my sword and my spear?" Hereat the pages brought forward a mail-coat Davidian [FN#404] and a blade Maghrabian and a lance Khattian and Samharian, and set them between his hands; and the Sultan Habib donning the habergeon and drawing his sabre and sitting lance in rest backed his steed, which was of the noblest blood known to all the Arabs. Then quoth he, "O my father, is it thy desire to send with me a troop of twenty knights that they may escort me to the land of Al-Yaman and may anon bring me back to thee?” "My design," quoth the sire, “is to despatch those with thee who shall befriend thee upon the road;" and, when Habib prayed him do as he pleased, the Emir appointed to him ten knights, valorous wights, who dreaded naught of death however sudden and awesome. Presently, the youth farewelled his father and mother, his family and his tribe, and joining his escort, mounted his destrier when Salamah, his sire, said to his company, "Be ye to my son obedient in all he shall command you;" and said they, "Hearing and obeying." Then Habib and his many turned away from home and addressed them to the road when he began to improvise the following lines,   My longing grows less and far goes my cark * After flamed my heart with the love-fire stark;

  As I ride to search for my soul's desire * And I ask of those faring to Al-Irák."

On this wise it befel the Sultan Habib and his farewelling his father and mother; but now lend ear to what came of the knights who escorted him. After many days of toil and travail they waxed discontented and disheartened; and presently taking counsel one with other, they said, "Come, let us slay this lad and carry off the loads of stuffs and coin he hath with him; and when we reach our homes and be questioned concerning him, let us say that he died of the excess of his desire to Princess Durrat al-Ghawwas." So they followed this rede, while their lord wotted naught of the ambush laid for him by his followers.  And having ridden through the day when the night of offence [FN#405] was dispread, the escort said, "Dismount we in this garden [FN#406] that here we may take our rest during the dark hours, and when morning shall morrow we will resume our road." The Sultan Habib had no mind to oppose them, so all alighted and in that garden took seat and whatso of victual was with them produced; after which they ate and drank their sufficiency and lay down to sleep all of them save their lord, who could not close eye for excess of love-longing. "O Habib, why and wherefore sleepest thou not?" they asked, and he answered, "O comrades mine, how shall slumber come to one yearning for his dearling, and verily I will lie awake nor enjoy aught repose until such time as I espy the lifeblood of my heart, Durrat al-Ghawwas." Thereupon they held their peace; and presently they held council one with other saying, "Who amongst us can supply a dose of Bhang that we may cast him asleep and his slaughter may be easy to us?" "I have two Miskáls weight [FN#407] of that same," quoth one of them, and the others took it from him and presently, when occasion served, they put it into a cup of water and presented it to Habib.  He hent that cup in hand and drank off the drugged liquid at a single draught; and presently the Bhang wrought in his vitals and its fumes mounted to his head, mastering his senses and causing his brain to whirl round, whereupon he sank into the depths of unconsciousness.  Then quoth his escort, "As soon as his slumber is soundest and his sleep heaviest we will arise and slay him and bury him on the spot where he now sleepeth: then will we return to his father and mother, and tell them that of love-stress to his beloved and of excessive longing and pining for her he died.” And upon this deed of treachery all agreed. So when dawned the day and showed its sheen and shone clear and serene the knights awoke and seeing their lord drowned [FN#408] in sleep they arose and sat in council, and quoth one of them, "Let us cut his throat from ear to ear;” [FN#409] and quoth another, "Nay, better we dig us a pit the stature of a man and we will cast him amiddlemost thereof and heap upon him earth so that he will die, nor shall any know aught about him.” Hearing this said one of the retinue, whose name was Rabí’a, [FN#410] “But fear you naught from Almighty Allah and regard ye not the favours wherewith his father fulfilled you, and remember ye not the bread which ye ate in his household and from his family? Indeed ‘twas but a little while since his sire chose you out to escort him that his son might take solace with you instead of himself, and he entrusted unto you his heart's core, and now ye are pleased to do him die and thereby destroy the life of his parents. Furthermore, say me doth your judgment decide that such ill-work can possibly abide hidden from his father? Now I swear by the loyalty [FN#411] of the Arabs there will not remain for us a wight or any who bloweth the fire alight, however mean and slight, who will receive us after such deed. So do ye at least befriend and protect your households and your clans and your wives and your children whom ye left in the tribal domain. But now you design utterly to destroy us, one and all, and after death affix to our memories the ill-name of traitors, and cause our women be enslaved and our children enthralled, nor leave one of us aught to be longed for." Quoth they jeeringly, "Bring what thou hast of righteous rede:" so quoth he, "Have you fixed your intent upon slaying him and robbing his good?" and they answered, "We have." However, he objected again and cried, "Come ye and hear from me what it is I advise you, albeit I will take no part [FN#412] in this matter;" presently adding, "Established is your resolve in this affair, and ye wot better than I what you are about to do. But my mind is certified of this much; do ye not transgress in the matter of his blood and suffer only his crime be upon you; [FN#413] moreover, if ye desire to lay hands upon his camels and his moneys and his provisions, then do ye carry them off and leave him where he lieth; then if he live, 'twere well, and if he die 'twill be even better and far better." "Thy rede is right and righteous,” they replied. Accordingly they seized his steed and his habergeon and his sword and his gear of battle and combat, and they carried off all he had of money and means, and placing him naked upon the bare ground they drove away his camels. Presently asked one of other, "Whenas we shall reach the tribe what shall we say to his father and his mother?" "Whatso Rabi'a shall counsel us," quoth they, and quoth Rabi'a, "Tell them, 'We left not travelling with your son; and, as we fared along, we lost sight of him and we saw him nowhere until we came upon him a-swoon and lying on the road senseless: then we called to him by name but he returned no reply, and when we shook him with our hands behold, he had become a dried-up wand. Then seeing him dead we buried him and brought back to you his good and his belongings.’” "And if they ask you," objected one, "'In what place did ye bury him and in what land, and is the spot far or near,' what shall ye make answer; also if they say to you, 'Why did ye not bear his corpse with you,’ what then shall be your reply?" Rabi'a to this rejoined "Do you say to them, 'Our strength was weakened and we waxed feeble from burn of heart and want of water, nor could we bring his remains with us.' And if they ask you, 'Could ye not bear him a-back; nay, might ye not have carried him upon one of the camels?' do ye declare that ye could not for two reasons, the first being that the body was swollen and stinking from the fiery air, and the second our fear for his father, lest seeing him rotten he could not endure the sight and his sorrow be increased for that he was an only child and his sire hath none other." All the men joined in accepting this counsel of Rabi'a, and each and every exclaimed, "This indeed is the rede that is most right." Then they ceased not wayfaring until they reached the neighbourhood of the tribe, when they sprang from their steeds and openly donned black, and they entered the camp showing the sorest sorrow. Presently they repaired to the father's tent, grieving and weeping and shrieking as they went; and when the Emir Salamah saw them in this case, crowding together with keening and crying for the departed, he asked them, "Where is he, my son?” and they answered, "Indeed he is dead." Right hard upon Salamah was this lie, and his grief grew the greater, so he scattered dust upon his head and plucked out his beard and rent his raiment and shrieked aloud saying, "Woe for my son, ah! Woe for Habib, ah! Woe for the slice of my liver, ah! Woe for my grief, ah! Woe for the core [FN#414] of my heart, ah!" Thereupon his mother came forth, and seeing her husband in this case, with dust on his head and his beard plucked out and his robe-collar [FN#415] rent, and sighting her son's steed she shrieked, "Woe is me and well-away for my child, ah!" and fainted swooning for a full-told hour. Anon when recovered she said to the knights who had formed the escort, "Woe to you, O men of evil, where have ye buried my boy?" They replied, "In a far-off land whose name we wot not, and 'tis wholly waste and tenanted by wild beasts," whereat she was afflicted exceedingly. Then the Emir Salamah and his wife and household and all the tribesmen donned garbs black-hued and ashes whereupon to sit they strewed, and ungrateful to them was the taste of food and drink, meat and wine; nor ceased they to beweep their loss, nor could they comprehend what had befallen their son and what of ill-lot had descended upon him from Heaven. Such then was the case of them; but as regards the Sultan Habib, he continued sleeping until the Bhang ceased to work in his brain, when Allah sent a fresh, cool wind which entered his nostrils and caused him sneeze, whereby he cast out the drug and sensed the sun-heat and came to himself. Hereupon he opened his eyes and sighted a wild and waste land, and he looked in vain for his companions the knights, and his steed and his sword and his spear and his coat of mail, and he found himself mother-naked, athirst, anhungered. Then he cried out in that Desert of desolation which lay far and wide before his eyes, and the case waxed heavy upon him, and he wept and groaned and complained of his case to Allah Almighty, saying, "O my God and my Lord and my Master, trace my lot an thou hast traced it upon the Guarded Tablet, for who shall right me save Thyself, O Lord of Might that is All-might and of Grandeur All-puissant and All-excellent!" Then he began improvising these verses,   "Faileth me, O my God, the patience with the pride o' me; * Life-tie is broke and drawing nigh I see Death-tide o' me:

  To whom shall injured man complain of injury and wrong * Save to the Lord (of Lords the Best!) who stands by side o'me."

Now whilst the Sultan Habib was ranging with his eye-corners to the right and to the left, behold, he beheld a blackness rising high in air, and quoth he to himself, "Doubtless this dark object must be a mighty city or a vast encampment, and I will hie me thither before I be overheated by the sun-glow and I lose the power of walking and I die of distress and none shall know my fate.” Then he heartened his heart for the improvising of such poetry as came to his mind, and he repeated these verses,   "Travel, for on the way all goodly things shalt find; * And wake from sleep and dreams if still to sleep inclined!

  Or victory win and rise and raise thee highmost high * And gain, O giddy pate, the food for which thy soul hath pined;

  Or into sorrow thou shalt fall with breast full strait * And ne'er enjoy the Fame that wooes the gen'rous mind,

  Nor is there any shall avail to hinder Fate * Except the Lord of Worlds who the Two Beings [FN#416] designed."

And when he had finished his verse, the Sultan Habib walked in the direction of that blackness nor left walking until he drew near the ridge; but after he could fare no farther and that walking distressed him (he never having been broken to travel afoot and barefoot withal), and his forces waxed feeble and his joints relaxed and his strong will grew weak and his resolution passed away. But whilst he was perplexed concerning what he should do, suddenly there alighted between his hands a snow-white fowl huge as the dome of a Hammám, with shanks like the trunk of a palm-tree. The Sultan Habib marvelled at the sight of this Rukh, and saying to himself, "Blessed be Allah the Creator!" he advanced slowly towards it and all unknown to the fowl seized its legs. Presently the bird put forth its wings (he still hanging on) and flew upwards to the confines of the sky, when behold, a Voice was heard saying, "O Habib! O Habib! hold to the bird with straitest hold, else 'twill cast thee down to earth and thou shalt be dashed to pieces limb from limb!" Hearing these words he tightened his grasp and the fowl ceased not flying until it came to that blackness which was the outline of Káf the mighty mountain, and having set the youth down on the summit it left him and still flew onwards. Presently a Voice sounded in the sensorium of the Sultan Habib saying, "Take seat, O Habib; past is that which conveyed thee hither on thy way to Durrat al-Ghawwas;” and he, when the words met his ear, aroused himself and arose and, descending the mountain slope to the skirting plain, saw therein a cave. Hereat quoth he to himself, "If I enter this antre, haply shall I lose myself, and perish of hunger and thirst!" He then took thought and reflected, "Now death must come sooner or later, wherefore will I adventure myself in this cave." And as he passed thereinto he heard one crying with a high voice and a sound so mighty that its volume resounded in his ears. But right soon the crier appeared in the shape of Al-Abbus, the Governor who had taught him battle and combat; and, after greeting him with great joy, the lover recounted his love-adventure to his whilome tutor. The Jinni bore in his left a scymitar, the work of the Jann and in his right a cup of water which he handed to his pupil. The draught caused him to swoon for an hour or so, and when he came-to Al-Abbus made him sit up and bathed him and robed him in the rarest of raiment and brought him a somewhat of victual and the twain ate and drank together. Then quoth Habib to Al-Abbus, "Knowest thou not that which befel me with Durrat al-Ghawwas of wondrous matters?" and quoth the other, "And what may that have been?" whereupon the youth rejoined, "O my brother, Allah be satisfied with thee for that He willed thou appear to me and direct me and guide me aright to the dearling of my heart and the cooling of mine eyes." "Leave thou such foolish talk," replied Al-Abbus, "for where art thou and where is Durrat al-Ghawwas? Indeed between thee and her are horrors and perils and long tracts of land and seas wondrous, and adventures marvellous, which would amaze and amate the rending lions, and spectacles which would turn grey the sucking child or any one of man's scions." Hearing these words Habib clasped his governor to his breast and kissed him between the eyes, and the Jinni said, "O my beloved, had I the might to unite thee with her I would do on such wise, but first 'tis my desire to make thee forgather with thy family in a moment shorter than an eye-twinkling.” “Had I longed for my own people," rejoined Habib, "I should never have left them, nor should I have endangered my days nor wouldst thou have seen me in this stead; but as it is I will never return from my wayfaring till such time as my hope shall have been fulfilled, even although my appointed life-term should be brought to end, for I have no further need of existence." To these words the Jinni made answer, "Learn thou, O Habib, that the cavern wherein thou art containeth the hoards of our Lord Solomon, David's son (upon the twain be The Peace!), and he placed them under my charge and he forbade me abandon them until such time as he shall permit me, and furthermore that I let and hinder both mankind and Jinn-kind from entering the Hoard; and know thou, O Habib, that in this cavern is a treasure-house and in the Treasury forty closets offsetting to the right and to the left. Now wouldst thou gaze upon this wealth of pearls and rubies and precious stones, do thou ere passing through the first door dig under its threshold, where thou shalt find buried the keys of all the magazines. Then take the first of them in hand and unlock its door, after which thou shalt be able to open all the others and look upon the store of jewels therein. And when thou shalt design to depart the Treasury thou shalt find a curtain hung up in front of thee and fastened around it eighty hooks of red gold; [FN#417] and do thou beware how thou raise the hanging without quilting them all with cotton." So saying he gave him a bundle of tree-wool he had by him, and pursued, "O Habib, when thou shalt have raised the curtain thou wilt discover a door with two leaves also of red gold, whereupon couplets are inscribed, and as regards the first distich an thou master the meaning of the names and the talismans, thou shalt be saved from all terrors and horrors, and if thou fail to comprehend them thou shalt perish in that Hoard. But after opening the door close it not with noise nor glance behind thee, and take all heed, as I fear for thee those charged with the care of the place [FN#418] and its tapestry. And when thou shalt stand behind the hanging thou shalt behold a sea clashing with billows dashing, and 'tis one of the Seven Mains which shall show thee, O Habib, marvels whereat thou shalt wonder, and whereof relaters shall relate the strangest relations. Then do thou take thy stand upon the sea-shore whence thou shalt descry a ship under way and do thou cry aloud to the crew who shall come to thee and bear thee aboard. After this I wot not what shall befal thee in this ocean, and such is the end of my say and the last of my speech, O Habib, and--The Peace!" Hereat the youth joyed with joy galore than which naught could be more and taking the hand Of Al-Abbus he kissed it and said, "O my brother, thou hast given kindly token in what thou hast spoken, and Allah requite thee for me with all weal, and mayest thou be fended from every injurious ill!" Quoth Al-Abbus, "O Habib, take this scymitar and baldrick thyself therewith, indeed ‘twill enforce thee and hearten thy heart, and don this dress which shall defend thee from thy foes." The youth did as he was bidden; then he farewelled the Jinni and set forth on his way, and he ceased not pacing forward until he reached the end of the cavern and here he came upon the door whereof his governor had informed him. So he went to its threshold and dug thereunder and drew forth a black bag creased and stained by the lapse of years. This he unclosed and it yielded him a key which he applied to the lock and it forthwith opened and admitted him into the Treasury where, for exceeding murk and darkness, he could not see what he hent in hand. Then quoth he to himself, "What is to do? Haply Al-Abbus hath compassed my destruction!" And the while he sat on this wise sunken in thought, behold, he beheld a light gleaming from afar, and as he advanced its sheen guided him to the curtain whereof he had been told by the Jinni. But as he looked he saw above it a tablet of emerald dubbed with pearls and precious stones, while under it lay the hoard which lighted up the place like the rising sun. So he hastened him thither and found inscribed upon the tablet the following two couplets,   "At him I wonder who from woe is free, * And who no joy displays [FN#419] when safe is he:

  And I admire how Time deludes man when * He views the past; but ah, Time's tyranny."

So the Sultan Habib read over these verses more than once, and wept till he swooned away; then recovering himself he said in his mind, "To me death were pleasanter than life without my love!" and turning to the closets which lay right and left he opened them all and gazed upon the hillocks of gold and silver and upon the heaps and bales of rubies and unions and precious stones and strings of pearls, wondering at all he espied, and quoth he to himself "Were but a single magazine of these treasures revealed, wealthy were all the peoples who on earth do dwell." Then he walked up to the curtain whereupon Jinns and Ifrits appeared from every site and side, and voices and shrieks so loudened in his ears that his wits well-nigh flew from his head. So he took patience for a full-told hour when behold, a smoke which spired in air thickened and brooded low, and the sound ceased and the Jinns departed. Hereat, calling to mind the charge of Al-Abbus, he took out the cotton he had by him and after quilting the golden hooks he withdrew the curtain and sighted the portal which the Jinni had described to him. So he fitted in the key and opened it, after which, oblivious of the warning, he slammed-to the door noisily in his fear and forgetfulness, but he did not venture to look behind him. At this the Jinns flocked to him from every side and site crying, "O thou foulest of mankind, wherefore dost thou provoke us and disturb us from our stead? and, but for thy wearing the gear of the Jann, we had slain thee forthright.” But Habib answered not and, arming himself with patience and piety, he tarried awhile until the hubbub was stilled, nor did the Jann cry at him any more: and, when the storm was followed by calm, he paced forward to the shore and looked upon the ocean crashing with billows dashing. He marvelled at the waves and said to himself, "Verily none may know the secrets of the sea and the mysteries of the main save only Allah!" Presently, he beheld a ship passing along shore, so he took seat on the strand until Night let down her pall of sables upon him; and he was an-hungered with exceeding hunger and athirst with excessive thirst. But when morrowed the morn and day showed her sheen and shone serene, he awoke in his sore distress and behold, he saw two Mermaidens of the daughters of the deep (and both were as moons) issue forth hard by him. And ere long quoth one of the twain, "Say me, wottest thou the mortal who sitteth yonder?" "I know him not,” quoth the other, whereat her companion resumed, "This be the Sultan Habib who cometh in search of Durrat al-Ghawwas, our Queen and liege lady." Hearing these words the youth considered them straitly and marvelling at their beauty and loveliness he presently rejoiced and increased in pleasure and delight. Then said one to other, “Indeed the Sultan Habib is in this matter somewhat scant and short of wits; how can he love Durrat al-Ghawwas when between him and her is a distance only to be covered by the sea-voyage of a full year over most dangerous depths? And, after all this woe hath befallen him, why doth he not hie him home and why not save himself from these horrors which promise to endure through all his days and to cast his life at last into the pit of destruction?" Asked the other, "Would heaven I knew whether he will ever attain to her or not!" and her companion answered, "Yes, he will attain to her, but after a time and a long time and much sadness of soul." But when Habib heard this promise of success given by the Maidens of the Main his sorrow was solaced and he lost all that troubled him of hunger and thirst. Now while he pondered these matters there suddenly issued from out the ocean a third Mermaid, which asked her fellows, "Of what are you prattling?” and they answered, "Indeed the Sultan Habib sitteth here upon the sea-shore during this the fourth successive night.” Quoth she, "I have a cousin the daughter of my paternal uncle and when she came to visit me last night I enquired of her if any ship had passed by her and she replied, 'Yea verily, one did sail driven towards us by a violent gale, and its sole object was to seek you.’" And the others rejoined, "Allah send thee tidings of welfare!" The youth hearing these words was gladdened and joyed with exceeding joy; and presently the three Mermaidens called to one another and dove into the depths leaving the listener standing upon the strand. After a short time he heard the cries of the crew from the craft announced and he shouted to them and they, noting his summons, ran alongside the shore and took him up and bore him aboard: and, when he complained of hunger and thirst, they gave him meat and drink and questioned him saying, "Thou! who art thou? Say us, art of the trader-folk?" “I am the merchant Such-and-such," quoth he, "and my ship foundered albe 'twas a mighty great vessel; but one chance day of the days as we were sailing along there burst upon us a furious gale which shivered our timbers and my companions all perished while I floated upon a plank of the ship's planks and was carried ashore by the send of the sea. Indeed I have been floating for three days and this be my fourth night.” Hearing this adventure from him the traders cried, "Grieve no more in heart but be thou of good cheer and of eyes cool and clear: the sea voyage is ever exposed to such chances and so is the gain thereby we obtain; and if Allah deign preserve us and keep for us the livelihood He vouchsafed to us we will bestow upon thee a portion thereof." After this they ceased not sailing until a tempest assailed them and blew their vessel to starboard and larboard and she lost her course and went astray at sea. Hereat the pilot cried aloud, saying, "Ho ye company aboard, take your leave one of other for we be driven into unknown depths of ocean, nor may we keep our course, because the wind bloweth full in our faces." Hereupon the voyagers fell to beweeping the loss of their lives and their goods, and the Sultan Habib shed tears which trickled adown his cheeks and exclaimed, "Would Heaven I had died before seeing such torment: indeed this is naught save a matter of marvel." But when the merchants saw the youth thus saddened and troubled of soul, and weeping withal, they said to him, "O Monarch of the Merchants, let not thy breast be straitened or thy heart be disheartened: hapty Allah shall vouchsafe joy to us and to thee: moreover, can vain regret and sorrow of soul and shedding of tears avail aught? Do thou rather ask of the Almighty that He deign relieve us and further our voyage." But as the vessel ran through the middle of the main, she suddenly ceased her course and came to a stop without tacking to the right or the left, and the pilot cried out, "O folk, is there any of you who conneth this ocean?" But they made answer, "We know thereof naught, neither in all our voyage did we see aught resembling it." The pilot continued, “O folk, this main is hight 'The Azure'; [FN#420] nor did any trader at any time therein enter but he found destruction; for that it is the home of Jinns and the house of Ifrits, and he who now withholdeth our vessel from its course is known as Al-Ghashamsham, [FN#421] and our lord Solomon son of David (upon the twain be The Peace!) deputed him to snatch up and carry off from every craft passing, through these forbidden depths whatever human beings, and especially merchants, he might find a-voyaging, and to eat them alive.” “Woe to thee!" cried Habib. "Wherefore bid us take counsel together when thou tellest us that here dwelleth a Demon over whom we have no power to prevail, and thou terrifiest us with the thoughts of being devoured by him? However, feel ye no affright; I will fend off from you the mischief of this Ifrit." They replied, "We fear for thy life, O Monarch of the Merchants," and he rejoined, “To you there is no danger." Thereupon he donned a closely woven mail-coat and armed himself with the magical scymitar and spear; then, taking the skins of animals freshly slain, [FN#422] he made a hood and vizor thereof and wrapped strips of the same around his arms and legs that no harm from the sea might enter his frame. After this he bade his shipmates bind him with cords under his armpits and let him down amiddlemost the main. And as soon as he touched bottom he was confronted by the Ifrit, who rushed forward to make a mouthful of him, when the Sultan Habib raised his forearm and with the scymitar smote him a stroke which fell upon his neck and hewed him into two halves. So he died in the depths; and the youth, seeing the foeman slain, jerked the cord and his mates drew him up and took him in, after which the ship sprang forward like a shaft outshot from the belly [FN#423] of the bow. Seeing this all the traders wondered with excessive wonderment and hastened up to the youth, kissing his feet and crying, "O Monarch of the Merchants, how didst thou prevail against him and do him die?" "When I dropped into the depths," replied he, "in order to slay him, I asked against him the aidance of Allah, who vouchsafed His assistance, and on such wise I slaughtered him." Hearing these good tidings and being certified of their enemy's death the traders offered to him their good and gains whereof he refused to accept aught, even a single mustard seed. Now, amongst the number was a Shaykh well shotten in years and sagacious in all affairs needing direction; and this oldster drew near the youth, and making lowly obeisance said to him, "By the right of Who sent thee uswards and sent us theewards, what art thou and what may be thy name and the cause of thy falling upon this ocean?" The Sultan Habib began by refusing to disclose aught of his errand, but when the Shaykh persisted in questioning he ended by disclosing all that had betided him first and last, and as they sailed on suddenly the Pilot cried out to them, "Rejoice ye with great joy and make ye merry and be ye gladdened with good news, O ye folk, for that ye are saved from the dangers of these terrible depths and ye are drawing near the city of Sábúr, the King who overruleth the Isles Crystalline; and his capital (which be populous and prosperous) ranketh first among the cities of Al-Hind, and his reign is foremost of the Isles of the Sea." Then the ship inclined thither, and drawing nearer little by little entered the harbour [FN#424] and cast anchor therein, when the canoes [FN#425] appeared and the porters came on board and bore away the luggage of the voyagers and the crew, who were freed from all sorrow and anxiety. Such was their case; but as regards Durrat al-Ghawwas, when she parted from her lover, the Sultan Habib, severance weighed sore and stark upon her, and she found no pleasure in meat and drink and slumber and sleep. And presently whilst in this condition and sitting upon her throne of estate, an Ifrit appeared to her and coming forwards between her hands said, "The Peace of Allah upon thee, O Queen of the Age and Empress of the Time and the Tide!" whereto she made reply, "And upon thee be The Peace and the ruth of Allah and His blessings. What seekest thou O Ifrit?" Quoth he, "There lately hath come to us a shipful of merchants and I have heard talk of the Sultan Habib being amongst them." As these words reached her ear she largessed the Ifrit and said to him, "An thou speak sooth I will bestow upon thee whatso thou wishest." Then, having certified herself of the news, she bade decorate the city with the finest of decorations and let beat the kettledrums of glad tidings and bespread the way leading to the Palace with a carpeting of sendal, [FN#426] and they obeyed her behest. Anon she summoned her pages and commanded them to bring her lover before her; so they repaired to him and ordered him to accompany them. Accordingly, he followed them and they ceased not faring until they had escorted him to the Palace, when the Queen bade all her pages gang their gait and none remained therein save the two lovers; to wit, the Sultan Habib and Durrat al-Ghawwas. And after the goodly reunion she sent for the Kazi and his assessors and bade them write out her marriage-writ [FN#427] with Habib. He did as he was bidden and the witnesses bore testimony thereto and to the dowry being duly paid; and the tie was formally tied and the wedding banquets were dispread. Then the bride donned her choicest of dresses and the marriage procession was formed and the union was consummated and both joyed with joy exceeding. Now this state of things endured for a long while until the Sultan Habib fell to longing after his parents and his family and his native country; and at length, on a day of the days, when a banquet was served up to him by his bride, he refused to taste thereof, and she, noting and understanding his condition, said to him, "Be of good cheer, this very night thou shalt find thee amongst thine own folk." Accordingly she summoned her Wazir of the Jann, and when he came she made proclamation amongst the nobles and commons of the capital saying, "This my Wazir shall be my Viceregent over you and whoso shall gainsay him that man I will slay." They replied with "Hearkening to and obeying Allah and thyself and the Minister." Then turning to her newly-established deputy she said, "I desire that thou guide me to the garden wherein was the Sultan Habib;" and he replied, "Upon my head be it and on my eyes!” So an Ifrit was summoned, and Habib mounting him pick-a-back together with the Princess Durrat al-Ghawwas bade him repair to the garden appointed, and the Jinni took flight, and in less than the twinkling of an eye bore the couple to their destination. Such was the reunion of the Sultan Habib with Durrat al-Ghawwas and his joyous conjunction; [FN#428] but as regards the Emir Salamah and his wife, as they were sitting and recalling to memory their only child and wondering in converse at what fate might have betided him, lo and behold! the Sultan Habib stood before them and by his side was Durrat al-Ghawwas his bride, and as they looked upon him and her, weeping prevailed over them for excess of their joyance and delight and both his parents threw themselves upon him and fell fainting to the ground. As soon as they recovered the youth told them all that had betided him, first and last, whereupon one congratulated other and the kettledrums of glad tidings were sounded, and a world of folk from all the Badawi tribes and the burghers gathered about them and offered hearty compliments on the reunion of each with other. Then the encampment was decorated in whole and in part, and festivities were appointed for a term of seven days full-told, in token of joy and gladness; and banquets were arrayed and trays were dispread, and all sat down to them in the pleasantest of life eating and drinking; and the hungry were filled, and the mean and the miserable and the mendicants were feasted until the end of the seventh day. After this they applied them to the punishment of the ten Knights whom the Emir Salamah had despatched to escort his son; and the Sultan Habib gave order that retribution be required from them, and restitution of all the coin and the good and the horses and the camels entrusted to them by his sire. When these had been recovered he commanded that there be set up for them as many stakes in the garden wherein he sat with his bride, and there in their presence he let impale [FN#429] each upon his own pale. And thenceforward the united household ceased not living the most joyous of lives and the most delectable until the old Emir Salamah paid the debt of nature, and they mourned him with excessive mourning for seven days. When these were ended his son, the Sultan Habib, became ruler in his stead and received the homage of all the tribes and clans who came before him and prayed for his victory and his length of life; and the necks of his subjects, even the most stubborn, were bowed in abasement before him. On this wise he reigned over the Crystalline Isles of Sabur, his sire-in-law, with justice and equity, and his Queen, Durrat al-Ghawwas, bare to him children in numbers who in due time followed in their father's steps. And here is terminated the tale of Sultan Habib and Durrat al-Ghawwas with all perfection and completion and good omen.

Note On The History of Habib

The older translators of this “New Arabian Night” have made wild work with this Novel at least as the original is given by my text and the edition of Gauttier (vii, 60-90): in their desire to gallicise it they have invested it with a toilette purely European and in the worst possible style.  Amongst the insipid details are the division of the Crystalline Islands into the White, Yellow, Green and Blue; with the Genies Abarikaff, the monstrous Racachik, Ilbaccaras and Mokilras; and the terrible journey of Habib to Mount Kaf with his absurd reflections: even the “Roc” cannot come to his aid without “a damask cushion suspended between its feet by silken cords” for the greater comfort of the “Arabian Knight.” The Treasury of Solomon, “who fixed the principles of knowledge by 366 hieroglyphics (sic) each of which required a day’s application from even the ablest understanding, before its mysterious sense could be understood,” is spun out as if the episode were copy intended for the daily press.  In my text the “Maidens of the Main” are introduced to say a few words and speed the action.  In the French version Ilzaide the elder becomes a “leading lady,” whose rôle is that of the naïve ingénue, famous for “smartness” and “vivacty”: “one cannot refrain from smiling at the lively sallies of her good nature and simplicity of heart.”  I find this young person the model of a pert, pretty, prattling little French soubrette who, moreover, makes open love to “the master.”  Habib calls the “good old lady,” his governess “Esek! Esek!” which in Turk. means donkey, ass.  I need hardly enlarge upon these ineptitudes; those who wish to pursue the subject have only to compare the two versions.

At the end of the Frenchified tale we find a note entitled:--Observations by the French Editor, on the “History of Habib and Dorathil-goase, or the Arabian Knight,” and these are founded not upon the Oriental text but upon the Occidental perversion.  It is described “from a moral plane rather as a poem than a simple tale,” and it must be regarded as “a Romance of Chivalry which unites the two chief characteristics of works of that sort,--amusement and instruction.”  Habib’s education is compared with that of Telemachus, and his being inured to fatigue is according to the advice of Rousseau in his “Emilius” and the practice of Robinson Crusoe.  Lastly “Grandison is a here already formed: Habib is one who needs to be instructed.”  I cannot but suspect when reading all this Western travesty of an Eastern work that M. Cazotte, a typical littérateur, had prepared for caricaturing the unfortunate Habib by carefully writing up Fénélon, Rousseau, and Richardson; and had grafted his own ideas of morale upon the wild stem of the Arabian novel.

Arabian Nights, Volume 16 Footnotes

 [FN#184]  MSS. pp. 476-504.  This tale is laid down on the same lines as "Abú al-Husn and his Slave-girl Tawaddud," vol. vi. 189.  It is carefully avoided by Scott, C. de Perceval, Gauttier, etc.

 [FN#185]  Lit. an interpreter woman; the word is the fem. of Tarjumán, a dragoman whom Mr. Curtis calls a Drag o' men; see vol. i. 100.  It has changed wonderfully on its way from its "Semitic" home to Europe which has naturalised it as Drogman, Truchman and Dolmetsch.

 [FN#186]  For this word of many senses, see vols. i. 231; ix. 221.  M. Caussin de Perceval (viii. 16), quoting d'Herbelot (s.v.), notes that the Abbasides thus entitled the chief guardian of the Harem.

 [FN#187]  See vols. iv. 100; viii. 268.  In his Introduction (p. 22) to the Assemblies of Al-Hariri Chenery says, "This prosperity had now passed away, for God had brought the people of Rum (so the Arabs call the Byzantines, whom Abú Zayd here confounds with the Franks) on the land," etc.  The confusion is not Abu Zayd's:  "Rumí" in Marocco and other archaic parts of the Moslem world is still synonymous with our "European."

 [FN#188]  This obedience to children is common in Eastern folk-lore: see Suppl. vol. i. 143, in which the royal father orders his son to sell him.  The underlying idea is that the parents find their offspring too clever for them; not, as in the "New World," that Youth is entitled to take precedence and command of Age.

 [FN#189]  In text "Fa min tumma" for "thumma"--then, alors.

 [FN#190]  Such as the headstall and hobbles the cords and chains for binding captives, and the mace and sword hanging to the saddle-bow.

 [FN#191]  i.e. not a well-known or distinguished horseman, but a chance rider.

 [FN#192]  These "letters of Mutalammis," as Arabs term our Litterû Bellerophonteû, or "Uriah's letters," are a lieu commun in the East and the Prince was in luck when he opened and read the epistle here given by mistake to the wrong man.  Mutalammis, a poet of The Ignorance, had this sobriquet (the "frequent asker," or, as we should say, the Solicitor-General), his name being Jarír bin 'Abd al-Masíh.  He was uncle to Tarafah of the Mu'-allakah or prize poem, a type of the witty dissolute bard of the jovial period before Al-Islam arose to cloud and dull man's life.  One day as he was playing with other children Mutalammis was reciting a panegyric upon his favourite camel, which ran:--

I mount a he-camel, dark-red and firm-fleshed; or a she-camel of Himyar, fleet of foot and driving the pebbles with her crushing hooves.

"See the he-camel turned to a she," cried the boy, and the phrase became proverbial to express inelegant transition (Arab. Prov. ii. 246).  The uncle bade his nephew put out his tongue and seeing it dark-coloured said, "That black tongue will be thy ruin!"  Tarafah, who was presently entitled Ibn al-'Ishrin (the son of twenty years), grew up a model reprobate who cared nothing save for three things, "to drink the dark-red wine foaming as the water mixeth with it, to urge into the fight a broad-backed steed, and to while away the dull day with a young beauty."  His apology for wilful waste is highly poetic:--

I see that the grave of the careful, the hoarder, differeth not from the grave of the debauched, the spendthrift: A hillock of earth covers this and that, with a few flat stones laid together thereon.

See the whole piece in Chenery's Al-Hariri (p. 360), from which this note is borrowed.  At last uncle and nephew fled from ruin to the Court of 'Amrú bin Munzír III., King of Hira, who in the tale of Al-Mutalammis and his wife Umaymah (The Nights, vol. v. 74) is called Al-Nu'umán bin Munzir but is better known as 'Amrú bin Hind (his mother).  The King, who was a derocious personage nicknamed Al-Muharrik or the Burner, because he had thrown into the fire ninety-nine men and one woman of the Tamím tribe in accordance with a vow of vengeance he had taken to slaughter a full century, made the two strangers boon-companions to his boorish brother Kábús.  Tarafah, offended because kept at the tent-door whilst the master drank wine within, bitterly lampooned him together with 'Abd Amrú a friend of the King; and when this was reported his death was determined upon.  Amrú, the King, seeing the anxiety of the two poets to quit his Court, offered them letters of introduction to Abú Kárib, Governor of Al-Hajar (Bahrayn) under the Persian King and they were accepted.  The uncle caused his letter to be read by a youth, and finding that it was an order for his execution destroyed it and fled to Syria; but the nephew was buried alive.  Amrú, the King, was afterwards slain by the poet-warrior, Amrú bin Kulthum, also of the "Mu'allakát," for an insult offered to his mother by Hind: hence the proverb, "Quicker to slay than 'Amrú bin Kulsum" (A.P. ii. 233).

 [FN#193]   See vols. i. 192; iii. 14; these correspond with the "Stathmoi," Stationes, Mansiones or Castra of Herodotus, Terps. cap. 53, and Xenophon. An. i. 2, 10.

 [FN#194]  In text "Ittiká" viiith of waká: the form "Takwà" is generally used = fearing God, whereby one guards oneself from sin in this life and from retribution in the world to come.

 [FN#195]  This series of puzzling questions and clever replies is still as favourite a mental exercise in the East as it was in middle-aged Europe.  The riddle or conundrum began, as far as we know, with the Sphinx, through whose mouth the Greeks spoke: nothing less likely than that the grave and mysterious Scribes of Egypt should ascribe aught so puerile to the awful emblem of royal majesty--Abu Haul, the Father of Affright.  Josephus relates how Solomon propounded enigmas to Hiram of Tyre which none but Abdimus, son of the captive Abdûmon, could answer.  The Tale of Tawaddud offers fair specimens of such exercises, which were not disdained by the most learned of Arabian writers.  See Al-Hariri's Ass. xxiv, which proposes twelve enigmas involving abstruse and technical points of Arabic, such as: "What be the word, which as ye will is a particle beloved, or the name of that which compriseth the slender-waisted milch camel!"  Na'am = "Yes" or "cattle," the latter word containing the Harf, or slender camel.  Chenery, p. 246.

 [FN#196]  For the sundry meanings and significance of "Salám," here=Heaven's blessing, see vols. ii. 24, vi. 232.

 [FN#197]  This is the nursery version of the Exodus, old as Josephus and St. Jerome, and completely changed by the light of modern learning.  The Children of Israel quitted their homes about Memphis (as if a large horde of half-nomadic shepherds would be suffered in the richest and most crowded home of Egypt).  They marched by the Wady Músà that debouches upon the Gulf of Suez a short way below the port now temporarily ruined by its own folly and the ill-will of M. de Lesseps; and they made the "Sea of Sedge" (Suez Gulf) through the valley bounded by what is still called Jabal 'Atákah, the Mountain of Deliverance, and its parallel range, Abu Durayj (of small steps).  Here the waters were opened and the host passed over to the "Wells of Moses," erstwhile a popular picnic place on the Arabian side; but according to one local legend (for which see my Pilgrimage, i. 294-97) they crossed the sea north of Túr, the spot being still called "Birkat Far'aun"=Pharoah's Pool.  Such also is the modern legend amongst the Arabs, who learned their lesson from the Christians (not the Jews) in the days when the Copts and the Greeks (ivth century) invented "Mount Sinai."  And the reader will do well to remember that the native annalists of Ancient Egypt, which conscientiously relate all her defeats and subjugations by the Ethiopians, Persians, etc., utterly ignore the very name of Hebrew, Sons of Israel, etc.

I cannot conceal my astonishment at finding a specialist journal like the "Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund" (Oct., 1887) admitting such a paper as that entitled "The Exode," by R. F. Hutchinson, M.D.  For this writer the labours of the last half-century are non-existing.  Job is still the "oldest book" in the world.  The Rev. Charles Forster's absurdity, "Israel in the wilderness," gives valuable assistance.  Goshen is Mr. Chester's Tell Fakús (not, however, far wrong in this) instead of the long depression by the Copts still called "Gesem" or "Gesemeh," the frontier-land through which the middle course of the Suez Canal runs.  "Succoth," tabernacles, is confounded with the Arab.  "Sakf" = a roof.  Letopolis, the "key of the Exode," and identified with the site where Babylon (Old Cairo) was afterwards built, is placed on the right instead of the left bank of the Nile.  "Bahr Kulzum" is the "Sea of the Swallowing-up," in lieu of The Closing.  El-Tíh, "the wandering," is identified with Wady Musa to the west of the Suez Gulf.  And so forth.  What could the able Editor have been doing?

Students of this still disputed question will consult "The Shrine of Saft el-Henneh and the Land of Goschen," by Edouard Naville, fifth Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund.  Published by order of the Committee.  London, Trübner, 1837.

 [FN#198]  Eastern fable runs wild upon this subject, and indeed a larger volume could be written upon the birth, life and death of Moses' and Aaron's rods.  There is a host of legends concerning the place where the former was cut and whence it descended to the Prophet whose shepherd's staff was the glorification of his pastoral life (the rod being its symbol) and of his future career as a ruler (and flogger) of men.  In Exodus (viii. 3-10), when a miracle was required of the brothers, Aaron's rod became a "serpent" (A.V.) or, as some prefer, a "crocodile," an animal worshipped by certain of the Egyptians; and when the King's magicians followed suit it swallowed up all others.  Its next exploit was to turn the Nile and other waters of Egypt into blood (Exod. vii. 17).  The third wonder was worked by Moses' staff, the dividing of the Red Sea (read the Sea of Sedge or papyrus, which could never have grown in the brine of the Suez Gulf) according to the command, "Lift thou up thy rod and stretch out thine hand over the sea," etc. (Exod. xiv. 15).  The fourth adventure was when the rod, wherewith Moses smote the river, struck two blows on the rock in Horeb and caused water to come out of it (Numb. xxi. 8).  Lastly the rod (this time again Aaron's) "budded and brought forth buds and bloomed blossoms and yielded almonds" (Numb. xvii. 7); thus becoming a testimony against the rebels: hence it was set in the Holiest of the Tabernacles (Heb. ix. 14) as a lasting memorial.  I have described (Pilgrim. i. 301) the mark of Moses' rod at the little Hammam behind the old Phoenician colony of Tur, in the miscalled "Sinaitic" Peninsula: it is large enough to act mainmast for a ship.  The end of the rod or rods is unknown: it died when its work was done, and like many other things, holy and unholy, which would be priceless, e.g., the true Cross or Pilate's sword, it remains only as a memory around which a host of grotesque superstitions have grouped themselves.

 [FN#199]  In this word "Hayy" the Arab. and Heb. have the advantage of our English: it means either serpent or living, alive.

 [FN#200]  It is nowhere said in Hebrew Holy Writ that "Pharaoh," whoever he may have been, was drowned in the "Red Sea."

 [FN#201]  Arab.  "Kaml."  The Koranic legend of the Ant has, I repeat, been charmingly commented upon by Edwin Arnold in "Solomon and the Ant" (p.i., Pearls of the Faith).  It seems to be a Talmudic exaggeration of the implied praise in Prov. vi. 6 and xxx. 25, "The ants are a people nto strong, yet they prepare their meat in the summer" which, by the by, proves that the Wise King could be caught tripping in his natural history, and that they did not know everything down in Judee.

 [FN#202]  Isá, according to the Moslems, was so far like Adam (Koran iii. 52) that he was not begotten in the normal way: in fact his was a miraculous conception.  See vol. v. 238.

 [FN#203]  For Elias, Elijah, or Khizr, a marvellous legendary figure, see vols. iv. 175; v. 334.  The worship of Helios (Apollo) is not extinct in mod. Greece where it survives under the name of Elias.  So Dionysus has become St. Dionysius; Bacchus the Drunken, St. George; and Artemis, St. Artemides the healer of childhood.

 [FN#204]  Gesenius interprets it "Soldier of God"; the bye-name given to Jacob presently became the national name of the Twelve Tribes collectively; then it narrowed to the tribe of Judah; afterwards it became = laymen as opposed to Levites, etc., and in these days it is a polite synonym for Jew.  When you want anything from any of the (self-) Chosen People you speak of him as an Israelite; when he wants anything of you, you call him a Jew, or a damned Jew, as the case may be.

 [FN#205]  I am not aware that there is any general history of the bell, beginning with the rattle, the gong and other primitive forms of the article; but the subject seems worthy of a monograph.  In Hebrew Writ the bell first appears in Exod. xxviii. 33 as a fringe to the Ephod of the High Priest that its tinkling might save him from intruding unwarned into the bodily presence of the tribal God, Jehovah.

 [FN#206]  Gennesaret (Chinnereth, Cinneroth), where, according to some Moslems, the Solomon was buried.

 [FN#207]  I cannot explain this legend.

 [FN#208]  So the old English rhyme, produced for quite another purpose by Sir John Bull in "Wat Tyler's Rebellion" (Hume, Hist. of Eng., vol. i. chapt. 17):--

         "When Adam dolve and Eve span,          Who was then the gentleman?"

A variant occurs in a MS. of the xvth century, Brit. Museum:--

         "Now bethink the gentleman,          How Adam dalf and Eve span."

And the German form is:--

         "So Adam reutte (reute) and Eva span          Wwer was da ein Eddelman (Edelman)?"

 [FN#209]  Plur. of "'Usfúr" = a bird, a sparrow.  The etymology is characteristically Oriental and Mediaeval, reminding us of Dan Chaucer's meaning of Cecilia "Heaven's lily" (Súsan) or "Way for the blind" (Cûcus) or "Thoughts of Holiness" and lia=lasting industry; or, "Heaven and Leos" (people), so that she might be named the people's heaven (The SEcond Nonne's Tale).

 [FN#210]  i.e. "Fír is rebellious."

 [FN#211]  Both of which, I may note, are not things but states, modes or conditions of things.  See. vol. ix. 78.

 [FN#212]  "Salát" = the formal ceremonious prayer.  I have noticed (vol. iv. 60) the sundry technical meanings of the term Salát, from Allah=Mercy; from Angel-kind=intercession and pardon, and from mankind=a blessing.

 [FN#213]  Possibly "A prayer of Moses, the man of God," the title of the highly apocryphal Psalm xc.

 [FN#214]  Arab.  "Libás" = clothes in general.

 [FN#215]  In text "Zafar" = victory.  It may also be "Zifr"=alluding to the horny matter which, according to Moslem tradition, covered the bodies of "our first parents" and of which after the "original sin" nothing remained but the nails of their fingers and toes.  It was only when this disappeared that they became conscious of their nudity.  So says M. Houdas; but I prefer to consider the word as Zafar=plaited hair.

 [FN#216]  According to Al-Mas'udi (i. 86, quoting Koran xxi. 52), Abraham had already received of Allah spiritual direction or divine grace ("Rushdu 'llah" or "Al-Hudà") which made him sinless.  In this opinoin of the Imamship, says my friend Prof. A. Sprenger, the historian is more fatalistic than most Sunnis.

 [FN#217]  Modern Moslems are all agreed in making Ishmael and not Issac the hero of this history: see my Pilgrimage (vol. iii. 306).  But it was not always so.  Al-Mas'udi (vol. ii. 146) quotes the lines of a Persian poet in A.H. 290 (=A.D. 902) which expressly say "Is'háku kána'l-Zabíh" = Isaac was the victim, and the historian refers to this in sundry places.  Yet the general idea is that Ishmael succeeded his father (as eldest son) and was succeeded by Isaac; and hence the bitter family feud between the Eastern Jews and the ARab Gentiles.

 [FN#218]  In text "Tajui"=lit. thou pluckest (the fruit of good deeds).  M. Houdas translates Tu recueilles, mot à mot tu citeilles.

 [FN#219]  See note at the end of this tale.

 [FN#220]  Amongst the Jews the Temple of Jerusalem was a facsimile of the original built by Jehovah in the lowest heaven or that of the Moon.  For the same idea (doubtless a derivation from the Talmud) amongst the Moslems concerning the heavenly Ka'abah called Bayt al-Ma'mur (the Populated House) see my Pilgrimage iii. 186, et seq.

 [FN#221]  i.e. there is an end of the matter.

 [FN#222]  In text "Massa-hu'l Fakr"=poverty touched him.

 [FN#223]  He had sold his father for a horse, etc., and his mother for a fine dress.

 [FN#224]  This enigma is in the style of Samson's (Judges xiv. 12) of which we complain that the unfortuante Philistines did not possess the sole clue which could lead to the solution; and here anyone with a modicum of common sense would have answered, "Thou art the man!"  The riddles with which the Queen of Sheba visited Solomon must have been simply hard questions somewhat like those in the text; and the relator wisely refuses to record them.

 [FN#225] We should say "To eclipse the sun."

 [FN#226]  A very intelligible offer.

 [FN#227]  Arab.  "Bi Asri-hi," lit. "rope and all;" metaphorically used=altogether, entirely: the idea is borrowed from the giving or selling of a beast with its thong, halter, chain, etc.

 [FN#228]  In the text, "Káhin," a Cohen, a Jewish Priest, a soothsayer: see Al-Kahánah, vol. i. 28.  In Heb. Kahana=he ministered (priests' offices or other business) and Cohen=a priest either of the true God or of false gods.

 [FN#229]  This ending with its résumé of contents is somewhat hors ligne, yet despite its vain repetition I think it advisable to translate it.

 [FN#230]  "And she called his name Moses, and she said because from the water I drew him" (Exod. ii. 10).

 [FN#231]  The Pharoah of the Exodus is popularly supposed by Moslems to have treated his leprosy with baths of babes' blood, the babes being of the Banú Isráíl.  The word "Pharoah" is not without its etymological difficulties.

 [FN#232]  Graetz (Geschichte i. note 7) proves that "Aram," in the Hebrew text (Judges iii. 8), should be "Edom."

 [FN#233]  I give a quadruple increase, at least 25 per centum more than the genealogies warrant.

 [FN#234] MS. pp. 505-537. This story is found in the "Turkish Tales" by Petis de la Croix who translated one fourth of the "Forty Wazirs" by an author self-termed "Shaykh Zádeh." It is called the "History of Chec Chahabeddin" (Shaykh Shiháb al-Dín), and it has a religious significance proving that the Apostle did really and personally make the "Mi'raj" (ascent to Heaven) and returned whilst his couch was still warm and his upset gugglet had not run dry. The tale is probably borrowed from Saint Paul, who (2 Cor. xii. 4) was "caught up into Paradise," which in those days was a kind of region that roofed the earth. The Shaykh in question began by showing the Voltairean Sultan of Egypt certain specious miracles, such as a phantom army (in our tale two lions), Cairo reduced to ashes, the Nile in flood and a Garden of Irem, where before lay a desert. He then called for a tub, stripped the King to a zone girding his loins and made him dip his head into the water. Then came the adventures as in the following tale. When after a moment's space these ended, the infuriated Sultan gave orders to behead the Shaykh, who also plunged his head into the tub; but the Wizard divined the ill-intent by "Mukáshafah" (thought-reading); and by "Al-Ghayb 'an al-Absár" (invisibility) levanted to Damascus. The reader will do well to compare the older account with the "First Vizir's Story" (p. 17) in Mr. Gibb's "History of the Forty Vizirs," etc. As this scholar remarks, the Mi'ráj, with all its wealth of wild fable, is simply alluded to in a detached verses of the Koran (xvii. 1) which runs: [I declare] "The glory of Him who transported His servant by night from the Sacred Temple (of Meccah) to the Remote Temple (of Jerusalem), whose precincts we have blessed, that we might show him of our signs." After this comes an allusion to Moses (v. 2); Mr. Gibb observes (p. 22) that this lengthening out of the seconds was a favourite with "Dervishes," as he has shown in "The Story of Jewád ," and suggests that the effect might have been produced by some drug like Hashish. I object to Mr. Gibb's use of the word "Hour)" (ibid. p. 24) without warning the reader that it is an irregular formation, masculine withal for “Huríyah," and that the Pers. "Húri," from which the Turks borrowed their blunder, properly means "One Húr."

 [FN#235] For the Dajlah (Tigris) and Furát (Euphrates) see vols. viii. 150- ix. 17. The topothesia is worse than Shakespearean. In Weber's Edit. of the "New Arabian Nights" (Adventures of Simoustapha, etc.), the rivers are called "Ilfara" and "Aggiala."

 [FN#236] In text "Alwán," for which see vol. vii. 135.

 [FN#237] [The word which is here translated with: "and one had said that he had laboured hard thereat (walawá'yh?) seems scarcely to bear out this meaning. I would read it "wa'l-Aw'iyah" (plur. of wi'á), rendering accordingly: "and the vessels (in which the aforesaid meats were set out) shimmered like unto silver for their cleanliness."--ST.]

 [FN#238] In text "Al-Wahwah."

 [FN#239] In text, "Mutasa'lik" for "Moutasa'lik" = like a "sa'lúk."

 [FN#240] For this "high-spirited Prince and noble-minded lord" see vol. ix. 229.

 [FN#241] In text "Bisáta-hum" = their carpets.

 [FN#242] In text "Hawánít," plur. of "Hanút" = the shop or vault of a vintner, pop. derived from the Persian Kháneh. In Jer. xxvii. 16, where the A. V. has "When Jeremiah was entered into the dungeon and into the cabins," read "underground vaults," cells or cellars where wine was sold. "Hanút" also means either the vintner or the vintner's shop. The derivation because it ruins man's property and wounds his honour is the jeu d'esprit of a moralising grammarian. Chenery's Al-Hariri, p. 377.

 [FN#243] In the Arab. "Jawákín," plur. of Arab. Jaukán for Pers. Chaugán, a crooked stick a club, a bat used for the Persian form of golf played on horseback--Polo.

 [FN#244] [The text reads "Liyah," and lower down twice with the article "Al-Liyah" (double Lam). I therefore suspect that "Liyyah," equivalent with "Luwwah," is intended which both mean Aloes-wood as used for fumigation (yutabakhkharu bi-hi). For the next ingredient I would read "Kit'ah humrah," a small quantity of red brickdust, a commodity to which, I do not know with what foundation, wonderful medicinal powers are or were ascribed. This interpretation seems to me the more preferable, as it presently appears that the last-named articles had to go into the phial, the mention of which would otherwise be to no purpose and which I take to have been finally sealed up with the sealing clay. The whole description is exceedingly loose, and evidently sorely corrupted, so I think every attempt at elucidation may be acceptable.--ST.]

 [FN#245] "Wa Kíta'h hamrah," which M. Houdas renders un morceau de viande cuite.

 [FN#246] This is a specimen of the Islamised Mantra called in Sanskrit Stambhana and intended to procure illicit intercourse. Herklots has printed a variety of formulû which are popular throughout southern India: even in the Maldive Islands we find such "Fandita" (i.e. Panditya, the learned Science) and Mr. Bell (Journ., Ceylon Br. R. A. S. vii. 109) gives the following specimen, "Write the name of the beloved; pluck a bud of the screw-pine (here a palette de mouton), sharpen a new knife, on one side of the bud write the Surat al-Badr (chapter of Power, No. xxi., thus using the word of Allah for Satan's purpose); on the other side write Vajahata; make an image out of the bud; indite particulars of the horoscope copy from beginning to end the Surat al-Rahmán (the Compassionating, No. xlviii.);, tie the image in five places with coir left-hand-twisted (i.e. widdershins or 'against the sun'); cut the throat of a blood-sucker (lizard); smear its blood on the image; place it in a loft, dry it for three days, then take it and enter the sea. If you go in knee deep the woman will send you a message; if you go in to the waist she will visit you." (The Voyage of Francois Pyrard, etc., p. 179.) I hold all these charms to be mere instruments for concentrating and intensifying the brain action called Will, which is and which presently will be recognised as the chief motor-power. See Suppl. vol. iii.

 [FN#247] Probably the name of some Prince of the Jinns.

 [FN#248] In text "Kamá zukira fí Dayli-h" = arrange-toi de facon à l'atteindre (Houdas).

 [FN#249] Proverbial for its depth: Káshán is the name of sundry cities; here one in the Jibál or Irák 'Ajami--Persian Mesopotamia.

 [FN#250] Doubtless meaning Christians.

 [FN#251] The Sage had summoned her by the preceding spell which the Princess obeyed involuntarily.

 [FN#252] i.e., last night, see vol. iii. 249.

 [FN#253] In text "Wuldán" = "Ghilmán": the boys of Paradise; for whom and their feminine counterparts the Húr (Al-Ayn) see vols. i. 90, 211; iii. 233.

 [FN#254] Arab. "Dukhn" = Holcus dochna, a well-known grain, a congener of the Zurrah or Durrah = Holcus Sativus, Forsk. cxxiii. The incident is not new. In "Des blaue Licht," a Mecklenburg tale given by Grimm, the King's daughter who is borne through the air to the soldier's room is told by her father to fill her pocket with peas and make a hole therein; but the sole result was that the pigeons had a rare feast. See Suppl. vol. iii. 375.

 [FN#255] i.e., a martyr of love. See vols. iii. 211; i-iv. 205.

 [FN#256] In the text "Ka'ka'”; hence the higher parts of Meccah, inhabited by the Jurham tribe, was called "Jabal Ka'ka'án," from their clashing arms (Pilgrimage iii. 191).

 [FN#257] This was the work of the form of magic popularly known as Símiyá = fascination, for which see vol. i. 305, 332. It is supposed to pass away after a period of three days, and mesmerists will find no difficulty in recognising a common effect upon "Odylic sensitives."

 [FN#258] Here supply the MS. with "illá."

 [FN#259] In text "tatadakhkhal'alay-h:" see "Dakhíl-ak," vol. i. 61.

 [FN#260] Or "he": the verb may also refer to the Sage.

 [FN#261] Arab. "Kazafa" = threw up, etc.

 [FN#262] This, in the case of the Wazir, was a transformation for the worse: see vol. vii. 294, for the different kinds of metamorphosis.

 [FN#263] i.e. my high fortune ending in the lowest.

 [FN#264] In text "Bakar" = black cattle, whether bull, ox or cow. For ploughing with bulls.

 [FN#265] In text "Mukrif" = lit. born of a slave father and free mother.

 [FN#266] In text "Antum fí kháshin wa básh," an error for "khásh-másh" = a miserable condition.

 [FN#267] In text "yatbashsh" for "yanbashsha." [Or it may stand for yabtashsh, with transpositions of the "t" of the eighth form, as usual in Egypt. See Spitta-Bey's Grammar, p. 198.-- ST.]

 [FN#268] "Janánan," which, says M. Houdas, is the vulgar form of "Jannatan" = the garden (of Paradise). The Wazir thus played a trick upon his hearers. [The word in the text may read "Jinánan," accusative of "Jinán," which is the broken plural of "Jannah," along with the regular plural "Jannát," and, like the latter, used for the gardens of Paradise.--ST.]

 [FN#269] For this name of the capital of Eastern Arabia see vols. i. 33, vii. 24.

 [FN#270] "To be" is the Anglo-Oriental form of "Thaub" = in Arabia a loose robe like a nightgown. See ii. 206.

 [FN#271] The good old Mosaic theory of retribution confined to this life, and the belief that Fate is the fruit of man's action.

 [FN#272] Arab. "Sandarúsah" = red juniper gum (Thuja articulata of Barbary), red arsenic realgar, from the Pers. Sandar = amber.

 [FN#378] MS. pp. 628-685. Gauttier, vii. 64-90; Histoire du Prince Habib et de la Princesse Dorrat-el-Gawas. The English translation dubs it "Story of Habib and Dorathil-goase, or the Arabian Knight" (vol. iii. 219-89); and thus degrades the high sounding name to a fair echo of Dorothy Goose. The name = Pearl of the Diver: it is also the P.N. of a treatise on desinental syntax by the grammarian-poet Al-Hariri (Chenery, p. 539).

 [FN#379] The "Banú Hilál,” a famous tribe which formed part of a confederation against the Prophet on his expedition to Honayn. See Tabari, vol. iii. chapt. 32, and Doughty, Arabia Deserta (Index, B. Helal). In the text we have the vulgarism "Baní" for "Banú".

 [FN#380] Gauttier (vii. 64) clean omits the former Emir because he has nothing to do with the tale. In Heron it is the same, and the second chief is named "Emir-Ben-Hilac-Salamis"; or for shortness tout bonnement "Salamis"; and his wife becoming Amírala which, if it mean anything, is = Colonel, or Captain R. N.

 [FN#381] ie. Moon of the Nobles.

 [FN#382] = the Beloved, le bien-aimé.

 [FN#383] As has been seen Gauttier reduces the title to "Prince." Amongst Arabs, however, it is not only a name proper but may denote any dignity from a Shaykh to a Sultan rightly so termed.

 [FN#384] For the seven handwritings see vol. iv. 196. The old English version says, "He learned the art of writing with pens cut in seven different ways." To give an idea of the style it renders the quatrain:--“Father," said the youth, "you must apply to my master, to give you the information you desire. As for me, I must long be all eye and all ear. I must learn to use my hand, before I begin to exercise my tongue, and to write my letters as pure as pearls from the water." And this is translation!

 [FN#385] I need hardly note that "Voices from the other world" are a lieu commun of so-called Spiritualism. See also vol. i. 142 and Suppl. Vol. iii.

 [FN#386] This tale and most of those in the MS. affect the Ká1a ‘l-Ráwí (= quoth the reciter) showing the true use of them. See Terminal Essay, vol. x. 144.

 [FN#387] The missing apodosis would be, "You would understand the cause of my weeping."

 [FN#388] In the text there are only five lines. I have borrowed the sixth from the prose.

 [FN#389] "Dáúd" = David: see vols. ii. 286; vi. 113.

 [FN#390] For "Samharí" see vol. iv. 258.

 [FN#391] From "Rudaynah," either a woman or a place: see vols. ii. 1; vii. 265; and for "Khatt Hajar" vol. ii. 1.

 [FN#392] This is the idiomatic meaning of the Arab word "Nizál" = dismounting to fight on foot.

 [FN#393] In the text "Akyál," plur. of "Kayl” = Kings of the Himyarite peoples. See vol. vii. 60; here it is = the hero, the heroes.

 [FN#394] An intensive word, "on the weight," as the Arabs say of 'Abbás (stern-faced) and meaning "Very stern-faced, austere, grim." In the older translations it becomes "Il Haboul"--utterly meaningless.

 [FN#395] The Arab. "Moon of the Time" becomes in the olden versions "Camaulzaman," which means, if anything, "Complete Time," and she is the daughter of a Jinn-King "Illabousatrous (Al-'Atrús?)." He married her to a potent monarch named "Shah-Goase" (Shah Ghawwás=King Diver), in this version "Sábúr" (Shahpur), and by him Kamar Al-Zaman became the mother of Durrat al-Ghawwas.

 [FN#396] In text "Sádát wa Ashráf:" for the technical meaning of "Sayyid" and "Sharif” see vols. iv. 170; v. 259.

 [FN#397] Gauttier, vii. 71. Les Isles Bellour. see vol. iii. 194.

 [FN#398] Heron's "Illabousatrous"(?).

 [FN#399] In text "Zayjah," from Pers. "Záycheh" = lit. a horoscope, a table for calculating nativities and so forth. In page 682 of the MS. the word is used = marriage-lines.

 [FN#400] In text "Snsál," for "Salsál " = lit. chain.

 [FN#401] In Sindbad the Seaman I have shown that riding men as asses is a facetious exaggeration of an African practice, the Minister being generally the beast of burden for the King. It was the same in the Maldive Islands. "As soon as the lord desires to land, one of the rhief Catibes (Arab. Khatíb = a preacher, not Kátib = a writer) comes forward to offer his shoulder (a function much esteemed) and the other gets upon his shoulders; and so, with a leg on each side, he rides him horse fashion to land, and is there set down." See p. 71, "The Voyage of François Pyrard," etc. The volume is unusually well edited by Mr. Albert Gray, formerly of the Ceylon Civil Service, for the Hakluyt Society, MDCCCLXXXVII: it is, however, regretable that he and Mr. Bell, his collaborateur, did not trace out the Maldive words to their "Aryan" origin showing their relationship to vulgar Hindostani as Mas to Machhí (fish) from the Sanskrit Matsya.

 [FN#402] In text "Ghayth al-Hátíl = incessant rain of small drops and widely dispread. In Arab. the names for clouds, rain and all such matters important to a pastoral race are well nigh innumerable. Poetry has seized upon the material terms and has converted them into a host of metaphors; for "the genius of the Arabic language, like that of the Hebrew, is to form new ideas by giving a metaphorical signification to material objects (e.g. 'Azud, lit. the upper arm; met. a helper)." Chenery, p. 380.

 [FN#403] In the text "To the palace:" the scribe, apparently forgetting that he is describing Badawi life, lapses at times into "decorating the capital" and "adorning the mansion," as if treating of the normal city-life. I have not followed his example.

 [FN#404] Heron translates "A massy cuirass of Haoudi."

 [FN#405] In text, "Inbasata 'l-Layl al-Asá," which M. Houdas renders et s'étendit la nuit (mère) de la tristesse.

 [FN#406] "Rauzah" in Algiers is a royal park; also a prairie, as "Rauz al-Sanájirah," plain of the Sinjars: Ibn Khaldun, ii. 448.

 [FN#407] The "Miskál" (for which see vols. i. 126; ix. 262) is the weight of a dinar = 1œ dirham = 71-72 grains avoir. A dose of 142 grains would kill a camel. In 1848, when we were marching up the Indus Valley under Sir Charles Napier to attack Náo Mall of Multan, the Sind Camel Corps was expected to march at the rate of some 50 miles a day, and this was done by making the animals more than half drunk with Bhang or Indian hemp.

 [FN#408] In text, "Yakhat," probably clerical error for "Yakhbut,” lit. = he was panting in a state of unconsciousness: see Dozy, Suppl. s. v.

 [FN#409] In text "Al-Dán, which is I presume a clerical error for “Al-Uzn” = ear. ["Dán," with the dual "Dánayn," and "Wudn," with the plural "Audán," are popular forms for the literary "Uzn."--ST.]

 [FN#410] This name has occurred in MS. p. 655, but it is a mere nonentity until p. 657--the normal incuriousness. Heron dubs him "Rabir."

 [FN#411] In the text "Zimmat" = obligation, protection, clientship.

 [FN#412] “Sahha 'alakah" (=a something) "fí hazá 'l-Amri." The first word appears de trop being enclosed in brackets in the MS.

 [FN#413] "Wa yabkí ‘alaykum Mabálu-h." [For "Mabál" I would read "Wabál," in the sense of crime or punishment, and translate: "lest the guilt of it rest upon you."--ST.)

 [FN#414] In the text "Suwaydá" literally "a small and blackish woman"; and "Suwaydá al-Kalb" (the black one of the heart) = original sin, as we should say. [The diminutive of "Sayyid" would be "Suwayyid," as "Kuwayyis" from "Kayyis," and "Juwayyid" from "Jayyid" (comp. supra p. 3). "Suwayd" and "Suwaydá" are diminutives of "Aswad," black, and its fem. "Saudᔠrespectively, meaning blackish. The former occurs in "Umm al-Suwayd" = anus. "Suwaydá al-Kalb" = the blackish drop of clotted blood in the heart, is synonymous with "Habbat al-Kalb" = the grain in the heart, and corresponds to our core of the heart. Metaphorically both are used for "original sin."--ST.]

 [FN#415] "Yákah Thiyábish;" the former word being Turkish (M. Houdas).

 [FN#416] Arab. "Kaunayn" = the two entities, this world and the other world, the past and the future, etc. Here it is opposed to "’A’lamína," here ‘Awálim = the (three) worlds, for which see vol. ii. 236.

 [FN#417] In text "Changul," again written with a three-dotted Chím.

 [FN#418] In text "Al-Mazrab" which M. Houdas translates cet endroit.

 [FN#419] In text "Yabahh" = saying "Bah, Bah!"

 [FN#420] In text "Bahr al-Azrak" = the Blue Sea, commonly applied to the Mediterranean: the origin of the epithet is readily understood by one who has seen the Atlantic or the Black Sea.

 [FN#421] i.e. "The Stubborn,” “The Obstinate."

 [FN#422] In text "Al-Jawádit," where M. Houdas would read "Al-Hawádith" which he renders by animaux fraîchement tués.

 [FN#423] In the text "Kabad" = the liver, the sky-vault, the handle or grasp of a bow.

 [FN#424] In the text "Míná" = a port both in old Egyptian and mod. Persian: see "Mitrahinna," vol. ii. 257.

 [FN#425] "Al-Nakáír," plur. of "Nakír" = a dinghy, a dug-out.

 [FN#426] For this "Pá-andáz," as the Persians call it, see vol. iii. 141.

 [FN#427] In text "Kataba Zayjata-há," the word has before been noticed.

 [FN#428] Again "Hizà bi-Zayjati-há" = le bonheur de ses aventures.

 [FN#429] This impalement ("Salb," which elsewhere means crucifying, vol. iii. 25) may be a barbarous punishment but it is highly cffective, which after all is its principal object. Old Mohammed Ali of Egypt never could have subjugated and disciplined the ferocious Badawi of Al-Asir, the Ophir region South of Al-Hijáz, without the free use of the stake. The banditti dared to die but they could not endure the idea of their bodies being torn to pieces and devoured by birds and beasts. The stake commonly called "Kházúk", is a stout pole pointed at one end, and the criminal being thrown upon his belly is held firm whilst the end is passed up his fundament. His legs and body are then lashed to it and it is raised by degrees and planted in a hole already dug, an agonising part of the process. If the operation be performed by an expert who avoids injuring any mortal part, the wretch may live for three days suffering the pangs of thirst; but a drink of water causes hemorrhage and instant death. This was the case with the young Moslem student who murdered the excellent Marshal Kleber in the garden attached to Shepherd's Hotel, Cairo, wherein, by the by, he suffered for his patriotic crime. Death as in crucifixion is brought on by cramps and nervous exhaustion, for which see Canon Farrar (Life of Christ, ii. 392 et seqq.).

 [FN#430] Archaeological Review, July, 1888, pp. 331-342.

 [FN#431] The proper names are overrun with accents and diaeretical points, of which I have here retained but few.

 [FN#432] Particularly mentioning Syntipas, the Forty Vizirs, a Turkish romance relating to Alexander, in 120 volumes; and Mohammed al-'Aufi.

 [FN#433] Probably similar to those described in the story of the Warlock and the Cook (anteà, pp. 106-112)

 [FN#434] The last clause is very short and obscure in the French "qu'il n'a pas son satire," but what follows shows the real meaning to be that given above. (W. F. K.)

 [FN#435] This I take to be the meaning of the words, "une autre monde sous la terre par sept fois.” (W.F.K.)

 [FN#436] Galland writes "on fait un jeu de Giret (tournoi), etc." (W. F. K.)

 [FN#437] Perhaps an error of Galland's. (W. F. K.)

 [FN#438] I do not know the German edition referred to.

 [FN#439] This great class of tales is quite as widely extended in the north of Europe and Asia, as in the south. We meet with them in Siberia, and they are particularly common in Lapland I believe, too, that the Indian story of the Red Swan (referred to by Longfellow, Hiawatha xii.) is only a Swan Maiden legend in a rather modified form. As usual, we find a bizarre form of the Swan Maiden story among the Samoghitians of Lithuania. The Zemyne is a one eyed venomous snake, with black blood which cures all diseases and neutralises all magic. It is an enchanted maiden; and sometimes the skin has been stolen, and she has reamed a man. But if she recovers her skin, she resumes her snake-form, and bites and kills her husband and children. Many other strange things are related of the Zemyne (Veckenstedt, Mythen, Sagen, und Legenden der Zamaiten, ii., pp. 149-152).]

 [FN#440] About twenty pounds.

 [FN#441] Spitta Bey (p. 27 note) suggests that this is a reminiscence of the ancient Egyptian idea of the Scarabûus which typifies life.

 [FN#442] Southey, in his story of the Young Dragon, relates how Satan, disapproving of the rapid conversion of the inhabitants of Antioch to Christianity, laid an egg, and hatched out a dragon, which he sent to destroy the inhabitants. But a Pagan whose Christian daughter was devoted to the dragon by lot, stole the thumb from a relic (the hand of John the Baptist), as he pretended to kiss it, and cast it into the mouth of the dragon, and blew him up.

 [FN#443] This is a variant of the Nose-Tree; I do not remember another in genuine Oriental literature (cf. Nights, x., app., p. 449).]

 [FN#444] How small the world becomes in this story!

 [FN#445] It is evident that a young she-bear is all that is meant.

 [FN#446]These Vigilants and Purifiers, with that hypocritical severity which ever makes the worst sinner in private the most rigorous judge in public, lately had the imprudent impudence to summons a publisher who had reprinted the Decameron with the "objectionable passages" in French. Mr. Alderman Faudell Phillips had the good sense contemptuously to dismiss the summons. Englishmen are no longer what they were if they continue to tolerate this Ignoble espionnage of Vicious and prurient virtuous "Associations." If they mean real work why do they commence by condemning scholar-like works, instead of cleansing the many foul cesspools of active vice which are a public disgrace to London.

 [FN#447] It may serve the home-artist and the home-reader to point out a few of the most erroneous The harp (i. 143) is the Irish and not the Eastern, yet the latter has been shown In i. 228; and the "Kánún " (ii. 77) is a reproduction from Lane's Modern Egyptians. The various Jinnís are fanciful, not traditional, as they should be (see inter alia Doughty's Arabia Deserta, ii. 3, etc.). In i. 81 and ii. 622 appears a specimen bogie with shaven chin and "droopers" by way of beard and mustachios: mostly they have bestial or simiad countenances with rabbits' ears, goats' horns and so forth (i. 166, 169; ii. 97, 100), instead of faces more or less human and eyes disposed perpendicularly. The spreading yew-tree (i. 209) is utterly misplaced. In many the action is excessive, after the fashion of the Illustrateds (i. 281, 356, 410 and 565; ii. 366, 374). The scymitar and the knife, held in the left hand or slung by the left flank, are wholly out of order (i. 407 ii.281,374; iii.460) and in iii. 355, the blade is wider than the wielder's waist. In i. 374 the astrolabe is also held in the left hand. The features are classical as those of Arsinoë, certainly not Egyptian, in i. 15; i. 479 and passim. The beggar-women must not wander with faces bare and lacking "nose-bags" as in i. 512. The Shah (i. 523) wears modern overalls strapped down over dress-bottines: Moreover he holds a straight-bladed European court-sword, which is correct in i. 527. The spears (i. 531) are European not Asiatic, much less Arabian, whose beams are often 12-15 feet long. Azíz (i. 537) has no right to tricot drawers and shoes tightened over the instep like the chaussure of European moutards: his foot (i. 540) is wholly out of drawing, like his hand, and the toes are European distortions. The lady writing (i. 581) lacks all local colour; she should sit at squat, support the paper in the hollow of her left instead of using a portfolio, and with her right ply the reed or "pen of brass." In vol. ii. 57 the lion is an absurdum, big as a cow or a camel, and the same caricature of the King of Beasts occurs elsewhere (i. 531; ii. 557 and iii. 250). The Wazir (ii. 105) wears the striped caftan of a Cairene scribe or shopkeeper. The two birds (ii. 140) which are intended for hawks (see ii. 130) have the compact tails and the rounded-off wings of pigeons. I should pity Amjad and As'ad if packed into a "bullock trunk" like that borne by the mule in ii. 156. The Jew's daughter (ii. 185) and the Wali of Bulak (ii. 504) carry European candlesticks much improved in ii. 624. The Persian leach (ii. 195) is habited most unlike an 'Ajami, while the costume is correct in ii. 275. The Badawi mounts (ii. 263) an impossible Arab with mane and tail like the barb's in pictures. The street-dogs (ii. 265), a notable race, become European curs of low degree. The massage of the galleys (ii. 305) would suit a modern racing-yacht. Utterly out of place are the women's costumes such as the Badawi maidens (ii. 335), Rose-in Hood (ii. 565), and the girl of the Banú Odhrah (iii.250), while the Lady Zubaydah (ii. 369) is coiffee with a European coronet. The sea-going ship (ii. 615) is a Dahabiyah fit only for the Nile. The banana-trees (ii. 621) tower at least 80 feet tall and the palms and cocoa-nut trees (ii. 334; iii. 60) are indicated only by their foliage, not by their characteristic boles. The box (ii. 624) is European and modern: in the Eastern "Sakhkhárah" the lid fits into the top, thus saving it from the "baggage-smasher." In iii. 76, the elephant, single-handed, uproots a tree rivalling a century-old English oak. The camel-saddle (iii. 247) is neither Eastern nor possible for the rider, but it presently improves (iii. 424 and elsewhere). The emerging of the Merfolk (iii. 262) is a "tableau," a transformation-scene of the transpontine pantomime, and equally theatrical is the attitude of wicked Queen Láb (iii. 298), while the Jinni, snatching away Daulat Khatun (iii.341), seems to be waltzing with her in horizontal position. A sun-parasol, not a huge Oriental umbrella, is held over the King's head (iii. 377). The tail-piece, the characteristic Sphinx (iii. 383), is as badly drawn as it well can be, a vile caricature. Khalífah the Fisherman wears an English night-gown (iii. 558) with the side-locks of a Polish Jew (iii. 564). The dancing- girl (iii. 660) is equally reprehensible in form, costume and attitude, and lastly, the Fellah ploughing (iii. 700) should wear a felt skull-cap instead of a turband, be stripped to the waist and retain nothing but a rag around the middle.

I have carefully noted these lapses and incongruities: not the less, however, I thoroughly appreciate the general excellence of the workmanship, and especially the imaginative scenery and the architectural designs of Mr. W. Harvey. He has shown the world how a work of the kind should be illustrated, and those who would surpass him have only to avoid the minor details here noticed.

 [FN#448] See in M. Zotenberg's "Ala al-Din" the text generally; also p. 14.

 [FN#449] Mr. Payne, in his Essay, vol. ix., 281, computes less than two hundred tales in all omitting the numerous incidentals; and he notices that the number corresponds with the sum of the "Night-stories" attributed to the Hazár Afsán by the learned author of the "Fihrist" (see Terminal Essay, vol. x. pp. 70). In p. 367 (ibid.) he assumes the total at 264.

 [FN#450] This parlous personage thought proper to fall foul of me (wholly unprovoked) in the Athenaeum of August 25, '88. I give his production in full:-- Lord Stratford De Redcliffe.

August 18, 1888.

In the notice of Sir R. Burton's "Life" in to-day's Athenæum it is mentioned that his biographer says that Capt. Burton proposed to march with his Bashi-bazuks to the relief of Kars, but was frustrated by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, who, according to Sir Richard, "gained a prodigious reputation in Europe, chiefly by living out of it."

This is a strange inversion of facts. The proposal to relieve Kars by way of Redoutkalé and Kutais originated, not with Capt. Burton, but with the Turkish Seraskier, who recommended for this purpose the employment of Vivian's Turkish Contingent and part of Beatson's Horse ("his Bashi-bazuks"), in which Capt. Burton held a staff appointment. In the last days of June, 1855, General Mansfield, Lord Stratford's military adviser, was in constant communication on this subject with the Turkish Ministers, and the details of the expedition were completely arranged to the satisfaction of military opinion, both British and Turkish, at Constantinople. Lord Stratford officially recommended the plan to his Government, and in his private letters to the Foreign Secretary strongly urged it upon him and expressed a sanguine hope of its success. But on July 14th, Lord Clarendon telegraphed: "The plan for reinforcing the army at Kars contained in your despatches of 30th June and 1st inst. is disapproved." Lord Panmure really "frustrated" the Turkish plan; Lord Stratford never "frustrated" any attempt to succour the Army of Asia, but, contrariwise, did all in his power to forward the object.

As to the amiable reference to the Great Elchi's reputation, no one knows better than Sir R. Burton by what queer methods reputations may be annexed, but it is strange that anyone with the reputation of a traveller should consider Constantinople to be "out of Europe."

S. Lane-Poole.

The following was my reply:-- Lord Stratford De Redcliffe and Mr. S. Lane-Poole.

London, Aug. 26, 1888.

Will you kindly spare me space for a few lines touching matters personal?

I am again the victim (Athenæum, August 25) of that everlasting réclame. Mr. S. Lane-Poole has contracted to "do" a life of Lord Stratford, and, ergo, he condemns me in magistral tone and a style of uncalled-for impertinence, to act as his "advt." In relating how, by order of the late General Beatson, then commanding Bash-buzuk (Bashi-bazuk is the advertiser's own property), I volunteered to relieve Cars, how I laid the project before the "Great Eltchee," how it was received with the roughest language and how my first plan was thoroughly "frustrated." I have told a true tale, and no more. "A strange perversion of facts," cries the sapient criticaster, with that normal amenity which has won for him such honour and troops of unfriends: when his name was proposed as secretary to the R. A. S., all prophesied the speediest dissolution of that infirm body.

I am aware that Constantinople is not geographically "out of Europe." But when Mr. S. Lane-Poole shall have travelled a trifle more he may learn that ethnologically it is. In fact, most of South-Eastern Europe holds itself more or less non-European, and when a Montenegrin marries a Frenchwoman or a German, his family will tell you that he has wedded a "European."

"No one knows better than Sir R. Burton by what queer methods reputation may be annexed." Heavens, what English! And what may the man mean? But perhaps he alludes in his own silly, saltless, sneering way to my Thousand Nights and a Night, which has shown what the "Uncle and Master's" work should have been. Some two generations of poules mouillées have reprinted and republished Lane's "Arabian Notes" without having the simple honesty to correct a single bévue, or to abate one blunder; while they looked upon the Arabian Nights as their own especial rotten borough. But more of this in my tractate, "The Reviewer Reviewed," about to be printed as an appendix to my Supplemental Volume, No. vi.

Richard F. Burton.

And here is the rejoinder (Athenæum, September 8):-- Lord Stratford and Sir R. Burton.

September 4, 1888.

Sir R. Burton, like a prominent Irish politician, apparently prefers to select his own venue, and, in order to answer my letter in the Athenæum of August 25, permits himself in the Academy of September 1 an exuberance of language which can injure no one but himself. Disregarding personalities, I observe that he advances no single fact in support of the statements which I contradicted, but merely reiterates them. It is a question between documents and Sir R. Burton's word.

S. Lane-Poole.

It is not a question between documents and my word, but rather of the use or abuse of documents by the "biographer." My volunteering for the relief of Kars was known to the whole camp at the Dardanelles, and my visit to the Embassy at Constantinople is also a matter of "documents." And when Mr. S. Lane-Poole shall have produced his I will produce mine.

 [FN#451] It appears to me that our measures, remedial and punitive, against "pornographic publications" result mainly in creating "vested interests" (that English abomination) and thus in fostering the work. The French printer, who now must give name and address, stamps upon the cover Avis aux Libraires under Edition privee and adds Ce volume ne doit pas etre mis en vente ou expose dans les lieux publics (Loi du 29 Juillet, 1881). He also prints upon the back the number of copies for sale We treat "pornology" as we handle prostitution, unwisely ignore it, well knowing the while that it is a natural and universal demand of civilised humanity; and whereas continental peoples regulate it and limit its abuses we pass it by, Pharisee-like, with nez en-l'air. Our laws upon the subject are made only to be broken, and the authorities are unwilling to persecute, because by so doing they advertise what they condemn. Thus they offer a premium to the greedy and unscrupulous publisher and immensely enhance the value of productions ("Fanny Hill" by Richard Cleland for instance) which, if allowed free publication, would fetch pence instead of pounds. With due diffidence, I suggest that the police be directed to remove from booksellers' windows and to confiscate all indecent pictures, prints and photographs; I would forbid them under penalty of heavy fines to expose immoral books for sale, and I would leave "cheap and nasty" literature to the good taste of the publisher and the public. Thus we should also abate the scandal of providing the secretaries and officers of the various anti-vice societies with libraries of pornological works which, supposed to be escheated or burned, find their way into the virtuous hands of those who are supposed to destroy them.

 [FN#452] "Quand aux manuscrits de la rédaction égyptienne, l'omission de cet épisode parait devoir être attribuée à la tendance qui les caractérise géneralement, d'abréger et de condenser la narrative " (loc. cit. p. 7: see also p. 14).

 [FN#453] Here I would by no means assert that the subject matter of The Nights is exhausted: much has been left for future labourers. It would be easy indeed to add another five volumes to my sixteen as every complete manuscript contains more or less of novelty. Dr. Pertsch, the learned librarian of Saxe-Gotha, informs me that no less than two volumes are taken up by a variant of Judar the Egyptian (in my vol. vi. 213) and by the History of Zahir and Ali. For the Turkish version in the Bibliothèque Nationale see M. Zotenberg (pp. 21-23). The Rich MS. in the British Museum abounds in novelties, of which a specimen was given in my Prospectus to the Supplemental Volumes.

In the French Scholar's "Alâ al-Dîn" (p. 45) we find the MSS. of The Nights divided into three groups. No. i. or the Asian (a total of ten specified) are mostly incomplete and usually end before the half of the text. The second is the Egyptian of modern date, characterised by an especial style and condensed narration and by the nature and ordinance of the tales, by the number of fables and historiettes, and generally by the long chivalrous Romance of Omar bin al-Nu'umán. The third group, also Egyptian, differs only in the distribution of the stories.]

 [FN#454] My late friend, who brought home 3,000 copies of inscriptions from the so-called Sinai which I would term in ancient days the Peninsula of Paran. and in our times the Peninsula of Tor.

 [FN#455] See M. Zotenberg, pp. 4, 26.

 [FN#456] M. Zotenberg (p. 5) wrote la seconde moitie du xive. Siècle, but he informed me that he has found reason to antedate the text.

 [FN#457] I regret the necessity of exposing such incompetence and errors which at the time when Lane wrote were venial enough; his foolish friend, however, by unskilful and exaggerated pretensions and encomiums, compels me to lay the case before the reader.

 [FN#458] This past tense, suggesting that an act is complete, has a present sense in Arabic and must be translated accordingly.

 [FN#459] Quite untrue: the critic as usual never read and probably never saw the subject of his criticism. In this case I may invert one of my mottoes and write, "To the foul all things"