The Boxer Rebellion

THE BOXER REBELLION: A Political and Diplomatic Review  (1915) 
by Paul H. Clements

STUDIES IN HISTORY, ECONOMICS AND PUBLIC LAW

EDITED BY THE FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Volume LXVI]

[Number 3

Whole Number 160


THE BOXER REBELLION

A Political and Diplomatic Review


by

PAUL H. CLEMENTS, Ph.D.

Sometime Fellow in International Law, Columbia University
Lecturer at Columbia on Far Eastern
Politics and Diplomacy




New York
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., AGENTS,
London: P.S. King & Son, Ltd.
1915






TO
MY FATHER AND MOTHER




PREFACE

The present volume comprises an examination into the causes of the Box Rebellion and its international complications, and a discussion of the Joint Note of 1900 and the Peace Protocol of 1901, whereby relations between China and the world were again established on an amicable basis.

There need be no apology for contributing an additional work to the literature on this fascinating period of history. When the circumstances and results of this remarkable exhibition of wrath against the outside world are fully considered and appreciated, it can be realized how, at one stroke, entirely unforeseen by critics of the day, it shook China out of the sleep of centuries, revolutionized the history and politics of a race possessing great inherent possibilities, and formed the background, the cause, in fact, of momentous events where are taking place in the Far East to-day and the ultimate trend of which it is impossible to foretell. As the period of Chinese history under discussion, from 1895 to 1902, occupies a unique place in international politics and diplomacy, the author has carefully examined as source the invaluable British "Blue Books" dealing with the affairs of China; the reports and correspondence of the Department of State respecting the foreign relations of the United States, as well as numerous treaties, notes and declarations found elsewhere.

The author desires to acknowledge the invaluable assistance to Professor John Bassett Moore, who, at great sacrifices of time, went over the entire work with him; and to Professor Edwin R. A. Seligman for his instruction and advice in preparing the volume for the press. Acknowledgement is also due to Professors Ellery C. Stowell, Friedrich Hirth, and James Harvey Robinson for their many kindly criticisms and suggestions. It may be added that the studies of the author were first encouraged and directed into the Far Eastern field by his friend, Professor Amos S. Hershey, of Indiana University. P.H.C.

Columbia University in the City of New York, July, 1915.



CONTENTS


PART I

Causes of the Boxer Rebellion

Meaning of the Boxer Rebellion
China and the world in past history
The Manchu conquest
China and Europe in the XVIth and XVIIth centuries
Results of the Opium War
Real significance of the China-Japanese war
Territorial aggression of the Powers
Restraining influence of the Hay circular note of September, 1899
Character of the Emperor Kuang Hsu
Dismissal of Weng Teng-ho
Kang Yu-wei as Adviser
First reform decree of June 11, 1898
Further decrees
Decree of September 5
The Coup d' Etat
Tzu Hsi's resumption of the regency
Reasons for failure of reform
Indifference of Powers to "Palace revolution"
Persecution of reformers
Policy of Empress Dowager
Reception to wives of diplomats
Health of Emperor
Resumption of regency by Tzu Hsi a vital cause of the rebellion
Other immediate causes
The missionary question
The outbreak in Shantung
Other outbreaks
Europe's failure to appreciate the situation

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