The Indian Biographical Dictionary (1915)/Curzon of Kedleston, First Baron; George Nathaniel

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Curzon of Kedleston, George Nathaniel, First Baron, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., LL.D., P.C., F.R.S., D.C.L., J.P., ex-Viceroy and Governor General of India; b. 1859 s. of Rev. Alfred Nathaniel Holder Curzon, 4th Baron Scarsdale; Educ. at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford: President of the Union Society, 1880; Fellow of All Souls College, 1883; gained the Arnold Essay Prize, 1884; Assistant Private Secretary to Marquis of Salisbury, 1885; Under Secretary of State for India; 1891-2; for Foreign Affairs, 1895-8; travelled in Central Asia, Persia, Afghanistan, the Pamirs, Siam, Indo-China, the Korea; M.P. for Southport Division, 1886-98; Viceroy and Governor-General of India, January 6, 1899 to April, 1904; paid much attention to the control and defence of the frontiers of India, changing the policy on the N.W. Frontier; created a Chief Commissionership of the Trans-Indus districts; enforced the blockade of Waziristan; showed distrust of Russian objects and Russian methods; visited the Persian gulf, with a view to prevention of encroachment on British terirtories, to increase trade and maintain sphere of influence in Persia; despatched Tibet mission to carry out Anglo-Chinese convention of 1890 and trade regulations of 1893, and check Russian influence in Tibet; appointed several Commissions, on the Universities, to reform Higher Education; on Irrigation; on the Police; aimed at improving relations with the feudatory Chiefs, and the character of their rule; reformed the four Chief’s Colleges; founded the Imperial Cadet Corps; settled the question of the Berars; set on foot the Victoria Memorial Hall, held the Delhi Coronation Durbar of Dec. 1902, and Jan. 1903; reduced Lower-Bengal by three Divisions, adding them to Assam to make a New Lieutenant-Governership; twice reduced the Salt Tax, and removed the Income Tax on the lowest incomes; passed some important Legislative measures, such as the Universities Act, the Official Secrets Act, the Indian Mines Act, the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act; and the Co-operative Credit Societies Act. Was re-appointed Viceroy after the expiry of of the term. Publications: Russia in Central Asia, 1889; Persia and the Persian Question, 1892, Problems of the Far East, 1894; Lord Curzon in India, 1906; Principles and Methods of University Reform, 1909. Address: 1, Carlton House Terrace, S.W.; Hackwood, Basingtoke. Clubs: Carlton, Athenaeum.