The New International Encyclopædia/Armies

AR′MIES (Fr. armée, through Med. Lat. armata, an armed force, seen in Sp. Armada, properly fem. of Latin p. p. armatus, from armare, to arm). Armed forces, organized under a regular system, for purposes of defense. The term ‘army’ may describe the military strength of the nation of which the force is a part, or by which it is employed; but it may also be used to describe an army which is only a part of the military forces of the country to which it belongs; as, for instance, the United States Army in Cuba or the Philippine Islands. The fundamental principle of combat is the same, whether between two individuals or two nations, and out of that principle has developed the art and science of war. From the earliest times when men first joined with one another for warlike purposes, there have been changes and developments in methods of association, discoveries in the realm of strategy and the application of tactics, as well as a constantly increasing number of inventions of weapons, mechanical devices, and other engines of destruction. In a primitive state of society the army as such does not exist, and the fighting force is co-equal with the group, the tribe or the nation. Military service is not only a duty but a privilege, and the right of carrying arms is one of the great distinctions between the freeman and the slave. Citizenship and warriorship as a rule go together; and among the early Germans the attainment of a youth's majority and his admission to a share of political rights was marked by an elaborate ceremony of assumption of arms, which with time passed into the chivalric ritual of admission to knighthood. The closest identification of army and nation is perhaps to be found among nomad tribes, where from time to time the shifting of the entire population is necessitated by failing of pasture. Such a migration, peaceful when unresisted, assumes the character of a hostile invasion when the desired territory is in the possession of a tribe strong enough to attempt resistance. Thus, too, in the great migrations preceding and succeeding the fall of the West Roman Empire, the Germanic warriors, marching from their old homes in the north to the conquest of a new home within the Empire, and accompanied by their wives, their children and their household goods, offered a complete example of army and nation as one. With the establishment of permanent states the differentiation between citizen and warrior begins, and this development is greatly hastened by the growth of industry: for if the farmer finds it a hardship to be summoned from the plow to the field of battle, the burden falls still heavier on the industrial laborer, with whom the conditions of production are such as to require constant application. The process thus begun continues until in countries like Great Britain or the United States, where military service is on a contractual basis, the total separation of warrior and citizen is attained. These considerations must be borne in mind in discussing the history of the evolution of the army. Beginning with the earliest organized armies of which there is record, below will be found an historical outline of this development.

ANCIENT ARMIES.

Egyptian. Under the Old and Middle empires (down to about 1000 B.C.), the wars of Egypt were comparatively unimportant. During this period a sort of feudal system prevailed, and the main strength of the army was furnished by the militia of the nomes, commanded by the monarchs or their deputies, together with the contingents of the great temple estates and of the royal domains. In addition, a certain number of mercenary troops were drawn from the tribes of northern Nubia. Under the twelfth dynasty, and perhaps earlier, there was also a permanent corps, the “Retainers of the King,” which seems to have filled the place of a standing army. No cavalry or chariot force existed, as the horse does not appear to have been introduced into Egypt until about B.C. 1000.

The Hyksos wars, which swept away the old feudal system, aroused the military spirit of Egypt, and under the New Empire (from about 1580 B.C.) a standing army was a necessity. It was composed chiefly of barbarian mercenaries, the native troops playing a rather imimportant part. Under the Saïtic dynasty (B.C. 645-525), Greek mercenaries were largely employed. The bulk of the army under the New Empire was formed by the infantry, armed with spear and heavy shield, or with light buckler and bow. The chariot force constituted the flower of the army. Each chariot contained two soldiers, of whom one fought with his bow and other weapons, while his comrade drove the horses. Great attention was paid to organization and discipline. The troops were divided into regiments and companies, and, in time of war at least, the regiments were formed into brigades or divisions. A special force, called the Mazay, was organized as a gendarmerie, or armed constabulary, but was sometimes employed in war. See Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt (London and New York, 1894), chapter XX.

Indian. Quite extensive descriptions of armies, battle arrays, and of warfare among the ancient Hindus are preserved in the Mahābārata (q.v.) or Iliad of India, and in the seventh book of the great legal code of Manu (q.v.). The information which these sources furnish with reference to the constitution of the military force of early India serves to supplement such allusions to armed equipments and fighting as may be gathered from the earlier times represented by the Veda (q.v.). Among the organizations of an army early recognized in India was a distribution of the forces into nine subdivisions, on the ascending scale, ranging from a squad (Sanskrit patti), composed of 1 chariot, 1 elephant, 5 foot-soldiers, and 3 horsemen, up to an army corps (Skt. akšāuhiṇī) , comprising 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 109,350 foot-soldiers, and 65,610 cavalry. The code of Manu likewise provides for various arrangements for drawing up of the forces in manœuvring, fighting, and encamping. These are interesting for students of military tactics to look up. On the march and in action the King was naturally stationed in the centre for safety; the commander was in the vanguard, unless, through the exigency of the situation, his presence was demanded elsewhere. Details may also be gathered from the sources mentioned with reference to the armor and accoutrement of the soldiers and all matters appertaining to military forces and warfare. The best work on the subject is Hopkins, Ruling Caste in Ancient India, published in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. XIII. (New Haven, 1889).

Persia. The organization of the Persian army in ancient days appears to have corresponded largely with the divisions introduced into the forces of Media at an earlier date by King Cyaxares (q.v.), as mentioned by Herodotus (c.103). This general distribution into infantry, composed of spearmen, bowmen, and others, and into cavalry, supplemented by warriors mounted on chariots, prevailed throughout the history of the Persian Empire. The cavalry was the flower of the army, as Persia was ever famous for her horses and her excellence in horsemanship. These mounted forces occupied the wings of the main body. This latter mass was composed of the people, and was often little better than an armed mob. The scythe-bearing chariots were drawn up as a division in front of the army, and they seem to have inspired terror into the foe, but were often less effective than the other forces. The use of elephants is found as early as in the campaigns to oppose the invading Alexander. From Herodotus (vii. 61, 84) and other sources we learn that the characteristic equipments of the Persian soldiers were a short straight sword, a long spear, a bow, quiver, battle-axe, mace, or club, and a sling, according to the special district or province from which the levies came. A large wicker shield and a close-fitting leather tunic and trousers, a coat of mail, or a quilted corselet, completed the outfit. The horses as well as the riders were protected by mailed trappings—at least if we can judge from the caparison of the war-horses on the sculptures in Sassanian times. A division of the army on the decimal scale of tens, hundreds, thousands, and tens of thousands may be gathered from Herodotus (xii. 81), and seems to be as old as the Avesta (q.v.). The Persian hosts have ever been proverbial for numbers, and even allowing for exaggeration, the figures must have been enormous. The army which Xerxes led against Greece has been estimated at hardly less than 2,000,000, and Darius is reputed to have opposed the world-conquering Alexander with a force of between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. The development and history of the Persian army during the Parthian and Sassanian periods, down to the overthrow of the Persian dominion by the Arab conquest and its subsequent results, may be obtained from a study of those times. On Persian armies and armor consult Jackson, Classical Studies in Honour of Henry Drisler (New York, 1894); Zoroaster the Prophet, chapter vii. (New York, 1899); Spiegel, Eränische Altertumskunde, Vol. III., 638 ff. (Leipzig, 1878); Kelsey, Xenophon's Anabasis, Introduction (Boston, 1895); G. Rawlinson, Story of Parthia, p. 397 ff. (New York, 1893).

Greece. In the Homeric poems the mass of the infantry is of little account—at least to the poet. The fighting is chiefly carried on by the individual heroes, armed with lance and sword, and defended by helmet and shield and sometimes corselet. These heroes go to and from the battlefield in chariots, but in general fight on foot. When the historic period opens, we find that the war chariots have disappeared, and even cavalry, though the arm of the nobles, is not of decisive value. The army is composed of the hoplites, or heavy infantry, armed with helmet, breastplate, greaves, and shield, and carrying a short sword and long spear. These men fought in close formation, usually eight deep, supported at times by cavalry on the wings, and with light troops, armed with javelins, bows, or slings, to skirmish in front and cover the rear. Lacedæmonian.—Through the early days of Greek history the Spartan hoplites were regarded as model troops. Their success seems to have been due in part to their rigorous gymnastic training; but still more to a severity of drill such as the other Grecian states seldom required. From the age of twenty to sixty every Spartan could be called upon to serve, though the older men were not called out except in emergencies. This discipline enabled them to change front in the presence of the enemy, and held them steady in defeat or victory. Athenian.—The Athenian army was a militia. Every man was supposed to receive training and to serve when called upon—the richer as hoplites, the poorer as light-armed troops, while the cavalry was made up from young men of the wealthy families. As the Athenians never spent so much time in drill as the Spartans, they do not seem to have reached their combination of firmness and mobility, though Athenian bravery and skill were shown in many hard battles.

The general formation of the Greek armies remained but little changed for over a century. Marathon, Platæa, and Mycale were fought by the phalanx of hoplites against light-armed Orientals, and the same tactics and the same results are seen in B.C. 401, at the battle of Cunaxa, when the 10,000 Greeks overthrew the Persians opposed to them. Thebans.—These had long enjoyed high repute as hoplites; but their contribution to the Greek art of war was rather in the development of a formation in deep column (fifty deep at Leuctra, B.C. 371). This heavy mass was hurled against one wing of the enemy, while the rest of the line, in ordinary formation, was held back to prevent any flank movement upon the attacking column. This innovation contributed largely to the success of Epaminondas and the establishment of Theban supremacy in Greece. Macedonian.—Upon these tactics of the Thebans, Philip of Macedon and Alexander the Great developed their armies. The central principle was personal duty to the King on the part of noble and peasant. “Companions” and “Foot-Companions” were the names of the heavy cavalry and infantry. The former wore metal cuirasses and carried lances; the latter had a small shield and a pike about eighteen feet in length for the rear ranks. They were drawn up in very close order. In general, Alexander seems to have preferred the old depth of eight men; but under his successors the phalanx was deepened to sixteen men, and became an unwieldy mass, formidable on level ground, but easily broken if a rough surface opened up the close ranks. This was shown again and again in the battles between the Romans and Greeks. An important change in the art of war was the introduction by Philip and Alexander of a charge by heavy cavalry as the decisive feature of the attack, instead of the column of infantry used by Epaminondas. The Macedonians also developed the use of military engines hurling huge stones and arrows, both for siege purposes and also to some extent like modern artillery in actual battle.

Rome. While to the Greek belongs the credit of developing warfare into a science, it was left to the Roman legionary, with his perfect discipline and still more perfect organization, to make it effective. The leading characteristic of the Roman soldier was discipline rather than individual prowess. Great national characters like Camillus, Cincinnatus, Papirius Cursor, and Fabius Maximus were not so much heroes or strategists as commanders and disciplinarians. The fact that the Roman soldier was never the military equal of the Greek hoplite at his best, and that he had no great advantage, man to man, in a pitched battle even with savages, was demonstrated over and over again during his career of world conquest.

In the earliest period of Roman military history, all able-bodied citizens, under the King as commander-in-chief, were compelled to serve in the army in time of war. It was under Servius Tullius, however (according to Roman legends, the sixth King of Rome, B.C. 578-534), that the first real organization took place. On the basis of a property qualification, citizens were divided into classes or grades (centuriæ); and each class subdivided into seniores, or elderly men, assigned only to light garrison duty, and juniores, or effective warriors; with the addition of two centuriæ of fairi (pioneers), two of cornicines (military musicians), and one of proletarii. The armies were made up by tribal levies, made in a general public assembly, usually on the Campus Martius, and each tribe was called upon to furnish an equal number of men. Out of a total of 25,000 men, there would be 8000 seniores and 17,000 juniores. The soldiers thus chosen were formed into four legions and a cavalry corps of about 1800 horsemen. The legion (q.v.) on service consisted normally of about 3000 men, not including the velites, or lightly armed skirmishers, and a squadron of cavalry. In regular formation the hastati (heavily armed infantry), about 1200 strong, and arranged in 10 files, constituted the advance guard; following, was a similar body of principes, and a reserve or rear-guard of triarii, usually arranged in 5 files.

The equipment of all three divisions was practically identical, and consisted of a short cutting and thrusting sword worn on the right thigh; two javelins, one light and one heavy; metal breastplate, large shield, and brazen helmet and greaves. The Roman attack differed from that of the Greek phalanx, in that, instead of fighting shoulder to shoulder and closing in together as gaps were made, they adopted a loose formation, which permitted the soldiers in the rear to fill up gaps caused by casualties, and thus maintained their front intact. In combat the triarii used the pilum, a short, heavy spear which they threw into the ranks of the enemy before engaging them with the sword. The three divisions of the legion (hastati, principes, and triarii) were each arranged in ten companies (manipuli), to each of which was assigned a detachment of velites. The manipulus was under the command of a centurion (centurio), whose lieutenant was a junior centurion. In the event of the disablement or absence of the officer commanding the legion, command would devolve on the senior centurion of the first company of the reserve (triarii). Normally, the chief command was taken two months at a time by each of the six military tribunes (tribuni militum). With the first civil war, however, arose the necessity of a single permanent chief, which arrangement was eventually adopted; a single officer (legatus) commanding each legion, assisted by a staff composed of the former military tribunes. The year B.C. 276 witnessed the advent of the professional or paid soldier. The long and heavy wars with Pyrrhus and Carthage led to the formation of a regular army; so that dating from the time of Marius (or from the beginning of the First Century B.C. ) the enlisted man served for a period of twenty years. The legion, as now arranged, was composed of 6000 men, divided into 10 cohorts of 600 men each, all armed with the pilum. The velites were replaced by foreign mercenaries, of whom the most famous were sagittarii (bowmen) from Crete; iaculatores (javelin men) from Mauretania; and funditores (slingers) from the Baleares. With the exception of a few Roman equites, who held the more important positions, the cavalry also was entirely foreign. Organized into cohorts were auxiliary troops of infantry and cavalry. The next reorganization took place toward the close of the First Century B.C. under Augustus, who, besides confirming the period of service as twenty years, also introduced the pensioning of veterans. Twenty-five legions were now established and distributed in different parts of the Empire. Subsequently great changes took place in the army. The typical Roman soldier was no longer the invincible legionary, who, covered by his shield, had fought his way through the most stubborn pikemen, beaten back great hordes of Eastern horsemen, and resisted the wild rushes of impetuous Celts and Germans.

At the beginning of the Third Century A.D. the work of Augustus and others was beginning to fall to pieces; in the Fourth, it was scarcely anywhere in evidence, and by the end of the Fifth it had become a thing of the past. The exigencies of border warfare, with the extended system of permanent camps connected by patrols, had developed cavalry and light infantry at the expense of the older legion. In the Third Century A.D. the elaborate system of frontier defense and interior garrisons broke down, and the Empire was subjected to both civil war and foreign invasion. While the legions were engaged in civil strife, the opportunity of the enemy arrived. The frontiers were simultaneously attacked, and the Empire reeled under the shock. The Persians were rising to power in the East (A.D. 226); the German tribes were confederating and becoming correspondingly formidable; and the Franks, Alemanni, and Goths appeared along the Rhine and the Danube. Diocletian, however, with the reconquest of Britain in A.D. 297, restored the Empire to a semblance of its former power and unity. With the aid of wholesale taxation he replenished the exchequer, and regarrisoned the military frontier. The changes and additions brought about by Diocletian are remarkable for the value he placed on the troops of mixed nationality and for the growing neglect of the ancient Roman legion. He also enlisted many new bodies of horsemen: cunei, alæ, vexillationes, etc., being raised alike for the limitary, the comitatensian, and the Palatine armies, among whom Germans, Moors, and Persians were more numerous than the born subjects of the Empire. Under Constantine, the old legionary cavalry disappeared altogether, and cavalry and infantry became separate commands; yet under him and his successors, though cavalry grew considerably in relative importance, the infantry still remained the more important arm. The decadence in physique and morale of the Roman army at this time was largely due to the fact that the corps were less homogeneous, and the substitutes and recruits bought by the land-holding classes were often of bad material. The increasing boldness of their foes and the constant civil and internal dissensions had a baleful effect on the old-time esprit-de-corps of the rank and file, and, together with the growing luxury and increasingly enervating vice of the times, soon brought about the disintegration and decay of the magnificent Empire. It is interesting to note that in many instances modern conditions have compelled the adoption of units of military command and forms of military procedure strikingly similar to those of the Romans; while the legionaries' sword, after passing through the radical forms and changes of the Middle Ages, has again appeared in the shape of the modern infantry sword-bayonet, which in shape and size closely resembles the Roman sword.

MODERN ARMIES.

The evolution of the modern army has been along the lines of national and mechanical development; national needs and aspirations dictating its origin, organization, and strength, and the progress of mechanical invention its tactics and equipment. Mediæval armies, whose organization and characteristics will be found discussed under Feudalism, were made up chiefly of the retainers, dependents, and followers of the nobility; and were usually employed in the petty struggles of their leaders, or in assisting the King to make war on a larger scale. The success of the King invariably meant gifts of land to the victorious nobles fighting under his banner; who, in turn, rewarded their knights and squires by smaller gifts of land, or land privileges, thus building up the feudal system. The holding of lands implied service due to the giver, and as a consequence many of the nobility vied with their king in power and prestige. The Crusades did much to develop the idea of coöperation; but at the best the different armies participating were practically independent of each other. It was an age when science was unknown, and the want of intellectual occupation made war the favorite occupation of the higher classes. Individual prowess and bravery were the standards by which battles were fought and won, the fate of a battle frequently depending on a personal combat between two knights. Under such circumstances, the science of war could never attain a high degree of efficiency; nor could any general organization be effected.

It was not until the reign of Charles VII. of France that any regular attempt at organizing a standing army was made, although the Turkish janizaries (q.v.) had been in existence for almost a century before. The Swiss mercenaries, bodies of professional soldiery, were in great demand during the Middle Ages, their military qualities often successfully deciding the issue of a battle. The employment of mercenaries consequently soon became general; so much so, that voluntary patriotic service ceased altogether. Widespread dissatisfaction, however, soon developed, owing to the heavy expense involved, and the danger of intrusting the safety of the State to hired foreigners, who, recruited from the very dregs of society, had to be kept under the strictest discipline and surveillance. It followed as a natural result that organization and the consequent sinking of the individual in the mass eradicated the older forms of knighthood, with their attendant feats of arms and examples of personal skill and daring.

In the reaction from the burden and expense of mercenary armies the present European Continental military system had its inception. The use of firearms by this time had become more general; the proportion of musketeers in the various armies between the beginning of the Sixteenth and the end of the Eighteenth centuries had considerably increased, and the pike was superseded by the bayonet. Changes of weapons naturally influenced and brought about a change in tactics. In the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), Gustavus Adolphus and Wallenstein employed directly opposite infantry formations. (See Infantry.) The former arranged his men six ranks in depth, and gained corresponding length of line. Wallenstein, on the other hand, used a narrower front by placing his men in from twenty to thirty ranks. The gradual thinning down to the famous “thin red line” made historic by the English, who have always used the line in preference to the mass of columns of their opponents, and from that to the widely extended front rendered necessary by modern rapid and long-range firearms, is a matter of comparatively recent military history. In the reign of Louis XIV. of France (1643-1715) the grouping of brigades and divisions was first introduced, and in the next century Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740-1786) reduced his infantry formation to three ranks, and introduced a most rigid and exact system of drill and discipline. He was also the originator of horse artillery (1759). (See Artillery.) The contest waged by France against Europe from 1792 to 1797, together with her terrible internal warfare, had largely exhausted the tremendous levies which had hitherto supplied her armies, and in 1798 a law was passed establishing compulsory military service. (See Conscription.) This compelled all Continental Europe to follow Napoleon's example, so that to-day voluntary enlistment in Europe survives in England alone.

A summary of the strength, composition, and general characteristics of the armies of the world at the beginning of the Twentieth Century, so far as can be ascertained, is given below:

Abyssinia. The regular army is said to consist of 150,000 men, obtained by drafts from the various provinces. This number can be further increased by large numbers of irregular troops and by the territorial army. The regular army is supposed to be entirely a mounted force, but this may be deemed a theory rather than a fact. Since the defeat of the Italians at the battle of Adowa (March 1, 1896), many of the Abyssinian troops are armed with Gras and magazine rifles captured from the Italians. They possess in addition seven batteries of artillery and machine-guns taken in the same battle.

Afghanistan. The Afghan army was originally the creation of Shere Ali, who, on his return from India in 1869, organized the army on what was practically a European basis. After considerable neglect, the army was reorganized by Abd-ur-Rahman, and consists of a regular force of about 44,000 men, which includes 7000 cavalry and 360 guns. No reliable statistics can be obtained regarding the regular army, and none at all regarding the local levies and the tribesmen of the feudal nobility. The Afghan is a brave soldier, inured to hardship and accustomed to the style of fighting demanded by the physical features of his country. He would be an important factor in the event of hostilities between England and Russia. Ordnance is manufactured at the Kabul Arsenal under the supervision of English engineers.

Argentine Republic. The regular army consists of 1340 officers and 7297 rank and file. According to a statement presented to Congress in 1897, the total effectives should be 29,513 officers and men. The National Guard is stated to include 471,912 men, all told, the majority of whom receive some little training. Citizens of 20 years of age are mobilized every year and receive two months' drill in camp, as the result of an obligatory military service act passed in 1901.

Austria-Hungary. Since 1866 the armies of Austria-Hungary have been organized on what is practically a Prussian basis. The dual character of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy has greatly influenced the formation of the imperial army, since each State enjoys its own peculiar constitution and system of representation. Military service is universal in both Austria and Hungary. The forces are organized into the regular or common army, which may be reinforced by the Austrian Landwehr and the Hungarian Honvédség, followed by the levy-en-masse of each State. Both common army and auxiliaries possess each an Ersatz, or supplementary reserve. The imperial ministry of war is the supreme nucleus of the entire military power. It is divided into 4 sections, which comprise 15 departments, and in which are united the different branches of the personnel of the organization, distribution of troops, administration, etc. Bosnia and Herzegovina are organized similarly to Austria and Hungary. The yearly contingent of recruits for the common army from Austria is 59,211; Hungary, 43,899; total, 103,100. There is also a yearly contingent for the Landwehr — from Austria, 10,000; from Hungary, 12,500—total, 22,500. The approximate total of the armed strength of the Empire on war footing is 45,238 officers, 1,826,940 men, and 281,886 horses. If the levy-in-mass is taken into service, the number would be over 4,000,000. The infantry is armed with the Manchester magazine rifle. The following table gives the statistics of the actual strength of the imperial army on peace footing for 1901:

Common Army— Total
all ranks.
 Infantry 188,585
 Cavalry 47,796
 Artillery (Field and Fortress) 35,441
 Pioneers, Train and other Corps  32,471
Austrian Landwehr—
 Infantry 25,364
 Cavalry 2,365
Hungarian Honvédség—
 Infantry 23,235
 Cavalry 4,621

Total 359,878

Belgium. This former battle-ground of Europe is better protected by the mutual suspicion and distrust of the great powers than it ever could be by its army, which in 1902 consisted of 29,709 infantry, 6140 cavalry, 9315 artillery; gendarmerie and other corps, 6388; total, 51,552 peace strength. In time of war these numbers would be augmented to about 143,000 men. In addition to this force, there is a “Garde Civique,” which, however, is active only in fortified places and communes of over 10,000 inhabitants. It consists of about 41,000 men.

Bolivia has a total of 82,560 officers and men, divided between standing army, depot corps, ordinary and extraordinary reserves, and territorial guard. The standing army is placed at 2560 men.

Brazil. Military service is compulsory, but up to 1902 the conscription law had not been enforced. The army consists of about 15,000 men, which is less than half of its strength on paper. The gendarmerie strength is placed at 20,000 men.

British Empire. Through all the history of the struggle of the English people for political freedom, few greater epoch-making events have occurred than the passing by Parliament of the Bill of Rights in 1689, which forbade the existence of a standing army in time of peace without the consent of Parliament. This gave to the people the permanent control of a factor which might easily have been used for their oppression or to the national disadvantage. Parliament maintains another important check, in the shape of the Annual Army Bill, an act passed at the commencement of every session, investing the crown with powers to make regulations for the government and discipline of the army under what are known as the Articles of War. Administrative control is vested in a secretary of state for war, to whom the heads of all departments are responsible in the discharge of their duties. The commander-in-chief, adjutant-general, quartermaster-general, inspector-general of fortifications, inspector-general of ordnance, are the heads of the principal departments, and constitute a board, which, under the presidency of the commander-in-chief, reports on proposals for any estimates which the secretary of state may desire to lay before Parliament, on promotions, appointments, or other matters connected with the service. The War Office Consultative Council is composed of these officers and such other additional military officers as may be required by the measures under discussion, with the secretary of state as president. The army estimates for 1901-1902 described the regular army of the United Kingdom, exclusive of India, up to the year ending March 31, 1902, as consisting of 9745 commissioned officers, 1485 warrant officers, 19,604, sergeants, 4533 drummers, trumpeters, etc., and 184,433 rank and file, a total of 219,800 men of all ranks. In addition to these numbers, the war in South Africa and the expedition to China raised the number serving under arms in 1901 to a grand total of 450,000 men. Enlistment is voluntary, and extends over periods ranging from three to seven years with the colors and five to nine years in the first-class army reserve, with the great possibility, according to the Army Reorganization Bill of 1902, of the length of service in the active army being considerably reduced, and correspondingly lengthened in the reserve. The auxiliary forces are represented by the militia, the yeomanry and volunteers. The estimates already quoted give the numbers of all ranks in the regimental establishments of the various forces as 971,970 officers and men.

In the regular active army there were 14,270 cavalry, 39,642 artillery, 10,131 royal engineers, and 118,943 infantry; 14,435 colonial corps, 2820 departmental corps, 7074 army service corps, 3596 medical corps, 973 miscellaneous details, 1038 general departmental staff, making the total of 219,800 already quoted as serving in the regular army of the United Kingdom. The British army alone, of all the great armies of the world, has been tested in a war conducted on a large scale and under absolutely modern conditions, with the result that the rank and file proved themselves fully equal to all demands, as well as to their best traditions. The nation was not as fortunate in its commissioned ranks, but this was due to the system rather than to the material. No service in the world offers many opportunities for the accumulation of knowledge and practical experience of all that concerns the science of war; but unfortunately for England, this is largely nullified by a system which leaves too much to the choice of the individual officer. It is generally admitted that social demands and the pleasures the civilian enter too much into the life of the average army officer of ample means, who, in many instances, has never taken up the profession of arms as a serious occupation, and generally retires on marriage or on entry into the ranks of landed proprietors. The pay of a British officer is merely nominal, and not in any way commensurate with his position, or even with his actual living expenses, which fact of necessity limits the class from which officers are drawn. The experience gained in the Boer War of 1899-1902 brought to light much that had been detrimental to the service, and made necessary the Reorganization Bill of 1902 and the proposed changes in the military educational system, the granting of commissions, and increased inducements both in pay and promotion to the rank and file.

The organization of the active or regular army is as follows: Infantry.—There are two establishments, home and foreign, the former being practically the nursery of the latter, in that it trains and prepares recruits, sending them abroad to the foreign sections of their corps or organization, as may be required. The foreign battalion ordinarily consists of 29 officers, 1 sergeant-major, 44 sergeants, 16 drummers, 921 rank and file; total, 1011. The home battalion is of varying strength, consisting of eight companies and a depot staff. They are armed with the Lee-Metford magazine rifle, the magazine containing 10 cartridges. Cavalry.—The regiment consists of 4 squadrons, each squadron being divided into 3 or 4 troops. At home the strength is normally 26 officers, 696 rank and file, and 465 horses; abroad, 29 officers, 624 rank and file, 592 horses. Artillery.—The royal regiment of artillery consists of horse and field batteries, and garrison and mountain artillery, constituting two distinct branches. Officers and men are no longer enlisted or commissioned to the corps indiscriminately, but are sent permanently to one or the other. Batteries consist of 6 guns, with 5 officers and 170 men. Engineers.—The strength of a field company is usually 1 major, 1 captain, 4 subalterns, and 210 rank and file. The distinctive feature of British army organization is the Army Corps, first used in the campaign of Waterloo, which is constituted as follows: Three infantry divisions, each of 2 brigades, and including 3 cavalry squadrons, 9 field batteries, and 3 engineer companies. The proportion of artillery to infantry is about 3 guns to 1000 bayonets, which may be increased to 5 guns per thousand with small detached forces. The infantry brigade is of varying strength and composition, and is usually commanded by a major-general; the infantry division by a lieutenant-general, and an army corps by a general. The field army consists of 3 army corps, and, if possible, 4 cavalry brigades. The whole, consisting in round numbers of approximately 115,000 men. Transport and the management of rations for men and horses are assigned to the Army Service Corps, which consists of 38 companies, and 2 remount companies, which, with their reserve, aggregate a little over 50,000 men. Other corps and departments are the Medical Corps, the Nursing Service, Army Ordnance Corps and Department, Army Chaplain Department; Army Pay Corps; and Army Veterinary Department.

The Indian Army, which is well organized, comprises 40 cavalry regiments, 133 infantry battalions, 13 artillery batteries and companies, and 24 companies of sappers and miners. Cavalry regiments consist of 4 squadrons, with a total of 10 British officers and 625 native rank and file. Infantry regiments have 8 companies, with 9 British officers and about 900 rank and file. Artillery batteries have six guns, with 4 British officers and 256 rank and file. The scheme laid down after the Indian Mutiny of 1857 was a proportion of not exceeding two natives to one European in cavalry and infantry, while practically all the regular artillery was European. Up to 1902, these proportions were fairly maintained. There are serving in India, including British troops, volunteers, native army reserves, and Imperial service troops, a total of nearly 300,000 men. This is exclusive of the large armies of many of the semi-independent native States, which are often well drilled and equipped, and generally under the command and instruction of British officers.

Bulgaria. Military service begins at the age of 20 in time of peace and at 18 in time of war, and continues until the age of 45, those excused for physical or other infirmities paying a special tax for ten years. About 40,000 are liable for service annually, of whom 18,000, decided by lot, are called under arms. The remainder serve in the reserve army for three months annually during the first two years, and then are placed for nine years in the active army reserve. The military academy is at Sofia. The infantry is armed with the Mannlicher repeating rifle.

Chile. Since 1900, military service has been compulsory, citizens from 20 to 45 years of age being liable; in the first year for nine months with the colors; the following nine years in the first reserve, and until 45 years of age in the second reserve. The active army in 1901 consisted of 17,385 men, of whom 11,500 were recruits and 5885 instructors, etc. The army organization comprises 10 generals, 18 colonels, 44 lieutenants, and 806 inferior officers.

China. An accurate estimate or characterization of the Chinese military forces is impossible. The Black Flags, a remnant of General Gordon's Taiping army, who have been trained by European officers, may possibly at times have numbered 50,000 men. The Eight Banners, a force said to consist of about 300,000, is formed of the descendants of the Manchu conquerors and kindred tribes, of whom from 80,000 to 100,000 are supposed to be kept on a war footing. With the Ying Ping or national army, mercenary troops, Mongolian, and other irregular cavalry, the total strength of the army on a peace footing might be approximated at about 300,000 men, and at about 1,000,000 on a war footing. There is absolutely no organization, the army being without unity, cohesion, discipline, or knowledge of the art of war. They have few weapons of any value; many of the supposedly best troops being armed with weapons long since obsolete. Since the transformation in Japanese military affairs, China has been slowly realizing her antiquated and defenseless condition, and is now sending detachments of officers to study modern methods in the Japanese military academies. These measures, together with the experience gained in the international complications culminating in the advance on Peking in 1900, will undoubtedly result in modernizing the Chinese methods and organization. Acknowledged experts in military affairs all agree on the latent possibilities of the Chinese soldier: his splendid endurance, sturdy physique, and utter disregard of suffering or death.

Colombia. Compulsory military service with a fixed peace footing of 1000 of all ranks.

Costa Rica. Peace footing, regular army 600; militia 12,000. War footing, 34,000, every male between 18 and 50 years of age being compelled to serve.

Denmark. Service is obligatory. Able-bodied men from the age of twenty-two serve eight years with the colors and eight in the reserves. The annual contingent numbers about 7900. The peace strength in 1901 was given an 824 officers and 8945 men; and the war strength as 1448 officers and 60,138 men.

Ecuador. Regular amiy, 3341 officers and men; National Guard, about 30,000.

Egypt. The present Egyptian army was organized in December, 1882, by a British general officer under the title of Sirdar. The army consists of a little over 18,000 men, with whom there were serving in 1901 about 134 English officers. About 4500 British troops are permanently garrisoned in Egypt, to meet the cost of which the Egyptian Government is required to pay £87,000 annually.

France. Since her disastrous war with Germany, 1870-71, France, with excellent effect, has put her military house in thorough order, greater heed having been paid to organization and efficiency and less to numbers. (See Mobilization.) Every Frenchman is liable to carry arms, substitution and enlistment for money are forbidden, and every man not absolutely unfit for military service and between 20 and 45 years of age may be called upon to enter the standing army or reserves. The yearly drafts serve three years in the active army, ten in active army reserve, six in the territorial army, and six in the territorial reserve. Any soldier who qualifies in his duties and passes the educational test may apply for indefinite furlough at the end of one year's actual service. The number of men actually liable for service is estimated at 4,350,000, of whom fully 2,500,000 would be available. The army of France was more formidable at the beginning of the Twentieth Century in numbers, efficiency, and morale than at any time in the history of the country. In times of peace, manœuvres on a magnificent scale are periodically undertaken, and every advantage of improved military science and inventions speedily appropriated. The artillery arm is receiving special attention and cultivation (see Field Artillery), the general supposition being that France has improved types of guns and carriages not generally known. In many respects the French army is France itself, and formidable for that reason alone; and in point of military efficiency it is little, if at all, inferior to that of Germany.

The interior organization of the French army is as follows: Infantry.—The peace strength of the battalion is 14 officers and 506 rank and file; in war, 18 officers and 1050 rank and file. Most infantry regiments consist of three battalions. Cavalry.—Regiments are made up of 5 squadrons, each one of which has 5 officers and 140 rank and file, which in war is increased to 155 rank and file. There are 89 regiments of regular cavalry. Artillery.—Artillery regiments are divided into divisional and corps, the former having 12 field batteries and the latter 9 field and 3 horse batteries. Batteries have from 4 to 6 guns, with an average of 150 rank and file and 4 officers. Engineers.—There are 5 regiments of 3 battalions and 1 regiment of 4 battalions besides 1 company of engineer train. The average company has 4 officers and 160 rank and file. The infantry brigade consists of 2 regiments of 6 battalions or 24 companies, the cavalry brigade of 2 regiments or 8 squadrons with 6 guns. A division consists of 2 brigades of infantry, 1 squadron of cavalry, 6 batteries of artillery, 1 company of engineers, and other corps. Cavalry would be assigned to it according to its needs.

According to returns published in 1902, the strength of the French army was as follows:

 Officers.  Total,
all
ranks.
General Staff, Administration, Train and details
Infantry
Cavalry
Artillery
Engineers
Gendarmerie
Garde Républicaine
 7,305
13,541
 3,914
 3,836
534
629
83

29,842
 35,931
372,321
 69,514
 73,736
 13,204
 21,745
  2,993

589,444
 Grand Total

Germany. The King of Prussia is the head of the German army by right of his position as Emperor of the German confederated nations. In war time his authority is supreme and absolute; but in times of peace Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg still retain considerable local control. The Imperial War Office under the Prussian war minister discharges all the real military functions of the Federation, except in the three kingdoms mentioned, which still have war ministers of their own. As a matter of fact, the military budgets of Saxony and Württemberg are prepared in Berlin; even Bavaria receives instructions from there as to the quota of men, supplies, etc., which will be demanded of it. Under the constitution, all German troops (with the exception of the Bavarians, who do so only in time of war) are obliged to take the oath of fidelity to the Emperor, swearing obedience to him unconditionally in peace and war.

Liability to military service commences with the end of the seventeenth year of age and continues to the end of the forty-fifth year; the period being divided between active service and service in the Landsturm. Active service may be in the standing army or its reserve, the Landwehr, or the Ersatz reserve. In the cavalry and horse artillery the service is three years with the colors and four with the reserve. In infantry and kindred branches, two years are spent with the colors and five with the reserve. On the expiration of this period most of the men serve five years in the first levy; the remainder of the time of active service being passed by all arms in the second levy. All men excused from active service for physical or special reasons, as well as men temporarily unable to serve, spend twelve years in the Ersatz reserve. According to the army organization of 1902, the members of the Ersatz reserve are largely employed in the administrative and medical branches of the army. The Landsturm can only be used in case of invasion or for purposes of home defense, and has not been employed on active service since the Napoleonic wars. At a crisis, or after long exhausting wars, it would be employed to fill up vacancies in the regular army, as in the instance of the closing days of the Franco-Prussian War. The Landsturm is divided into two levies, to the first of which are assigned men until March 31 of their thirty-ninth year; the remainder constituting the second levy. Besides these divisions there are two other classes known as the one-year volunteers; and the two-, three-, and four-year volunteers. (See Volunteers.) The first-named are well-educated young men, serving at their own charge and supplying their own horses. At the end of one year's service they are transferred to the reserve. Two-, three-, and four-year volunteers are men desirous of adopting the army as their profession, who volunteer for either of these periods and then reëngage. The vast majority of the under officers of the army are recruited from this class. There are no public official statistics of the German army on a war footing, but it is popularly supposed that in the last extremity the present organization would supply a war strength of over 3,000,000 trained men. The ideal of Frederick the Great has never been effaced; and at the beginning of the Twentieth Century, the German army was universally conceded to be unequaled in point of organization, discipline, training, and general efficiency. The rank and file possess the highest educational standard in Europe, while the army as a whole is particularly distinguished for the national spirit which pervades all ranks. The German officer is educated technically to a point of efficiency excelled in no other nation and approached nowhere in Europe unless it be in France.

The organization in detail, is as follows: Infantry.—The normal establishment is as follows: A company consists of 4 officers and 145 rank and file. There are 4 companies to a battalion and 3 battalions to a regiment. Two regiments constitute a brigade. Cavalry.—There are 93 regiments of regular cavalry, each with 5 squadrons. There is little, if any, difference between the peace and war strength of squadrons, which is given as 5 officers, 150 men, and 165 horses. Artillery.—There are 105 regiments organized in brigade divisions of 3 batteries each. The horse artillery is divided into 20 brigades of 2 batteries each. In all, there are 500 batteries, of which 47 are horse and the remainder field. Batteries at war strength consist of 6 guns with 5 officers and about 170 rank and file. In 1901 the artillery was in process of reorganization as to men and matériel. The following summary includes the aggregate number and general divisions of the German army on a peace footing in 1901:

Branch. Officers. Rank and File,
 including Special 
Service Officers.
Total.
Infantry (all branches) 13,393 387,342 400,735
Cavalry (all branches)  2,433  67,674  70,107
Artillery (all branches)  3,955  89,370  93,325
Pioneers, Trains, Special and Staff Corps  4,364  35,637  40,001
24,145 580,023 604,168

Greece. The armies of Greece are divided among three military districts (namely: the Athenian, the Thessalian, and that of Epirus). Liability to service commences with the twenty-second birthday, the nominal service being as follows: Two years in the active army, and ten in its reserve; followed by eight years in the territorial army and ten years in the territorial reserve, making a total period of thirty years. Practically, cavalry alone serve their full time in the active army. The territorial army and its reserve exists only on paper unless called for war, when it is estimated that the entire army strength would be fully 82,000 men, and the territorial army, 90,000. The peace strength consists of 1876 officers and 19,203 rank and file.

Guatemala. Regular army, 7000 officers and men; effective army, 56,900 men ; reserve, 30,000. Availability for service is from 18 to 50 years of age.

Haiti. The army, including the guard of the Government, numbers between 7000 and 8000 men.

Italy. The King is the constitutional head of the army, limited by the required indorsement of his actions by a minister responsible to Parliament. All citizens between 20 and 39 years of age are liable to service in either the standing army, mobile militia, or territorial militia. A great majority of the two latter divisions receive little or no training. The struggle of Italy to maintain the standing of a first-class power, with the limited financial resources at its command, makes the army a tremendous burden to the general population, and prevents entirely any high degree of general efficiency. The official statistics of the army for June, 1900, are as follows:

Permanent Army. Militia.
Description of Service. Under
Arms.
On
Unlimited
Leave.
Mobile. Territorial.
Officers (all branches) 13,863 11,997 10,381
Infantry—Including Carbineers, Bersaglieri, Alpine Troops, Military Districts and troops unassigned 177,894  337,410  231,437  2,018,811
Cavalry 22,342 28,738 52,492
Artillery 31,435 80,483 46,891 70,378
Engineers  8,812 21,211 12,592 17,585
All other corps and details  9,338 24,413 16,776 63,371
 Total troops 249,821  492,265  307,696  2,222,637
 Including officers 263,684 
811,948
2,233,018
 Grand total
3,308,650

Japan. Service is compulsory with all males between the ages of seventeen and forty years, who are required to perform the following service: Standing army, three years; standing army reserve, five years. All males between seventeen and forty, not serving in either of the armies mentioned, are included in the national army or Landsturm. On December 31, 1900, the army consisted of 8046 officers, 158,214 men; including the reserve, Landwehr. first and second depots, the grand total was 632,007. It is entirely a product of recent times and is destined to be a leading factor in shaping the policy and future of the Orient. Early in 1902 a formal treaty of alliance was entered into with Great Britain which has made the military strength of Japan a practical factor in European politics. The army is organized on the German basis; German officers have been employed, and this, together with the ready adaptability of the Japanese soldier, has resulted in the creation of one of the most effective armies of modern times. Modern methods and machinery have been installed and nearly all the arms and ammunition, great and small, come from Japanese arsenals and manufacturing establishments.

Korea. Between 15,000 and 20,000 men, trained by Russian officers, constitute the standing army of Korea. The Russian instructors have now retired, but native officers trained in their methods carry on the work.

Liberia. The regular army consists of about 1000 men with a militia and volunteer force of about 500. The period of liability for service is between 16 and 50 years of age.

Mexico. In peace time the army consists of 32,143 officers and men; and in time of war between 144,000 and 148,000 officers and men. Service is from the twentieth to the fiftieth year.

Montenegro. Every inhabitant not physically incapable is trained as a soldier and is liable for service at any time. The number of trained men is given as 35,870 infantry, and 856 artillery. Officers are educated in Italy.

Morocco. The army consists of about 10,000 trained infantry and 400 cavalry. There are also a few batteries of field guns and about 2000 irregular cavalry. In addition, there are about 8000 militia cavalry and 10,000 militia infantry. In the event of war, about 40,000 more men could be brought together; the trained troops are instructed by a few officers of various European nationalities.

Netherlands. The Dutch army is organized for home and colonial service. The home army is designed to guard the Amsterdam Position, which covers the capital, and also to garrison the New Holland Water Line, which protects the wealthiest and most important parts of the country. The army is formed partly by conscription and partly by enlistment, volunteers being in the minority. On June 1, 1900, the total strength of the army was 1911 officers and 25,762 men. On war footing it consists of 68,000 men, excluding officers.

Nicaragua. The regular army consists of 2000 men; reserve, 10,000: National Guard, 5000. Norway. See under Sweden, below.

Paraguay. The army is practically an armed police, and consists of 82 officers and 1500 men.

Persia. The standing army does not exceed 25,000 all told; although nearly 54,000 are annually liable for service. Army organization is by provinces, tribes, and districts, the commanding officers being usually chiefs or leading men of the tribe or district from which the regiment is drawn. According to official returns of the minister of war, the army numbers 105,500 men.

Peru. The army on a peace footing consists of about 3400 men and a police force numbering between 2000 and 3000 men. There is a military school at Chorrillos, near Lima.

Portugal. This army is recruited partly by voluntary enlistment and partly by conscription, under which all young men of twenty-one years of age are, with certain exceptions, obliged to serve. It consists in time of peace of 1868 officers, 31,578 men, 6479 horses and mules, and 160 guns. Its war strength is 4056 officers and 171,324 men, with 336 guns.

Romania. The regular army is divided into permanent and territorial divisions, each with a reserve; the militia and the levée en masse. Every Rumanian from his twenty-first to his forty-sixth year is liable to military service. In time of peace the army consists of 60,388 men in the permanent division, and 72,000 men in the territorial division. The war strength is placed at 3948 officers and about 170,000 men.

Russia. Since 1874, every male, with the exception of residents of outlying districts, has been liable to military service from the beginning of the twenty-first to the end of the forty-third year. Special laws govern the military service of Cossacks, Asian immigrants, and Caucasian Mohammedans. In the standing army, from four to five years is the period of service, and thirteen years in the militia reserve. Young men of good education are released from the regulation period of army service under somewhat similar conditions to those of the one-year volunteers of Germany. About 1,200,000 men are annually liable to service; but the law permits many exceptions, and of the number who should join the forces each year, little more than half actually do so, which leaves a vast reserve of men with little or no training. The peace strength of the Russian army is almost as little known as its war strength. As a matter of fact, the probabilities are that the peace strength in many parts of the Empire is above that given in many published reports. Von Löbell, the German statistician and military historian, gives the total peace strength as at least a million, and the war footing as nearly 5,000,000 men. The Empire is divided into thirteen military districts under high general officers. For mobilization purposes these are again subdivided into twenty-three localities and the localities into circles. The organization comprises field troops, reserve troops, depot troops, fortress troops, local troops, and the imperial militia. The Russian officer is drawn almost exclusively from the governing ranks of society, and is by birth, training, and environment admirably adapted for his profession. The common soldier has many splendid qualities from the military point of view; among which may be enumerated great endurance, natural stoicism, implicit obedience and fidelity, and general indifference to death. Stolidity and general ignorance, however, constitute a great weakness, particularly when opposed to an enemy possessing the quick, alert, and resourceful intelligence demanded of the modern soldier. Infantry and rifle regiments are armed with a small bore, five-cartridge, magazine rifle: the heavy cavalry being similarly armed. Field and mountain artillery of the active army are supplied with steel breech-loaders of four different patterns. The following statement gives approximately the various divisions of the army: An infantry regiment consists of 70 officers, 1867 men; in war, 79 officers and 3945 men. There are 52 infantry divisions, 23 rifle brigades, 25 separate infantry brigades, 10 separate rifle battalions, 8 separate infantry battalions, 21 separate fortress regiments, and 12 separate fortress battalions. An infantry division consists of 2 brigades; a brigade of 2 regiments; a regiment of 4 battalions, and a battalion of 4 companies. The Cossack infantry consists of 6 Kuban battalions. (See article Cossacks.) The regular cavalry is divided into 4 and 6 squadron regiments, the latter consisting of 38 officers and 1071 men, which in time of war is decreased to 36 officers and 948 men. There are 24 divisions, 5 brigades, 7 separate regiments, and 3 double squadrons of cavalry; 2 divisions of the guards, 17 divisions and 2 brigades of dragoons, and 6 divisions of Cossacks. Field artillery consists of 4 gun batteries in time of peace and 8 in war. Horse batteries have 6 guns in peace and war. Mortar batteries have 6 mortars each. The artillery consists of field, horse, guard, grenadier, and line brigades of batteries. There are 29 sapper battalions of engineers.

Salvador. Regular army, 4000 men; militia, 25,000.

Santo Domingo. No statistics are available. The army, which is small, consists of infantry, cavalry, and artillery; a regiment being stationed in the capital of each province.

Servia. Military service is compulsory from the age of 21 years; two years being spent in the army, eight in the reserve, and twenty in the national nnlitia. In 1902, the total strength of the mobilized regular army and reserve was given as 160,751. Theoretically, the war strength of Servia, including the militia, is about 354,000 men, but it is probably only 300,000.

Siam. There is no armed militia, every man being liable for service as required. The standing army consists of about 5000 men, but between 10,000 and 12,000 could be mobilized in a very short time.

Spain. Every Spaniard past the age of 19 is liable for service; although exemption may be purchased by patient of 1500 pesetas. The army strength in 1901-02 was as follows:

Peace. War.
Infantry 50,273 132,000 
Cavalry 13,498 17,156
Artillery 13,571 12,166
Engineers  4,536 11,027
Other corps and details  35,896 11,623


117,774  183,972 

Sweden. For a period of five years from 1902, the Swedish Army is to consist of three distinct classes of troops: (1) The Varfvade, or enlisted troops, who serve either two or three years; (2) The Indelta, training in which consists of from 200 to 400 days in two years, and annually afterwards for 22 or 23 days' drill; (3) The Varnpligtige, or conscription troops, who are secured by annual levy. The total peace strength, exclusive of the conscripted troops, is 37,200 officers and men.—Norway. The army of the country is secured largely by conscription, although a small proportion voluntarily enlist. Conscription is from the twenty-second year of age, service being in either the line, the Landvaern, or the Landstorm, or final levy. In time of war nearly 82,000 trained men would be available; but the number actually under arms can never exceed 18,000 men without the consent of the Storthing.

Switzerland. The Army of Switzerland is practically a militia, every citizen being liable to military service and receiving occasional training. The following table gives the divisions and numbers of the armed forces of the country for 1901-02:

Elite (men from 20 to 32 years of age) 151,766
Landwehr (33d to 44th year)  87,943
Landsturm (all citizens not already serving)  278,556

 Total 518,265

Turkey. Every Mussulman over 20 years of age is liable to military service for a period of twenty years. Non-Mohammedans are exempted on payment of a tax, the equivalent of about $1.50. The army is divided into seven districts, with which are associated seven army corps. The entire Turkish Army organization is defective and exceedingly corrupt. The troops are scantily fed and clothed, badly equipped; and with pay invariably in arrears, discipline is naturally at a discount. Yet the natural qualities of the Turk as a fighting man have become proverbial, and are historically justified. His racial characteristics are greatly reinforced by the militant features of the religion he professes, the head of which is the Sultan. Should the latter in his religious capacity proclaim a holy war, he could command millions of subjects of other empires, which fact, in addition to his own forces, gives him a power that more than anything else has contributed to his present European security. The war strength of the army, permanent, territorial, and reserve, for the year 1901, was stated to be 1,500,000 men, and the peace establishment 700,620.

United States. The establishment of the United States Army, according to the reorganization of February 2, 1901, consists of 30 regiments of infantry, 15 of cavalry, and an artillery corps of 126 companies of coast-artillery and 30 batteries of field-artillery; 3 battalions of engineers, hospital corps, signal corps, ordnance department, medical department, quartermaster's department, adjutant-general's department, inspector-general's department, pay department, and subsistence department. The interior organization of units is as follows: Infantry regiments have an enlisted strength, including band and staff, of 1284 men; 4 companies constitute a battalion, and 3 battalions a regiment. Cavalry regiments contain, with band and staff, 12 troops of 85 men each, making a total of 1056. Coast-artillery companies contain 109, and batteries 160 men each. Engineer companies contain 104 men, 4 companies constituting a battalion, which, with staff, numbers 418 enlisted men. According to statistics published by the Adjutant-General, October 1, 1901, the strength of the Regular Army consisted of 3278 officers and 81,235 enlisted men, a total of 84,513, distributed as follows:

Station. Officers. Enlisted
Men.
Total.
United States 1,922 31,952 33,874
Philippine Islands  1,111 42,128 43,239
Cuba 166 4,748 4,914
Porto Rico 51 1,490 1,541
Hawaiian Islands 6 250 256
China 5 157 162
Alaska 17 610 527



 Total 3,278 81,235 84,513

This includes 4336 men of the hospital corps and 25 officers and 815 men of the Porto Rican Provisional Regiment. There were also in the Philippines, on the above date, 172 volunteer surgeons, and 73 officers, 4973 men, native scouts. Under the Constitution of the United States, the President is commander-in-chief of the army, the administration of which is in the hands of the secretary of war and of the department of which he is the head. The military establishment is under the orders of the commanding general of the army, so far as pertains to army discipline and control. Fiscal matters are conducted by the secretary of war, through the several staff departments. The commanding general promulgates orders from the President or secretary of war, if relating to military operations, or concerning the military control and discipline of the army.

The Regular Army may be reinforced by additional volunteer regiments at any time, on the authorization of Congress. During and after the Spanish War of 1898, many volunteer regiments of cavalry and infantry were organized, and after being used on more or less active service were mustered out as the circumstances warranted. The period of enlistment for enlisted men is three years. Every able-bodied man may be called on for defense or service in the militia, the number available averaging between 14,000,000 and 15,000,000. Each State of the Union has a militia establishment, under its own State authorities, but subject to supreme Federal authority for Federal purposes. In 1899 the aggregate effective enlisted strength of the State militia, or National Guard, was estimated at 106,339 men, all ranks. Most officers of the Regular Army are educated at the United States Military Academy, West Point; N. Y., and afterwards in the various practical schools of the army. In point of efficiency and thoroughness they are unexcelled. The United States military methods differ from those of European nations, in that individuality is strongly encouraged. This is greatly facilitated by the republican system of national government, the absence of caste or rank of birth, and the general method of education and appointment of officers. In adaptability, resourcefulness, military intelligence, and individuality, the United States soldier is conceded by foreign military authorities to be unequaled. See also section on Army, under United States.

Uruguay. The permanent army consisted in 1901 of 231 officers and 3233 men, armed with the Mauser rifle. The artillery is equally modern, consisting of Krupp, Armstrong, Nordenfeidt, Bangec and Canet guns. In addition to an armed police force of 3200 men, there is a national guard of about 97,000 men.

Venezuela. In 1901 the army was said to consist of about 9000 men. It is distributed throughout the Republic in federal garrisons and on ships of war. There is a national militia, but its strength is not known; it is estimated at between 60,000 and 100,000 men.

Bibliography. Authorities and statistical reports from which much valuable information on armies may be obtained are: Oman, Art of War in the Middle Ages (London, 1885); Jerram's Armies of the World (London and New York, 1900); and the Reports of the Military Information Division of the War Department, issued by the Government Printing Office at Washington, D. C. The annual issue of the Statesman's Year Book (London and New York) contains the latest reliable statistics regarding the armies of the world. Other sources of information are the regular service magazines, and the Journal of the Military Service Institution (Governor's Island, N. Y.). For a further treatment of the subject of armies and detailed information as to their organization and principal characteristics, the reader is referred to the articles, Army-Organization; Artillery; Cavalry; Infantry; Frontier, Military; Landwehr; Militia; Military Education; Mobilization; Tactics, Military; and Volunteer, Military. Detailed information on military technical subjects will he found under Ammunition; Ballistics; Engineering, Military; Coast Defense; Fortification; Field Artillery; Ordnance; Signaling and Telegraphing, Military; Small Arms; and also under numerous titles relating to military matters in general. In addition to the special article on Tactics, Military, such specific operations as Advance Guard; Attack; Battle; Engagement, Military; Inspection; Patrol; Marching; Rear Guard; Outpost, etc., will be found under their respective titles.