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The Red Man and the White Man in North America




CONTENTS.




INTRODUCTORY.

General Survey of the Subject.
Pages 1-38.

Origin of the Name Indian, 1. Archæology of the Continent, 4. Indian Antiquities, 5. The New Continent, 7. Its Promises and its Illusions, 9. Wilderness Attractions, 11. The Boon to Humanity, 13. Grandeur and Extent, 15. Vanished Tribes, 17. The Indian Nemesis, 19. Benefits and Wrongs from the Europeans, 21. Queen Isabella pleading for the Savages, 23. Early Efforts for the Indians, 25. The Children of Nature, 27. First Relations between the Races, 29. Broken Promises, 31. Steady Pressure upon the Indians, 33. The Present “Indian Question,” 35. The Fate of the Aborigines, 37.


CHAPTER I.

Spanish Discoverers and Invaders.
Pages 39-84.

Columbus's First Meeting with the Natives, 40. First Acts of Violence, 42. The Colony of Navidad, 43. Its Fate, 45. Hostilities and Alliances with Natives, 47. The Hammock and the Hurricane, 49. Ruthless Spirit of the Invaders, 51. The Church and Heathendom, 53. Las Casas, 54. Religion of Conquest, 55. Rapacity and Zeal, 57. The “Requisition,” 59. The Natives as Heathen, 61. Enslaving of the Natives, 63. Cruelties and Outrages, 65. Transportation of Indians as Slaves, 67. Destruction or Conversion, 69. The Dominican Friars, 71. Doctrines of Hell and Baptism, 73. Human Sacrifices and Cannibalism, 75. Ravages of De Soto, 77. The Spaniards on the Pacific, 79. Priestly Methods, 81. The California Missions, 83.


CHAPTER II.

The Indian. — His Origin, Numbers, Person, and Character.
Pages 85-139.

Archæology, 85. Communal Life, 87. Relative Place of the Savage, 89. Average Intelligence, 91. The Mound Builders, 93. Aboriginal Population, 95. Resources of Life, 97. Endowment of the Indian, 99. Indian Character, 101. Indian Qualities, 105. Catlin's Views of, 100. Major Campion's, 101. General Custer's Opinions and Estimate, 104-109. Lieutenant Dodge's Estimate, 109. Romantic Views, 111. Indian State and Royalty, 113. Dr. Palfrey's and Governor Arnold's Views, 114. Indian Languages, 117. Indian Vocabularies, 119. Ferocity of Savages, 121. Torturing of Prisoners, 123. A scene of Torture, 125. Indian Medical Practice, 127. Health and Disease, 131. The “Suderie,” 132. Disposal of the Dead, 133. Religion of the Indians, 136-139.


CHAPTER III.

The Indian in his Condition, Resources, and Surroundings.
Pages 140-206.

Limitations of Savagism, 141. The Savage a Child of Nature, 143. Conformed to Nature, 145. Indian Food and Cookery, 147. Costume and Dwelling, 149. The Medicine-Bag, 151. The Indian on the Water-Ways, 153-156. His Woods-Craft and Rovings, 157. Relationship to Animals, 159. Aboriginal Names, 161. The Indian Canoe, 165-168. The Moccason, 169. The Snow-Shoe, 171. The Indian in Winter, 173. His Cornfields, 175. Economy, 177. Communication, 179. Interpreters, 181. Sign-Language, 183. Gambling, 185. Games and Amusements, 187. The Hunting-Season, 189. Superstitions, 191. A Warrior, 193. War-Parties, 195. The Gantlet and the Torture, 197. Tribal Government, 199. Chieftains and Orators, 201. The Indian “Pony,” 203. The Pappooses, 205. Education, 206.


CHAPTER IV.

Indian Tenure of Land as viewed by European Invaders and Colonists.
Pages 207-258.

Our National Domain, 208. Land Titles, 209. Right by Conquest, 211. Indian Possession, 213. Thinness of Population, 215. Indian Internecine Strifes, 217. Invasion, 219. Dispossessing the Natives, 221. Rights of Nomads, 223. Royal Grants, 225. European Claims, 227. Indians as Subjects, 229. Prerogatives of Civilization, 231. Over Barbarism, 233. Indians as “Vermin,” 235. Scriptural Authority, 237. Plea for Possession, 239. Indian Deeds, 241. Vagueness of Indian Rights, 243, The Free Wilderness, 245. Remuneration to Indians, 247. Rights as a Race, 249. Encroachments, 251. European Occupancy, 253. Conveyances by Indians, 255. Policy of our Government, 257.


CHAPTER V.

The French and the Indians.
Pages 259-325.

Mr. Parkman's Works on “New France,” 259-262. The Spaniards in Florida, 263. French Fishing Voyages, 265. French and Spaniards, 267. The French in Florida, 269. English Slave-ships, 271. Contests in Florida, 273. De Gourgues in Florida, 275. French in Acadia, 277. Champlain in Quebec, 279. His Indian Allies and Foes, 281. French in Alabama, 283. French in Louisiana, 285. French Claims, 287. French Explorers, 289. Voyageurs and Coureurs de Bois, 291. Frenchmen becoming Indians, 293. Traders in Canada, 295. Catholics and Huguenots, 297. Recollets in Canada, 299. French Half-breeds, 301. The Iroquois, 303. Huguenots in Canada, 305. Influence of the Priests, 307. Death of Father Ralle, 309. The Acadians, 311. Their Removal, 313. Their Dispersion, 315. French and Indian War, 317. Cession to England, 319. Conspiracy of Pontiac, 321-325.


CHAPTER VI.

Colonial Relations with the Indians.
Pages 326-367.

New England Colonists, 327. Permanent Colonists, 329. Sales of Land, 331. War of Race, 333. Purchase of Indian Titles, 335-338. King Philip's War, 339. The Pequot War, 341. Sale of Arms to Indians, 343. Wars in Virginia, 345. Confederation of Colonies, 347. English Advances, 349. Forest Forts, 351. Forest Sieges, 353. Indian Barbarities, 355. Quakers in the War, 857. The Frontiers, 359. Military Roads and Posts, 361. Captives in the Wilderness, 363. Indianized Whites, 365. Roamers and Settlers, 366, 367.


CHAPTER VII.

Missionary Efforts among the Indians.
Pages 368-476.

General Remarks on Mission Aims and Efforts, 369. Different Estimates of the Work, 371. Discordant Teachings, 373. Salvation and Civilization, 375. The Gospel Message, 377. Differences of Method, 379. Perplexities of Doctrine, 381. An Indian Agnostic, 383. — Roman Catholic Missions, 385. The First Converts, 387. The Franciscan Friars, 389. The Training of the Jesuits, 391. The Jesuit “Relations,” 393. The Jesuit in Residence, 395. Jesuit Instructions, 397. The Success of the Jesuits, 399. Devotion of the Jesuits, 401. Tragic Fate of Missionaries, 403. Jesuit Mission Stations, 405. Journal of a Jesuit, 407. Jesuit Altar Ornaments, 409. Training of Indian Neophytes, 411. Conference between Jesuit and Indian, 413. Jesuit Arguments, 415. Fate of the Huron Missions, 417. — Protestant Missions, 419. Delayed in Massachusetts, 421. Eliot and Mayhew, 423. Eliot learning the Indian Language, 425. The Indians in Training, 427. A Jesuit Diplomatist in Boston, 429. Reception of Druillettes, 431. He visits Eliot, 433. Eliot's Cautious Preparations, 435. Indian Town at Natick, 437. Seclusion of the Indians, 439. Eliot's Faith and Perseverance, 441. The Indians in Argument, 443. Indian Municipality, 445. Examination of Converts, 447. Eliot's Work in Translation, 449. His Indian Scholarship, 451. Written Indian Language, 453. Printing of Indian Bible, 455. Prospects of Success, 457. Calamitous Experiences, 459. Panic in Philip's War, 461. Removal of the Indians, 463. Partial Restoration, 465. Indians at Harvard College, 467. Severity of Puritan Discipline, 469. Eliot's Successors, 471. Indians on the Columbia. 473. Moravian Missions, 475.


CHAPTER VIII.

Relations of Great Britain with the Indians.
Pages 477-513.

British America, 479-482. The Hudson Bay Company, 483-490. Rivalries in the Fur-Trade, 491. The Red River Settlement, 493. Savage Allies of Great Britain, 495. Savage Neutrals or Allies, 497. Bourgoyne's Use of Savages, 499. Washington's Apprehensions, 501. British Malignant Policy, 503. General Sullivan's Campaign, 505. Embarrassed Relations, 507. An Englishman at Vancouver, 509. Canadian Indian Commission, 511-513.


CHAPTER IX.

The United States Government and the Indians.
Pages 514-552.

Congressional Policy, 515. Conduct toward the Natives, 517. Difficulties and Embarrassments, 519. Changing Conditions of the Problem, 521. Peace Medals for Chiefs, 523. Visits of Chiefs to Washington, 525. Wise and Helpful Measures, 527. Tecumseh's Confederacy, 529. The Massacre at Fort Mims, 531. Opinions of our Statesmen, 533. Baffled Statesmanship, 535. Inconstant Policy, 537. Treaties in the Forest, 539. Number and Terms of Treaties, 541. Validity of the Treaties, 543. Violated Pledges, 545. Spoils of the Black Hills, 547. Formalities of a Council, 549. Mistakes in Management, 551.


CHAPTER X.

Military and Peace Policy with the Indians.
Pages 553-586.

Present Relations with the Indians, 554. As Neighbors, 555. Present Embarrassments, 557. The Indian Bureau, 559. Strictures on the War Policy, 561. Faults of the Peace Commission, 563-565. Conflicting Charges, 567. Wasted Benevolence, 569. Cost of Peace or War, 571. Compulsory Labor, 573. Modified Covenants, 575. Security through Improvements, 577. The Indian Territory, 579. Trespasses on Reservations, 581. Semi-Civilized Tribes, 583. Indian Communism, 585.


CHAPTER XI.

The Indians under Civilization
Pages 587-630.

Drawbacks of Civilization, 589. Attractions of Savagery, 591. Arbitrary Civilization, 593. Resistance to Civilization, 595. Nature and Conventionalism, 597. Enforced Civilization, 599. Stages of Progress, 601. Disappointments and Failures, 603. Reversionary Instincts, 605-608. Pleas for Savagery, 609. Indianized Whites, 611. White Captives adopted, 613. Indian Diplomacy, 615. Pleas against Civilization, 617. Civilization repudiated, 619. Forlorn Remnants of Tribes, 621. Semi-Civilization, 623. Domestic Animals as Civilizers, 625. Patient and Persistent Efforts, 627. A Ray of Hope, 629.


This work was published before January 1, 1924, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.