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World Factbook (1982) Bulgaria.jpg
(See reference map V)


111,852 km2; 41% arable, 11% other agricultural, 33% forested, 15% other

Land boundaries: 1,883 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm

Coastline: 354 km


Population: 8,940,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.4%

Nationality: noun—Bulgarian(s); adjective—Bulgarian

Ethnic divisions: 85.3% Bulgarians, 8.5% Turks, 2.6% Gypsies, 2.5% Macedonians, 0.3% Armenians, 0.2% Russians, 0.6% other

Religion: regime promotes atheism; religious background of population is 85% Bulgarian Orthodox, 13% Muslim, 0.8% Jewish, 0.7% Roman Catholic, 0.5% Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian and other

Language: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown

Literacy: 95% (est.)

Labor force: 4.0 million (1981); 23% agriculture, 35% industry, 42% other


Official name: People's Republic of Bulgaria

Type: Communist state

Capital: Sofia

Political subdivisions: 28 okrugs (districts), including capital city of Sofia

Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; new constitution adopted in 1971; judicial review of legislative acts in the State Council; legal education at University of Sofia; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 September

Branches: legislative, National Assembly; judiciary, Supreme Court

Government leaders: Todor ZHIVKOV, Chairman, State Council (President and Chief of State); Georgi Stanchev FILIPOV, Chairman, Council of Ministers (Premier)

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18

Elections: theoretically held every five years for National Assembly; last elections held on 7 June 1981; 99.96% of the electorate voted

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Communist Party, Todor Zhivkov, General Secretary; Bulgarian National Agrarian Union, a puppet party, Petur Tanchev, secretary of Permanent Board

Communists: 820,000 party members (April 1981)

Mass organizations and front groups: Fatherland Front, Dimitrov Communist Youth League, Central Council of Trade Unions, National Committee for Defense of Peace, Union of Fighters Against Fascism and Capitalism, Committee of Bulgarian Women, All-National Committee for Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship

Member of: CEMA, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO; Warsaw Pact, International Organization of Journalists, International Medical Association, International Radio and Television Organization


GNP: $39.8 billion, 1980 (1980 dollars), $4,489 per capita; 1980 real growth rate, -0.2%

Agriculture: mainly self-sufficient; main crops—grain, vegetables; caloric intake, 3,461 calories per day per capita (1972/74)

Fishing: catch 89,000 metric tons (1979)

Major industries: agricultural processing, machinery, textiles and clothing, mining, ore processing, timber

Shortages: some raw materials, metal products, meat and dairy products, fodder

Crude steel: 2.6 million metric tons produced (1980), 293 kg per capita

Electric power: 9,333,000 kW capacity (1981); 32,700 million kWh produced (1981), 3,665 kWh per capita

Exports: $10.5 billion (f.o.b., 1980); 45% machinery, equipment, and transportation equipment; 21% fuels, minerals, raw materials, metals, and other industrial material; 2% agricultural raw materials; 23% foodstuffs, raw materials for food industry, and animals; 9% industrial consumer goods (1980)

Imports: $9.7 billion (f.o.b., 1980); 35% machinery, equipment, and transportation equipment; 50% fuels, minerals, raw materials, metals, other materials; 5% agricultural raw materials; 5% foodstuffs, raw materials for food industry, and animals; 5% industrial consumer goods (1979)

Major trade partners: $20,217 million in 1980; 25% with non-Communist countries, 53% with USSR, 22% with other Communist countries

Monetary conversion rate: 0.95 leva=US$1 (August 1981)

Fiscal year: calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years except for caloric intake, which is reported for consumption year 1 July-30 June

NOTE: Foreign trade figures were converted at the 1980 rate of 0.85 leva=US$1


Railroads: 4,341 km total; about 4,096 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 245 km narrow gauge; 437 km double track; 1,449 km electrified; government owned (1979)

Highways: 32,236 km total; 2,360 km trunk roads, 4,291 km class I concrete, asphalt, stone block; 6,062 km class II asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 19,523 km class 111 earth (1979)

Inland waterways: 471 km (1979)

Freight carried: rail—77.6 million metric tons, 17.6 billion metric ton/km (1979); highway—836 million metric tons, 15.6 billion metric ton/km (1979); waterway—4.9 million metric tons, 2.6 billion metric ton/km (excluding international transit traffic; 1979)

Ports: 3 major (Varna, Varna West, Burgas), 6 minor (1981); principal river ports are Ruse and Lorn (1981)


Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,173,000; 1,818,000 fit for military service; 63,000 reach military age (19) annually Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, est. 900 million leva; 5.9% of total budget