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World Factbook (1982) Egypt.jpg
(See reference maps VI and VII)


1,000,258 km2 (including 19,237 km2 in Sinai); 2.8% cultivated (of which about 70% multiple cropped); 96.5% desert, waste, or urban; 0.7% inland water

Land boundaries: approximately 2,580 km (including border of Sinai area)


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (plus 6 nm "necessary supervision zone")

Coastline: 2,450 km (1967); includes approximately 500 km within Sinai area


Population: 44,740,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.0%

Nationality: noun—Egyptian(s); adjective—Egyptian or Arab Republic of Egypt

Ethnic divisions: 90% Eastern Hamitic stock; 10% Greek, Italian, Syro-Lebanese

Religion: (official estimate) 94% Muslim, 6% Copt and other

Language: Arabic official, English and French widely understood by educated classes

Literacy: around 44%

Labor force: 13.4 million; 45-50% agriculture, 13% industry, 11% trade and finance, 26% services and other; shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: 1 to 3 million


Official name: Arab Republic of Egypt

Type: republic; under presidential rule since June 1956

Capital: Cairo

Political subdivisions: 26 governorates

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; permanent constitution written in 1971; judicial review of limited nature in Supreme Court, also in Council of State, which oversees validity of administrative decisions; legal education at Cairo University; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: National Day, 23 July

Branches: executive power vested in President, who appoints Cabinet; People's Assembly dominated by the government's National Democratic Party; independent judiciary administered by Minister of Justice

Government leader: President Hosni MUBARAK

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: regular elections to People's Assembly every five years (most recent June 1979); presidential elections every six years (President Mubarak was elected in October 1981)

Political parties and leaders: formation of political parties must be approved by government; National Democratic Party, formed in mid-1978 by President Anwar El-Sadat, is the major party; various small opposition parties Communists: approximately 500, party members

Member of: AAPSO, AFDB, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IOOQ IPU, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WPC, WSG, WTO; Egypt suspended from Arab League and OAPEC in April 1979 and from ISCON in May 1979


GNP: $23.4 billion (1980), $550 per capita; real growth of 8% in 1980

Agriculture: main cash crop—cotton; other crops—rice, onions, beans, citrus fruit, wheat, corn, barley; not self-sufficient in food

Major industries: textiles, food processing, chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement

Electric power: 5,480,600 kW capacity (1980); 18.5 billion kWh produced (1980), 434 kWh per capita

Exports: $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1980); crude petroleum, raw cotton, cotton yarn and fabric, rice, onions, potatoes, chemicals, cement

Imports: $7.6 billion (c.i.f., 1980); foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fertilizers, woods

Major trade partners: US, EC countries

Monetary conversion rate: official rate—1 Egyptian pound=US$1.43 (selling rate), 0.70 Egyptian pound=US$1 (selling rate)

Fiscal year: July through June, beginning in 1980


Railroads: 4,857 km total; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified; 4,510 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 347 km 0.750-meter gauge

Highways: 47,025 km total; 12,300 km paved, 2,500 km gravel and crushed stone, 14,200 km improved earth, 18,025 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 3,360 km; Suez Canal, 160 km long, used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 11.5 meters of water; Alexandria-Cairo waterway navigable by barges of metric ton capacity; Nile and large canals by barges of 420-metric ton capacity; Ismailia Canal by barges of 200- to 300-metric ton capacity; secondary canals by sailing craft of 10- to 70-metric ton capacity

Freight carried: Suez Canal (1966)—242 million metric tons of which 175.6 million metric tons were POL

Pipelines: crude oil, 675 km; refined products, 240 km; natural gas, 365 km

Ports: 3 major (Alexandria, Port Said, Suez), 8 minor

Civil air: 37 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in and 2 leased out

Airfields: 109 total, 77 usable; 68 with permanent-surface runways; 45 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways over 3,659 m, 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system is large but still inadequate for needs; principal centers Alexandria and Cairo, secondary centers Al Mansurah, Ismailia, and Tanta; intercity connections by coaxial cable and microwave; extensive upgrading in progress; est. 600,000 telephones (1.3 per 100 popl.); 23 AM, 3 FM, and 35 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; Symphonie satellite station; 2 submarine coaxial cables


Military manpower: males 15-49, 10,912,000; 7,120,000 fit for military service; about 458,000 reach military age (20) annually