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ETHIOPIAEdit

World Factbook (1982) Ethiopia.jpg
(See reference map VII)

LANDEdit

1,178,450 km2; 10% cropland and orchards, 55% meadows and natural pastures, 6% forests and woodlands, 29% wasteland, built-on areas, and other

Land boundaries: 5,198 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm; for sedentary fisheries, territorial sea extends to limit of fisheries

Coastline: 1,094 km (includes offshore islands)

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 30,569,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 1.9%

Nationality: noun—Ethiopian(s); adjective—Ethiopian

Ethnic divisions: Galla 40%, Amhara and Tigrai 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religion: 35%-40% Ethiopian Orthodox, 40%-45% Muslim, 15%-20% animist, 5% other

Language: Amharic official; many local languages and dialects; English major foreign language taught in schools

Literacy: about 5%

Labor force: 90% agriculture and animal husbandry; 10% government, military, and Quasi-government

Organized labor: All Ethiopian Trade Union formed January 1977 to represent 273,000 registered trade union members

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Ethiopia

Type: under military rule since mid-1974; monarchy abolished in March 1975, but republic not yet declared

Capital: Addis Ababa

Political subdivisions: 14 provinces (also referred to as regional administrations)

Legal system: complex structure with civil, Islamic, common and customary law influences; constitution suspended September 1974; military leaders have promised a new constitution but established no time frame for its adoption; legal education at Addis Ababa University; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Popular Revolution Commemoration Day, 12 September

Branches: executive power exercised by the Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC), dominated by its chairman and small circle of associates; predominantly civilian Cabinet is ineffectual and holds office at sufferance of military; legislature dissolved September 1974; judiciary at higher levels based on Western pattern, at lower levels on traditional pattern, without jury system in either

Government leader: MENGISTU Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council

Suffrage: universal over age 21

Elections: urban dwellers' association officials elected June 1981

Political parties and leaders: no political party exists, although efforts to create one have been underway for the past few years

Communists: probably a few Communist sympathizers in the government; government officially committed to organize a Communist party, but progress is slow

Other political or pressure groups: important dissident groups include Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), and Eritrean Liberation Front/Popular Liberation Forces in Eritrea; Tigrean Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF) in Tigre Province; Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF) in the Ogaden Region

Member of: AFDB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICO, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GDP: $4.4 billion (1981), $138 per capita; growth rate 2.0-3.0% (1981)

Agriculture: main crop—coffee

Major industries: cement, sugar refining, cotton textiles, food processing, oil refinery

Electric power: 330,000 kW capacity (1980); 720 million kWh produced (1980), 25 kWh per capita

Exports: $408 million (f.o.b., 1981 est.); 70% coffee, 5% hides and skins

Imports: $779 million (c.i.f., 1981 est.) 18% petroleum

Major trade partners: imports—Saudi Arabia, Japan, Italy, West Germany, Iran, UK, France, and US; exports—US, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Italy, West Germany

External debt: $740 million, 1981; external debt ratio 6.6%

Monetary conversion rate: 2.07 Ethiopian Birr=US$1

Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 1,089 km total; 782 km meter gauge (1.00 m), of which 97 km are in Djibouti; 307 km 0.95-meter gauge

Highways: 44,300 km total; 3,650 km bituminous, 9,650 km gravel, 3,000 km improved earth, 28,000 km unimproved earth

Ports: 2 major (Assab, Massawa)

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 187 total, 167 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m, 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 47 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,871,000; 3,690,000 fit for military service; 346,000 reach military age (18) annually