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The World Factbook (1982)/Germany, Federal Republic of

GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OFEdit

World Factbook (1982) Federal Republic of Germany.jpg
(See reference map V)

LANDEdit

248,640 km2 (including West Berlin); 33% cultivated, 23% meadows and pastures, 13% waste or urban, 29% forested, 2% inland water

Land boundaries: 4,232 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm)

Coastline: 1,488 km (approx.)

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 61,697,000, including West Berlin (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.0%

Nationality: noun—German(s); adjective—German

Ethnic divisions: 99% Germanic, 1% other

Religion: 48.9% Protestant, 44.7% Roman Catholic, 6.4% other (as of 1975)

Language: German

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 27.199 million (1979); 36.4% in manufacturing, 6.6% construction, 37.4% services, 9.7% government, 5.6% agriculture, 0.5% other; 3.8% unemployed July 1980

Organized labor: 33.7% of total labor force; 40.1% of wage and salary earners

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Federal Republic of Germany

Type: federal republic

Capital: Bonn

Political subdivisions: 10 Laender (states); Western sectors of Berlin are ultimately controlled by US, UK, and France which, together with the USSR, have special rights and responsibilities in Berlin

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; constitution adopted 1949; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Branches: bicameral parliament—Bundesrat (upper house), Bundestag (lower house); President (titular head of state), Chancellor (executive head of government); independent judiciary

Government leaders: President Karl CARSTENS, elected 23 May 1979 for a five-year term, took office 1 July 1979; Chancellor Helmut SCHMIDT leads coalition of Social Democrats and Free Democrats

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: next national election scheduled for fall of 1984

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union (CDU/CSU), Helmut Kohl, Franz Josef Strauss, Gerhard Stoltenberg, Ernst Albrecht, Richard von Weizsäcker; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Willy Brandt, Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski, Herbert Wehner, Helmut Schmidt; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Otto Graf Lambsdorff, Wolfgang Mischnick; National Democratic Party (NPD), Martin Mussgnug; Communist Party (DKP), Herbert Mies

Voting strength (1980 election): 42.9% SPD, 44.5% CDU/CSU, 10.6% FDP, 2.0% splinter groups of left and right (no parliamentary representation)

Communists: about 40,000 members and supporters

Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans groups

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECSC, EIB, ELDO, EMA, ESRO, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $821 billion (1980), $3,330 per capita (1980); 55% private consumption, 22% investment, 20% government consumption; net foreign balance 0%, inventory change 1% (distribution based on current price series)

Agriculture: main crops—grains, potatoes, sugar beets; 75% self-sufficient; food shortages—fats and oils, pulses, tropical products; caloric intake, 2,980 calories per day per capita (1975-76)

Fishing: catch 287,000 metric tons, $167 million (1980); exports $256 million, imports $802 million (1980)

Major industries: among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, ships, vehicles, machine tools

Shortages: fats and oils, sugar, cotton, wool, rubber, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, nonferrous metals, sulfur

Crude steel: 50 to 60 million metric tons capacity; 43.8 million metric tons produced (1980), 710 kg per capita

Electric power: 89,000,000 kW capacity (1980); 368.731 million kWh produced (1980), 6,010 kWh per capita

Exports: $193 billion (f.o.b., 1980); manufactures 90.0% (machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 5.3%, fuels 3.4%, raw materials 1.3%

Imports: $188 billion (c.i.f., 1980); manufactures 61.2%, fuels 21.9%, agricultural products 12.9%, raw materials 4.0% Major trade partners: (1980) EC 47.1% (France 12.0%, Netherlands 10.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 7.5%, Italy 8.2%, UK 6.6%); other Europe 18.4%; OPEC 8.7%; Communist 5.9%; US 6.8%

Aid: donor—(1970-79) bilateral economic aid commitments (ODA and OOF), $21 billion

Budget: (1980) expenditures $118.7 billion, revenues $103.5 billion, deficit $15.2 billion

Monetary conversion rate: DM 1.82 (West German marks)=US$1 (1980 average)

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 32,555 km total; 28,533 km government owned, standard gauge (1.435 m), 12,491 km double track; 11,140 km electrified; 4,022 km nongovernment owned; 3,598 km standard gauge (1.435 m); 214 km electrified; 424 km meter gauge (1.00 m); 186 km electrified

Highways: 479,600 km total; 171,600 km classified, includes 153,160 km cement-concrete, bituminous, or stone block (includes 7,400 km of autobahnen); 8,240 km gravel, crushed stone, improved earth; in addition, 308,000 km of unclassified roads of various surface types (community roads)

Inland waterways: 5,222 km of which almost 70% usable by craft of 990 metric ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,071 km; refined products, 3,240 km; natural gas, 95,414 km

Ports: 10 major, 11 minor

Civil air: 208 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in and 2 leased out

Airfields: 466 total, 432 usable; 221 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m, 32 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 41 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the country; fully adequate in all respects; 26.6 million telephones (43.4 per 100 popl.); 90 AM, 370 FM, and 5,510 TV stations; 6 submarine coaxial cables; 2 satellite stations with total of 6 antennas

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 16,350,000; 13,670,000 fit for military service; 528,000 reach military age (18) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1982, $19.12 billion; about 18% of the proposed central government budget