The World Factbook (1982)/Ghana

The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency
Ghana

GHANAEdit

World Factbook (1982) Ghana.jpg
(See reference map VII)

LANDEdit

238,280 km2; 19% agricultural, 60% forest and brush, 21% other

Land boundaries: 2,285 km

WATEREdit

Coastline: 539 km

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 12,943,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.2%

Nationality: noun—Ghanaian(s); adjective—Ghanaian

Ethnic divisions: 99.8% Negroid African (major tribes Ashanti, Fante, Ewe), 0.2% European and other

Religion: 45% animists, 43% Christian, 12% Muslim

Language: English official; African languages include Akan 44%, Mole-Dagbani 16%, Ewe 13%, and Ga-Adangbe 8%

Literacy: about 25% (in English)

Labor force: 3.4 million; 61% agriculture and fishing, 16.8% industry, 15.2% sales and clerical, 4.1% services, transportation, and communications, 2.9% professional; 400,000 unemployed

Organized labor: 350,000 or approximately 10% of labor force

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Republic of Ghana

Type: republic; independent since March 1957; 31 December 1981 coup ended two-year-old civilian government and suspended constitution and political activity

Capital: Accra

Political subdivisions: eight administrative regions and separate Greater Accra Area; regions subdivided into 58 districts and 267 local administrative districts

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; legal education at University of Ghana (Legon); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March

Branches: executive authority vested in seven-member Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC); on 21 January 1982 PNDC appointed secretaries to head most ministries

Government leader: former Flight Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, Chairman of PNDC

Suffrage: universal over 21

Elections: elections held in June 1979 for parliament and president; presidential runoff election held in July

Political parties and leaders: political parties outlawed after 31 December 81 coup

Communists: a small number of Communists and sympathizers

Member of: AFDB, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $10.1 billion (1979 est.) at current prices, about $849 per capita; real growth rate less than 1% (1970-77)

Agriculture: main crop—cocoa; other crops include root crops, corn, sorghum and millet, peanuts; not self-sufficient, but can become so

Fishing: catch 229,904 metric tons (1979)

Major industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, fishing, aluminum

Electric power: 1,157,000 kW capacity (1980); 4.5 billion kWh produced (1980), 365 kWh per capita

Exports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1980); cocoa (about 70%), wood, gold, diamonds, manganese, bauxite, and aluminum (aluminum regularly excluded from balance-of-payments data)

Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1980); textiles and other manufactured goods, food, fuels, transport equipment Major trade partners: UK, EC, and US

Budget: (1980) revenue $1.4 billion est., current expenditure $1.4 billion est., capital expenditure $327 million est.

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Cedi=US$0.3636 (1979 and 1980)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; diesel locomotives gradually replacing steam engines

Highways: 32,200 km total; 6,084 km concrete or bituminous surface, 26,166 km gravel or laterite

Inland waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers provide 235 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; additional routes navigable seasonally by small craft; Lake Volta reservoir provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

Pipelines: refined products, 3 km

Ports: 2 major (Tema, Takoradi), 1 naval base (Sekondi)

Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 14 total, 12 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,752,000; 1,532,000 fit for military service; 134,000 reach military age (18) annually