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INDONESIAEdit

 
(See reference map IX)

LANDEdit

1,906,240 km2; 12% small holdings and estates, 64% forests, 24% inland water, waste, urban, and other

Land boundaries: 2,736 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): under an archipelago theory, claim is 12 nm, measured seaward from straight baselines connecting the outermost islands (fishing 200 nm, economic zone 200 nm)

Coastline: 54,716 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 157,595,000, including East Timor and West Irian Jaya (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.1%

Nationality: noun—Indonesian(s); adjective—Indonesian

Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising 45% Javanese, 14% Sundanese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% coastal Malays, 26% other

Religion: 90% Muslim, 5% Christian, 3% Hindu, 2% other

Language: Indonesian (modified form of Malay) official; English and Dutch leading foreign languages

Literacy: 60% (est.); 72% in 6-16 age group

Labor force: 60 million; 64% agriculture, 12% trade, 7% industry, 17% other (1980 est.)

Organized labor: 10% of labor force

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Republic of Indonesia

Type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Political subdivisions: 27 first-level administrative subdivisions or provinces, which are further subdivided into 282 second-level areas

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; constitution of 1945 is legal basis of government; legal education at University of Indonesia, Jakarta; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August

Branches: executive headed by President who is chief of state and head of Cabinet; Cabinet selected by President; unicameral legislature (DPR, or parliament), of 460 members (96 appointed, 364 elected); second and larger body (MPR, or congress) of 920 members includes the legislature and 460 other members (chosen by several processes, but not directly elected) elects President and Vice President, and theoretically determines national policy; judicial, Supreme Court is highest court

Government leader: President, Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (reelected by Congress, March 1978)

Suffrage: universal over age 17 and married persons regardless of age

Political parties and leaders: Golkar (quasi-official "party" based on functional groups), Amir Moertono; Indonesia Democracy Party (federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), Sunawar Sukowati; Unity Development Party (federation of former Islamic parties), John Naro

Voting strength (1977 election): Golkar 232 seats, Indonesia Democracy 29, Unity Development 99

Communists: Communist Party (PK1) was officially banned in March 1966; current strength est. at 1,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership has been estimated at 1.5 million

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, CIPEC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, 1SCON, ISO, ITC, ITU, NAM, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $67 billion (1980), about $450 per capita; real average annual growth, (1973-78) 6.8%, (1980) 9.6%

Agriculture: subsistence food production, and smallholder and plantation production for export; main crops—rice, rubber, copra, other tropical products; food shortages—rice, wheat

Fishing: catch 1.6 million tons (1978); exports $181 million (1980), imports $8 million (1977)

Major industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer production, timber

Electric power: 4,754,000 kW capacity (1980); 14.606 billion kWh produced (1980), 96 kWh per capita

Exports: $22.4 billion (f.o.b., FY80/81); petroleum and LNG ($16.7 billion; 1.2 million b/d), timber, rubber, coffee, tin, palm oil, tea, copper

Imports: $15.6 billion (FY80/81); rice, wheat, textiles, chemicals, iron and steel products, machinery, transport equipment, consumer durables

Major trade partners: (1980) exports—49% Japan, 20% US, 11% Singapore; imports— 31% Japan, 13% US, 9% Saudi Arabia, 6% West Germany

Budget: (1980-81) expenditures, $16.8 billion; receipts, $14.4 billion domestic, $2.4 billion foreign

Monetary conversion rate: 642 rupiah=US$1 (December 1981)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter gauge, 78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; government owned

Highways: 93,063 km total; 26,583 km paved, 41,521 km gravel or crushed stone, 24,959 km improved or unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 21,579 km; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Borneo 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, and Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Ports: 15 ocean ports

Civil air: approximately 120 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 403 total, 392 usable; 86 with permanent-surface runways; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 70 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net; domestic service fair, international service good; radiobroadcast coverage good; 392,563 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 251 AM, 1 FM, and 14 TV stations; 1 international ground satellite station (1 Indian Ocean antenna and 1 Pacific Ocean antenna), and a domestic satellite communications system

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 38,679,000; 22,868,000 fit for military service; about 1,798,000 reach military age (18) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 March 1982, $2.76 billion; about 12.4% of central government budget