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World Factbook (1982) Mali.jpg
(See reference map VII)


1,204,350 km2; only about a fourth of area arable, forests negligible, rest sparse pasture or desert

Land boundaries: 7,459 km


Population: 7,015,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.7%

Nationality: noun—Malian(s); adjective—Malian

Ethnic divisions: 99% native African including tribes of both Berber and Negro descent

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% animist, 1% Christian

Language: French official; several African languages, of which Mande group most widespread

Literacy: under 5%

Labor force: 2.8 million

Organized labor: National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM) is umbrella organization over 13 national unions


Official name: Republic of Mali

Type: republic; military regime in power since November 1968; fulfilled its plans in June 1979 for a phased return to civilian rule

Capital: Bamako

Political subdivisions: 7 administrative regions; 42 administrative districts (cercles), arrondissements, villages; all subordinate to central government

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; constitution adopted 1974, came into full effect in 1979; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of State; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September

Branches: executive authority exercised by Military Committee of National Liberation (MCNL) composed of 11 army officers; under MCNL functional Cabinet composed of civilians and army officers; judiciary

Government leaders: Brig. Gen, Moussa TRAORE, President of MCNL, Chief of State, and head of government

Suffrage: universal over age 21

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Union of Malian People (UDPM), is the sole political party under civilian leadership

Elections: constitutional elections took place June 1979

Communists: a few Communists and some sympathizers

Member of: AFDB, APC, CEAO, EGA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISCON, ITU, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO


GDP: $1.15 billion (1980), $163 per capita; annual real growth rate 5.7% (1980)

Agriculture: main crops—millet, sorghum, rice, corn, peanuts; cash crops—peanuts, cotton, and livestock

Fishing: catch 95,000 tons (1960)

Major industries: small local consumer goods and processing

Electric power: 50,000 kW capacity (1980); 115 million kWh produced (1980), 17 kWh per capita

Exports: $175.4 million (f.o.b, 1980); livestock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, and skins

Imports: $300.9 million (f.o.b., 1980); textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, and sugar

Major trade partners: mostly with franc zone and Western Europe; also with USSR, China

Budget: (1980) revenues $181.4 million, current expenditures $187.5 million

Monetary conversion rate: 422.6 Mali francs=US$1 (1980)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 642 km meter gauge (1.00 m)

Highways: approximately 15,700 km total; 1,670 km bituminous, 3,670 km gravel and improved earth, 10,360 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 44 total, 39 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic system poor and provides only minimal service; radio-relay, wire, and radiocommunications stations in use; expansion of radio relay in progress; 8,000 telephones; 2 AM, no FM, and no TV stations; 2 antennas for Atlantic and Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellites


Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,521,000; 767,000 fit for military service; no conscription