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World Factbook (1982) Morocco.jpg
(See reference map VII)


409,200 km2; about 32% arable and grazing land, forest and esparto, 51% desert, waste, and urban

Land boundaries: 1,996 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; exclusive economic zone 200 nm)

Coastline: 1,835 km


Population: 22,230,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.9%

Nationality: noun—Moroccan(s); adjective—Moroccan

Ethnic divisions: 99.1% Arab-Berber, 0.2% Jewish, 0.7% non-Moroccan

Religion: 98.7% Muslim, 1.1% Christian, 0.2% Jewish

Language: Arabic (official); several Berber dialects; French is language of much business, government, diplomacy, and postprimary education

Literacy: 28%

Labor force: 5.4 million (1980 est.); 50% agriculture, 15% industry, 26% services, 9% other; at least 20% of urban labor unemployed

Organized labor: about 5% of the labor force, mainly in two unions—the Union of Moroccan Workers (UMT) and the Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT)


Official name: Kingdom of Morocco

Type: constitutional monarchy (constitution adopted 1972)

Capital: Rabat

Political subdivisions: 39 provinces (including 4 in Western Sahara) and 2 prefectures (Rabat-Sale and Casablanca, which consists of 5 divisions)

NOTE: Morocco acquired administrative control in 1976 over the northern two-thirds of the former Spanish Sahara under an agreement with Mauritania, but the legal question of sovereignty over the area has yet to be determined. Spain's role as coadministrator of the disputed territory ended in February 1976. Morocco moved to occupy and assert administrative control over the former Mauritanian-claimed (southern) sector of Western Sahara in August 1979, thereby establishing a fourth additional province in the Sahara.

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court; modern legal education at branches of Mohamed V University in Rabat and Casablanca and Karaouine University in Fes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 November

Branches: constitution provides for Prime Minister and ministers named by and responsible to King; King has paramount executive powers; unicameral legislature two-thirds directly elected, one-third indirectly; judiciary independent of other branches

Government leaders: King HASSAN II; Prime Minister Maati BOUABID

Suffrage: universal over age 20

Elections: local elections held 12 November 1976; provincial elections held 25 January 1977; elections for new National Assembly provided for in Constitution adopted 15 March 1972 were held June 1977

Political parties and leaders: Istiqlal Party, M'Hamed Boucetta; Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), Abderrahim Bouabid; Popular Movement (MP), Mahjoubi Aherdan; Constitutional and Democratic Popular Movement (MPCD), Dr. Abdelkrim Khatib; National Union of Popular Forces (UNFP), Abdallah Ibrahim and Mahjoub Ben Seddik; National Assembly of Independents (RNI) formed in October 1978 is progovernment grouping of previously unaffiliated deputies in parliament, Ahmed Osman; Independent Democrats (DI), Mohamed Arsalan Jadidi, a splinter group from the RNI formed July 1981; Democratic Constitutional Party (PDC), Mohamed Hassan Ouazzani; Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS), legalized in August 1974, is front for Moroccan CommunistParty (MCP), which was proscribed in 1959, Ali Yata

Voting strength: progovernment independents hold absolute majority in Chamber of Representatives; with palace-oriented Popular Movement deputies, the King controls over two-thirds of the seats

Communists: 300 est.

Member of: AFDB, Arab League, EC (association until 1974), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, IPU, ISCON, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


GNP: $16.1 billion (1981 est.), about $740 per capita; average annual real growth 6-7% during 1973-77, 1.5% in 1981, 3-4% during 1978-80

Agriculture: cereal farming and livestock raising predominate; main products—wheat, barley, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, olives; some fishing

Fishing: catch 280,000 metric tons (1979); exports $85.5 million (1981)

Major sectors: mining and mineral processing (phosphates, smaller quantities of iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and other minerals), food processing, textiles, construction and tourism

Electric power: 1,401,000 kW capacity (1980); 5.503 billion kWh produced (1980), 259 kWh per capita

Exports: $2.50 billion (f.o.b., 1981 est.); 46% phosphates, 54% other

Imports: $4.40 billion (f.o.b., 1981 est.); 18% capital goods, 24% foodstuffs, 29% petroleum products

Major trade partners: France, West Germany, Italy

Budget: (1981 est.) revenue $5.0 billion, expenditure $5.5 billion, development expenditure $2.0 billion

Monetary conversion rate: 5.1 dirhams=US$1 average rate in 1981; 5.3 dirhams=US$1 in November 1981

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 1,756 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 161 km double track; 708 km electrified

Highways: 55,970 km total; 24,700 km bituminous treated, 4,000 km gravel, crushed stone, and improved earth, 27,270 km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 362 km crude oil; 491 km (abandoned) refined products; 241 km natural gas

Ports: 8 major (including Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla), 10 minor

Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in

Airfields: 81 total, 76 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m, 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 29 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good system composed of wire lines, cables, and radio-relay links; principal centers Casablanca and Rabat, secondary centers Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier and Tetouan; 210,000 telephones (1.1 per 100 popl.); 25 AM, 7 FM, and 27 TV stations; 5 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station


Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,780,000; 2,950,000 fit for military service; about 248,000 reach military age (18) annually; limited conscription