Open main menu

NEW ZEALANDEdit

 
(See reference map X)

LANDEdit

268,276 km2; 3% cultivated, 50% pasture, 10% parks and reserves, 1% urban, 16% forested, and 20% waste, water, or other; 4 principal islands, 2 minor inhabited islands, several minor uninhabited islands

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (economic including fishing 200 nm)

Coastline: about 15,134 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 3,120,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.1%

Nationality: noun—New Zealander(s); adjective—New Zealand

Ethnic divisions: 87% European, 9% Maori, 2% Pacific Islanders, 2% other

Religion: 81% Christian, 1% Hindu, Confucian, and other, 18% none or unspecified

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 1,316,000 (1979); 13% agriculture, 33% manufacturing, mining, and construction, 9% transportation and communications, 24% commerce and finance, 21% administrative and professional; unemployment 4.3% (December 1978)

Organized labor: 46% of labor force

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: New Zealand

Type: independent state within Commonwealth, recognizing Elizabeth II as head of state

Capital: Wellington

Political subdivisions: 239 territorial units (boroughs, counties, town and district councils); 657 special-purpose bodies

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; constitution consists of various documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; legal education at Victoria, Auckland, Canterbury, and Otago Universities; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February

Branches: unicameral legislature (House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament); Cabinet responsible to Parliament; three-level court system (magistrates, courts, Supreme Court, and Court of Appeal)

Government leader: Prime Minister Robert D. MULDOON

Suffrage: universal age 18 and over

Elections: held at three-year intervals or sooner if parliament is dissolved by Prime Minister; last election November 1981

Political parties and leaders: National Party (Government), Robert D. Muldoon; Labor Party (Opposition), Wallace E. Rowling; Social Credit Political League, Bruce Beetham; Communist Party of New Zealand (Marxist-Leninist; pro-Albania), Richard C. Wolfe; Socialist Unity Party (pro-Soviet), G. H. (Bill) Andersen

Voting strength (1981 election): National Party 47 seats, Labor Party 43 seats, Social Credit 2 seats

Communists: CPNZ about 300, SUP about 100

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth of Nations, DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: NZ$13.5 billion (1978), NZ$4,350 per capita; real average annual growth (1976-78), 1.4%

Agriculture: fodder and silage crops about one-half of area planted in field crops; main products—wool, meat, dairy products; New Zealand is food surplus country; caloric intake, 3,500 calories per day per capita (1964)

Fishing: exports 26,000 metric tons valued at $50,3 million (1977); domestic 84,700 metric tons (in 1978); catch by foreign fishing vessels operating within 200-mile exclusive economic zone (established 1978), 384,000 metric tons

Major industries: food processing, textile production, machinery, transport equipment; wood and paper products

Electric power: 6,583,000 kW capacity (1980); 28.920 billion kWh produced (1980), 9.175 kWh per capita

Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1979); principal products (trade year 1978/79)—27% meat, 13% dairy products, 17% wool

Imports: $4.5 billion (c.i.f., 1979); principal products (trade year 1978/79)—30% machinery, 20% manufactured goods, 13% minerals, 12% chemicals

Major trade partners: (trade year 1978/79) exports—14% UK, 15% Japan, 12% Australia, 16% US; imports—21% Australia, 14% UK, 13% Japan, 13% US

Aid: bilateral economic aid commitments (1970-79), $400 million

Budget: (1980/81) expenditures, NZ$8,721 million; receipts, NZ$7,154 million; deficit NZ$1,567

Monetary conversion rate: NZ$1=US$0.97 (March 1980)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

NOTE: trade data are for year ending 30 June; trade year and fiscal year do not correspond

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 4,716 km total (1980); all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double track; 113 km electrified; over 99% government owned

Highways: 92,617 km total (1977); 46,716 km paved, 45,901 km gravel or crushed stone

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: natural gas, 785 km

Ports: 3 major

Civil air: about 40 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 193 total, 185 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 50 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international and domestic systems; 1.7 million telephones (55 per 100 popl.); 64 AM stations, no FM, 14 TV stations, and 129 repeaters; submarine cables extend to Australia and Fiji Islands; 1 ground satellite station

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 814,000; 587,000 fit for military service; 30,000 reach military age (20) annually about

Military budget: est. for fiscal year ending 31 March 1982, $457.0 million; about 4.9% of central government budget