The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Peru.jpg
(See reference map IV)


1,284,640 km2 (other estimates range as low as 1,248,380 km2); 2% cropland, 14% meadows and pastures, 55% forested, 29% urban, waste, other

Land boundaries: 6,131 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm

Coastline: 2,414 km


Population: 18,631,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.8%

Nationality: noun—Peruvian(s); adjective—Peruvian

Ethnic divisions: 46% Indian; 38% mestizo (white-Indian); 15% white; 1% Negro, Japanese, Chinese

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic

Language: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara

Literacy: 45% to 50%

Labor force: 5.3 million (1978); 42% agriculture, 20% services, 13% industry, 14% trade, 4% construction, 4% transportation, 1% mining, 2% other

Organized labor: 25% of labor force (1978)


Official name: Republic of Peru

Type: republic; under civilian government since July 1980

Capital: Lima

Political subdivisions: 23 departments with limited autonomy plus constitutional Province of Callao

Legal system: based on civil law system; 1979 constitution reestablished civilian government with a popularly elected president and bicameral legislature; legal education at the National Universities in Lima, Trujillo, Arequipa, and Cuzco; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July

Branches: executive, judicial, legislative

Government leader: President Fernando BELAUNDE Terry

Suffrage: obligatory for literate citizens (defined as adult men and women and married persons over age 18) until age 60

Elections: elections for a civilian government were held on 18 May 1980, with the new government installed on 28 July 1980

Political parties and leaders: Popular Action Party (AP), Fernando Belaúnde Terry; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Fernando León de Vivero; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis Bedoya Reyes; United Left (IU), Alfonso Barrantes

Voting strength (1980 presidential election): 45% AP, 27% APRA, 10% PPC

Communists: pro-Soviet (PCP/S) 2,000; pro-Chinese (2 factions) 1,200

Member of: AIOEC, ASSIMER, CIPEC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, LAFTA and Andean Pact, NAM, OAS, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO


GNP: $16.8 billion (1980 est.), $944 per capita; 66% private consumption, 10% public consumption, 14% gross investment; 10% net foreign balance (1979); real growth rate (1981), 3%

Agriculture: main crops—wheat, potatoes, beans, rice, barley, coffee, cotton, sugarcane; imports—wheat, meat, lard and oils, rice, corn; caloric intake, 2,274 calories per day per capita (1977)

Fishing: catch 3.431 million metric tons (1979 prelim.); exports (meal, oil, other products) $331 million (1979)

Major industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles and clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Electric power: 3,000,000 kW capacity (1981); 13.2 billion kWh produced (1981), 725 kWh per capita

Exports: $3.3 million (f.o.b., 1981 est.); copper, fish and fish products, copper, silver, iron, cotton, sugar, lead, zinc, petroleum, coffee

Imports: $3.8 million (f.o.b., 1981 est.); foodstuffs, machinery, transport equipment, iron and steel semimanufactures, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Major trade partners: exports—32% US, 8% Latin America, 15% EC, 13% Japan (1979); imports—37% US, 34% EC, 11% Latin America, 7% Japan (1979)

Budget: 1979—$2.8 billion in revenues, $3.0 billion in expenditures

Monetary conversion rate: 88.65 soles=US$1 (1980); floats against US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 2,192 km total; 1,775 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 46 km 0.60-meter gauge, 371 km 0.914-meter gauge

Highways: 56,645 km total; 6,030 km paved, 11,865 km gravel, 14,610 km improved earth, 24,140 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon River system and 208 km Lake Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids, 64 km

Ports: 7 major, 20 minor

Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 301 total, 291 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m, 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 47 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fairly adequate for most requirements; new nationwide radio-relay system; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station, 7 domestic antennas; 457,000 telephones (2.7 per 100 popl.); 200 AM, 7 FM, and 63 TV stations


Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,363,000; 2,955,000 fit for military service; 173,000 reach military age (20) annually