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POLANDEdit

World Factbook (1982) Poland.jpg
(See reference map V)

LANDEdit

312,354 km2; 49% arable, 14% other agricultural, 27% forested, 10% other

Land boundaries: 3,090 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (6 nm contiguous zone claimed in addition to the territorial sea; fishing 12 nm, lateral limits based on geographical coordinates)

Coastline: 491 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 36,229,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.9%

Nationality: noun—Pole(s); adjective—Polish

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% Polish, 0.6% Ukrainians, 0.5% Belorussians, less than 0.05% Jews, 0.2% other

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic (about 75% practicing), 5% Uniate, Greek Orthodox, Protestant, and other

Language: Polish, no significant dialects

Literacy: about 98%

Labor force: 19.3 million; 27% agriculture, 32% industry, 41% other nonagricultural (1980)

Organized labor: Solidarity Union—new independent trade union formed as result of labor disturbances in Gdańsk (fall 1980)—claims 10 million members, suspended in December 1981

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Polish People's Republic

Type: Communist state, temporarily under martial law

Capital: Warsaw

Political subdivisions: 49 provinces

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and Communist legal theory; constitution adopted 1952; court system parallels administrative divisions with Supreme Court, composed of 104 justices, at apex; no judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at seven law schools; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 22 July

Branches: legislative, executive, judicial system dominated by parallel Communist party apparatus

Government leaders: Wojciech JARUZELSKI, Chairman of Council of Ministers (Premier); Henryk Jabłloński, Chairman of Council of State (President)

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18

Elections: parliamentary and local government every four years

Dominant political party and leader: Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR; Communist), Wojciech Jaruzelski, First Secretary

Voting strength (1975 election): 99% voted for Communist-approved single slate

Communists: 3,091,900 party members (1980)

Other political or pressure groups: National Unity Front (FJN), including United Peasant Party (ZSL), Democratic Party (SD), progovernment pseudo-Catholic Pax Association and Christian Social Association, Catholic independent Znak group; powerful Roman Catholic Church

Member of: CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, ICES, IHO, Indochina Truce Commission, ILO, IMCO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, Korea Truce Commission, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, all specialized agencies except IMF and IBRD, Warsaw Pact, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $165.0 billion in 1980 (1980 dollars), $4,638 per capita; 1980 growth rate, -2.6%

Agriculture: self-sufficient for minimum requirements; main crops—grain, sugar beets, oilseed, potatoes, exporter of livestock products and sugar; importer of grains; 3,200 calories per day per capita (1970)

Fishing: catch 791,000 metric tons (1980)

Major industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals, shipbuilding, and food processing

Crude steel: 19.5 million metric tons produced (1980), about 546 kg. per capita

Electric power: 26,240,000 kW capacity (1981); 113.0 million kWh produced (1981), 3,129 kWh per capita

Exports: $16,975 million (f.o.b., 1980); 48% machinery and equipment, 35% fuels, raw materials, and semimanufactures, 8% agricultural and food products, 9% light industrial products (1980)

Imports: $19,064 million (f.o.b., 1980); 35% machinery and equipment; 46% fuels, raw materials, and semimanufactures; 15% agricultural and food products; 4% light industrial products (1980)

Major trade partners: $36,039 million (1979); 56% with Communist countries, 44% with West

Monetary conversion rate: 80.0 złlotys=US$1 (January 1982)

Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data are reported for calendar years except for caloric intake which is reported for the consumption year, 1 July-30 June

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 27,236 km total; 24,380 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 2,856 km other gauge; 7,474 km double track; 6,868 km electrified; government owned (1980)

Highways: 305,863 km total; 65,000 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 98,000 km crushed stone, gravel; 142,863 km earth (1977)

Inland waterways: 4,035 km navigable rivers and canals (1979)

Pipelines: 3,540 km for natural gas; 1,515 km for crude oil; 322 km for refined products

Freight carried: rail—481.8 million metric tons (1980), 135.3 billion metric ton/km (1979); highway—2,146 million metric tons, 43.9 billion metric ton/km (1979); waterway—23.2 million metric tons, 2.0 billion metric ton/km (1979)

Ports: 4 major (Gdańsk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Świnoujście), 12 minor (1979); principal inland waterway ports are Gliwice, Wrocłlaw, and Warsaw (1979)

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,242,000; 7,388,000 fit for military service; 256,000 reach military age (19) annually

Military budget: announced for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, 75.2 billion złlotys; 4.9% of total budget