The World Factbook (1982)/Portugal

The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Portugal.jpg
(See reference map V and VII)


Metropolitan Portugal: 94,276 km2, including the Azores and Madeira Islands; 48% arable, 6% meadow and pasture, 31% forested, 15% waste and urban, inland water, and other

Land boundaries: 1,207 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone

Coastline: 860 km; excludes Azores (708 km) and Madeira (225 km)


Population: 10,056,000 (July 1982), including the Azores and Madeira Islands, average annual growth rate 0.6%

Nationality: noun—Portuguese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Portuguese

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 1% Protestant sects, 2% other

Language: Portuguese

Literacy: 70%

Labor force: (1979) 4.1 million; 31% agriculture, 35% industry, 34% services; unemployment is now more than 13%

Organized labor: the Communist-dominated General Confederation of Portuguese Workers—National Intersindical (CGTP-IN) claims to represent 77% of the unionized labor force; their main competition comes from the General Workers Union (UGT) organized by the Socialists and Social Democrats


Official name: Portuguese Republic

Type: republic, first government under new constitution formed July 1976

Capital: Lisbon

Political subdivisions: 18 districts in mainland Portugal; Portugal's two autonomous regions, the Azores and Madeira Islands, have 4 districts (3 of them in the Azores), Macao, Portugal's remaining overseas territory, was granted broad executive and legislative autonomy in February 1976; Portugal has not officially recognized the unilateral annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia

Legal system: civil law system; constitution adopted April 1976 to be amended by Assembly elected in October 1980; until then, legislative assembly acts to be reviewed for constitutionality by Revolutionary Council, with the advice of a Constitutional Commission of legal experts; laws judged unconstitutional by Council must be vetoed by President; Assembly can override veto by two-thirds majority; legal education at Universities of Lisbon and Coimbra; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: 25 April

Branches: executive with President and Prime Minister, with 19-member Revolutionary Council, made up of military officers, responsible for safeguarding the constitution; popularly elected Assembly of the Republic; independent judiciary

Government leaders: President Gen. António dos Santos Ramalho EANES; Prime Minister Francisco Pinto BALSEMÃO

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: national elections for Assembly of the Republic normally to be held every four years; new Assembly, with constituent powers, elected October 1980; national election for President to be held every five years, second constitutional president elected in December 1980; local elections to be held every three years, next elections in December 1982

Political parties and leaders: the Portuguese Socialist Party (PS) is led by Mário Soares; the Social Democratic Party (PSD), formerly the Popular Democratic Party (PPD), by Francisco Pinto Balsemão; the Social Democratic Center (CDS) by Diogo Freitas do Amaral; and the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) by Alvaro Cunhal

Voting strength: (1980 parliamentary election) the Democratic Alliance (AD)—consisting primarily of the PSD and the CDS—polled over 47.0% of the vote; the Socialists—in a coalition with two smaller parties—polled 28.0% of the vote; and the Communists—in a front coalition called the United Peoples Alliance (APU)—16.9%, (1979 local elections) AD 47%, PS 27%, APU2I%

Communists: Portuguese Communist Party claims membership of 164,713 (April 1979)

Member of: Council of Europe, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO (restricted membership), ICES, ICO, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG


GNP: $22.2 billion (1980); 16% government consumption, 76% private consumption; 21% gross fixed capital formation; 4% change in stocks; —15% net exports; —3% net factor income from abroad; real growth rate 5.5% (1980)

Agriculture: generally underdeveloped; main crops—grains, potatoes, olives, grapes for wine; deficit foods—sugar, grain, meat, fish, oilseed

Fishing: landed 211,824 metric tons (1979)

Major industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine

Crude steel: 661,000 tons produced (1979), 70 kg per capita

Electric power: 4,762,700 kW capacity (1981); 19.06 billion kWh produced (1981), 3,129 kWh per capita

Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1980); principal items—cotton textiles, cork and cork products, canned fish, wine, timber and timber products, resin

Imports: $9.4 billion (c.i.f., 1980); principal items—petroleum, cotton, industrial machinery, iron and steel, chemicals

Major trade partners: 44% EC, 9% US, 21% other developed, 3% Communist, 23% LDCs

Aid: economic authorizations—US including Ex-Im, $1.2 billion (FY70-80); other Western (ODA and OOF), $396 million (1977-79); military authorizations—US, $137 million (FY70-80)

Budget: (1980) expenditures, $7.7 billion; revenues, $5.0 billion; deficit, $2.7 billion

Monetary conversion rate: 53.04 escudos=US$1 (1980 average)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 3,602 km total: state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP) operates 2,830 km 1.665-meter gauge (432 km electrified and 426 km double track), 760 km meter gauge (1.000 m); 12 km (1.435-meter gauge) electrified, double, nongovernment owned

Highways: 57,499 km total; 49,537 km paved (bituminous, gravel, and crushed stone), including 140 km of limited-access divided highway; 7,962 km improved earth; plus an additional 4,100 km of unimproved earth roads (motorable tracks)

Inland waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 297 metric ton cargo capacity

Pipelines: crude oil, 11 km

Ports: 7 major, 34 minor

Civil air: 36 major transport aircraft, including 5 leased in and 2 leased out

Airfields (including Azores and Madeira Islands): 61 total, 60 usable; 31 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m, 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities are generally adequate; 1.31 million telephones (13.2 per 100 popl.); 39 AM, 52 FM, and 42 TV stations; 4 submarine coaxial cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite stations (on mainland and Azores)


Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,372,000; 1,941,000 fit for military service; 91,000 reach military age (20) annually

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1982, $761.5 million; about 11% of proposed central government budget