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(See reference map V and VII)


505,050 km², including Canary (7,511 km²) and Balearic Islands (5,025 km²); 41% arable and land under permanent crops, 27% meadow and pasture, 22% forest, 10% urban or other

Land boundaries: 1,899 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; 200 nm exclusive economic zone)

Coastline: 4,964 km (includes Balearic Islands, 677 km, and Canary Islands, 1,158 km)


Population: 37,940,000 (July 1982), including the Balearic and Canary Islands and Ceuta and Melilla (two towns on the Moroccan coast); average annual growth rate 0.7%

Nationality: noun—Spaniard(s); adjective—Spanish

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religion: 99% Roman Catholic, 1% other sects

Language: Castilian Spanish spoken by great majority; but 17% speak Catalan, 7% Galician, and 2% Basque

Literacy: about 97%

Labor force (1979): 13.2 million; 19% agriculture, 27% industry, 10% construction, 41% services; unemployment now estimated at nearly 12% of labor force

Organized labor: labor unions legalized April 1977 experiencing surge in membership; probably represent 30-35% of the labor force (1979)


Official name: Spanish State

Type: parliamentary monarchy defined by new constitution of December 1978, that completed transition from authoritarian regime of the late Generalissimo Franco and confirmed Juan Carlos I as monarch, but without the exceptional powers inherited from Franco on being proclaimed King 22 November 1975

Capital: Madrid

Political subdivisions: metropolitan Spain, including the Canaries and Balearics, divided into 50 provinces which are to be allowed to form autonomous regions—probably numbering 13—assuming numerous powers previously exercised by the central government; also five places of sovereignty (presidios) on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco; transferred administration of Spanish Sahara to Morocco and Mauritania on 26 February 1976

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; new constitution provides for rule of law, established jury system as well as independent constitutional court to rule on unconstitutionality of laws and to serve as court of last resort in protecting liberties and rights granted in constitution; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: 24 June

Branches: executive, with King's acts subject to counter-signature, Prime Minister (Presidente) and his ministers responsible to lower house; legislative with bicameral Cortes consisting of more powerful Congress of Deputies (350 members) and Senate (208 members) with possible addition of one to six members from each new autonomous region; judicial, independent

Government leaders: King JUAN CARLOS I (Chief of State and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces); Prime Minister (Presidente) Leopoldo CALVO SOTELO y Bustelo

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: parliamentary election 1 March 1979 for four-year term; local elections for municipal councils on 3 April 1979

Political parties and leaders: principal national parties in the 1979 elections from right to left—the conservative Democratic Coalition (CD), major rightist group, led by former ministers Manuel Fraga Iribame and José Maria de Areilza; the Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), the center-right party of Prime Minister Calvo Sotelo; the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), the major party of the democratic left, led by Secretary General Felipe González; and the Spanish Communist Party (PCE), led by Santiago Carrillo, which espouses Eurocommunism; chief regional parties—Convergence and Unity (CiU) of Jordi Pujol in Catalonia; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) of Carlos Garaicoechea; Basque radical coalitions Popular Unity (HB) and Basque Left (EE); and Andalusia Socialist Party (PSA) of Alejandro Rojas Marcos

Voting strength: (1979 parliamentary election in lower house) UCD 34.3%, and 168 seats (8 seats short of a majority); PSOE 29.9%, 121 seats; PCE 10.4%, 23 seats; CD 5.8%, 9 seats; CiU 2.6%, 8 seats; PNV 1.5%, 7 seats; PSA 1.7%, 5 seats; HB 0.9%, 3 seats; and 6 others, 1 seat each

Communists: PCE claims to have over 160,000 members, but this figure is difficult to verify; the PCE's greatest strength is in labor where it dominates the country's strongest trade union, the Workers Commissions, which now claims a membership of around 1 million.

Other political or pressure groups: on the extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA), the First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO), and the Anti-Fascist and Patriotic Revolutionary Front (FRAP) use terrorism to oppose the government; on the extreme right, the Guerrillas of Christ the King and the Anticommunist Apostolic Alliance (AAA) carry out vigilante attacks on ETA members and other leftists; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the Communist-dominated Workers Commissions (CCOO); the Socialist General Union of Workers (UGT), and the independent Workers Syndical Union (USO); the Catholic Church; business and landowning interests; Opus Dei; Catholic Action; university students

Member of: Andean Pact (observer), ASSIMER, ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO; applied for full membership in the EC 28 July 1977; joined Council of Europe 18 October 1977


GNP: $191.0 billion (1980); 70% private consumption, 11% government consumption, 21% gross fixed capital investment; -3% net exports; real growth rate 1.2% (1980)

Agriculture: main crops—grains, vegetables, fruits; virtually self-sufficient in good crop years

Fishing: landed 769,487 million metric tons (1980)

Major industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles

Crude steel: 12.6 million metric tons produced (1980), 310 kg per capita

Electric power: 35,503,400 kW capacity (1981); 142.723 billion kWh produced (1981), 3,780 kWh per capita

Exports: $20.7 billion (f.o.b., 1980); principal items—iron and steel products, machinery, automobiles, fruits and vegetables, textiles, footwear

Imports: $34.1 billion (c.i.f., 1980); principal items—fuels (25-30%), machinery, chemicals, iron and steel, vegetables, automobiles

Major trade partners: (1980) 38% EC, 10% US, 10% other developed, 3% Communist, 39% LDCs

Aid: economic commitments—US, $1.7 billion including Ex-Im (FY70-80); other Western bilateral (ODA and OOF), $545.0 million (1970-79); military authorizations—US, $939.0 million (FY70-80)

Budget: (1980 central government) revenues $25 billion, expenditures $29 billion, deficit $4 billion

Monetary conversion rate: 79.25 pesetas=US$1 (1980 average)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 16,272 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE) operates 13,533 km 1.668-meter gauge, 4,921 km electrified, and 2,140 km double track; FEVE (government-owned narrow-gauge railways) operates 1,821 km, of predominantly meter gauge (1.000 m), and 441 km electrified; privately owned railways operate 918 km, of predominantly meter gauge (1.000 m), 512 km electrified and 56 km double track

Highways: 149,352 km total; 82,070 km national—2,433 km limited-access divided highway, 63,042 km bituminous treated, 17,038 km intermediate bituminous, concrete, or stone block; the remaining 67,282 km are provincial or local roads (bituminous treated, intermediate bituminous, or stone block)

Inland waterways: 1,045 km; of minor importance as transport arteries and contribute little to economy

Pipelines: 265 km crude oil; 1,293 km refined products; 1,000 km natural gas

Ports: 23 major, 150 minor

Civil air: 166 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in and 3 leased out

Airfields (including Balearic and Canary Islands): 120 total, 114 usable; 59 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m, 22 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 32 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: generally adequate, modern facilities; 11.1 million telephones (29.4 per 100 popl.); 180 AM, 290 FM, and 890 TV stations; 20 coaxial submarine cables; 2 satellite stations with total of 5 antennas


Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,068,000; 7,351,000 fit for military service; 336,000 reach military age (20) annually

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1982, $4,271.8 million; 11.6% of the proposed central government budget