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SWAZILANDEdit

 
(See reference map VII)

LANDEdit

17,364 km2; most of area suitable for crops or pastureland

Land boundaries: 435 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 589,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.8%

Nationality: noun—Swazi(s); adjective—Swazi

Ethnic divisions: 96% African, 3% European, 1% mulatto

Religion: 43% animist, 57% Christian

Language: English and siSwati are official languages; government business conducted in English

Literacy: about 25%

Labor force: 120,000; about 60,000 engaged in subsistence agriculture; 55,000-60,000 wage earners, many only intermittently, with 31% agriculture, 11% government, 11% manufacturing, 12% mining and forestry, 35% other (1968 est.); 18,114 employed in South African mines (1978)

Organized labor: about 15% of wage earners are unionized

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Kingdom of Swaziland

Type: monarchy, under King Sobhuza II; independent member of Commonwealth since September 1968

Capital: Mbabane (administrative)

Political subdivisions: 4 administrative districts

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; legal education at University of Botswana and Swaziland; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 September

Branches: constitution was repealed and Parliament dissolved by King in April 1973; new bicameral Parliament formally opened in January 1979; 80-member electoral college chose 40 members of lower house and 10 members of upper house; additional 10 members for each house chosen by King; executive authority vested in King whose assent is required before parliamentary acts become law; King's authority exercised through Prime Minister and Cabinet who must be members of Parliament; judiciary is part of Ministry of Justice but otherwise independent of executive and legislative branches; cases from subordinate courts can be appealed to the High Court and the Court of Appeal

Government leaders: Head of State, King SOBHUZA II; Prime Minister Prince Mabandla (Fred E.) DLAMINI

Suffrage: universal for adults

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: AFDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

ECONOMYEdit

GDP: approximately $364.4 million (1980), about $700 per capita; annual real growth 3.4% (1973-78)

Agriculture: main crops—maize, cotton, rice, sugar, and citrus fruits

Major industry: mining

Electric power: 75,000 kW capacity (1980); 142 million kWh produced (1980), 251 kWh per capita

Exports: $226.7 million (f.o.b., 1979); sugar, asbestos, wood and forest products, citrus, meat products, cotton, iron ore

Imports: $294.8 million (f.o.b., 1979); motor vehicles, petroleum products, foodstuffs, and clothing

Major trade partners: South Africa, UK, US

Aid: economic commitments—Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF (1970-79), $165.0 million; US (FY70-80), $42.4 million

Budget: 1980/81—revenue $190.0 million, current expenditure $97.1 million, development expenditure $78.2 million

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Lilangeni=US$1.20 (1979)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 292 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 1,230 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil, and 1,113 km improved earth

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in

Airfields: 28 total, 26 usable; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and low capacity radio-relay links; 10,700 telephones (2.0 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 2 FM, and 3 TV stations

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 125,000; 73,000 fit for military service