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The World Factbook (1982)/Sweden


World Factbook (1982) Sweden.jpg
(See reference map V)


448,070 km²; 7% arable, 2% meadows and pastures, 55% forested, 36% other

Land boundaries: 2,196 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm)

Coastline: 3,218 km


Population: 8,331,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.1%

Nationality: noun—Swede(s); adjective—Swedish

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population; small Lappish minority; est. 12% foreign born or first generation immigrants (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks)

Religion: 93.5% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.0% Roman Catholic, 5.5% other

Language: Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak native languages

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 4.2 million; 5.8% agriculture, forestry, fishing; 24.9% mining and manufacturing; 6.8% construction; 13.8% commerce; 6.9% communications; 34.5% services including government; 6.4% banking and business services; 1.9% unemployed (average 1980)

Organized labor: 80% of labor force


Official name: Kingdom of Sweden

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Political subdivisions: 24 counties, 278 municipalities (townships)

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; a new constitution was adopted in 1975 replacing the Acts of 1809, 1866, and 1949; legal education at Universities of Lund, Stockholm, and Uppsala; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: no national holiday; King's birthday, 30 April, celebrated as such by Swedish embassies

Branches: legislative authority rests with unicameral parliament (Riksdag); executive power vested in Cabinet, responsible to parliament; Supreme Court, 6 superior courts, 108 lower courts

Government leaders: Chief of State, King CARL XVI Gustaf; Head of Government, Prime Minister Thorbjörn FÄLLDIN

Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, over age 18; after three years of legal residence immigrants may vote in county and municipal, but not in national elections

Elections: every three years (next in September 1982)

Political parties and leaders: Moderate Coalition (conservative), Ulf Adelsohn; Center, Thorbjörn Fälldin; People's Party (Liberal), Ola Ullsten; Social Democratic, Olof Palme; Left Party-Communist, Lars Werner; Swedish Communist Party, Roland Pettersson; Communist Workers' Party, Rolf Hagel

Voting strength (1979 election): 43.2% Social Democratic, 20.3% Moderate Coalition, 18.1% Center, 10.6% Liberal, 5.6% Communist, 2.1% other

Communists: 17,000; a number of sympathizers as indicated by the 327,079 votes cast for the three largest Communist parties in 1979 elections; an additional 17,274 votes cast for Maoist KPML-R

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, EC (Free Trade Agreement), EFTA, ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, IWC—International Wheat Council, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG


GDP: $121.5 billion, $14,627 per capita (1980); 52.2% private consumption, 20.3% investment, 29.5% government consumption; −1.2% inventory change; −0.7% net exports of goods and services; 1980 growth rate 1.4% in constant prices

Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates with milk and dairy products accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops—grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% self-sufficient in sugar beets; food shortages—oils and fats, tropical products; caloric intake, 2,820 calories per day per capita (1978)

Fishing: catch 230,300 metric tons (1980), exports $65 million, imports $213 million

Major industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Shortages: coal, petroleum, textile fibers, potash, salt

Crude steel: 4.2 million metric tons produced (1980), 505 kg per capita

Electric power: 32,000,000 kW capacity (1980); 93.6 billion kWh produced (1980), 11,250 kWh per capita

Exports: $27,538 million (f.o.b., 1979); machinery, motor vehicles, wood pulp, paper products, iron and steel products, metal ores and scrap, chemicals

Imports: $28,579 million (c.i.f., 1979); machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and petroleum products, textile yarn and fabrics, iron and steel, chemicals, food, and live animals

Major trade partners: (1979) 50% EC, 31% other developed, 6% Communist, 13% LDCs

Aid: donor: economic aid authorized (ODA and OOF), $3.8 billion (1970-79)

Budget: (1980/81) revenues $36.8 billion, expenditures $49.5 billion, deficit $12.7 billion

Monetary conversion rate: 4.2296 kronor=US$1 (1980)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


Railroads: 12,518 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ)—11,179 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 6,959 km electrified and 1,152 km double track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately owned railways—511 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 332 km electrified; 371 km 0.891-meter gauge electrified

Highways: classified network, 97,400 km, of which 51,899 km paved; 20,659 km gravel; 24,842 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Ports: 17 major, and 30 minor

Civil air: 57 major transports, including 2 leased in and 2 leased out

Airfields: 254 total, 249 usable; 133 with permanent-surface runways; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 87 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international facilities; 6.4 million telephones (77.2 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 330 FM, and 700 TV stations; 9 submarine coaxial cables, 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station, another planned


Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,034,000; 1,806,000 fit for military service; 62,000 reach military age (19) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1982, $4.1 billion; about 8% of central government budget