The World Factbook (1982)/Tanzania

The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency
Tanzania

TANZANIAEdit

World Factbook (1982) Tanzania.jpg
(See reference map VII)

LANDEdit

939,652 km2 (including islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, 2,642 km2); 6% inland water, 15% cultivated, 31% grassland, 48% bush forest, woodland; on mainland, 60% arable, of which 40% cultivated on islands of Zanzibar and Pemba

Land boundaries: 3,883 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 50 nm

Coastline: 1,424 km (this includes 113 km Mafia Island; 177 km Pemba Island; and 212 km Zanzibar)

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 19,868,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.2%

Nationality: noun—Tanzanian(s); adjective—Tanzanian

Ethnic divisions: 99% native Africans consisting of well over 100 tribes; 1% Asian, European, and Arab

Religion: Mainland—40% Animist, 30% Christian, 30% Muslim; Zanzibar—almost all Muslim

Language: Swahili official, English primary language of commerce, administration and higher education; Swahili widely understood and generally used for communication between ethnic groups; first language of most people is one of the local languages

Literacy: 61%

Labor force: 456,000 in paid employment, over 90% in agriculture

Organized labor: 15% of labor force

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: United Republic of Tanzania

Type: republic; single party on the mainland and on Zanzibar

Capital: Dar es Salaam

Political subdivisions: 25 regions—20 on mainland, 5 on Zanzibar islands

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, customary law, and German civil law system; permanent constitution adopted 1977, replaced interim constitution adopted 1965; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; legal education at University of Dar es Salaam; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: "Union Day," 26 April

Branches: President Julius Nyerere has full executive authority on the mainland; National Assembly dominated by Nyerere and the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party); National Assembly consists of 233 members, 72 from Zanzibar, of which 10 are directly elected, 65 appointed from the mainland, plus 96 directly elected from the mainland; Vice President Aboud Jumbe (President of Zanzibar) and the Revolutionary Council still run Zanzibar except for certain specifically designated union matters

Government leaders: President Julius K. NYERERE; Prime Minister Cleopa D. MSUYA

Suffrage: universal over 18

Political party and leaders: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party), only political party, dominated by Nyerere and Vice President Jumbe, his top lieutenant; party was formed in 1977 as a result of the earlier union of the Tanganyika African National Union, the sole mainland party, and the Afro-Shirazi Party, the only party in Zanzibar

Voting strength (October 1980 national elections): close to 7 million registered voters; Nyerere received 93% of about 6 million votes cast; general elections scheduled for late 1985

Communists: a few Communist sympathizers, especially on Zanzibar

Member of: AFDB, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, NAM,OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

Mainland:

GDP: $4.6 billion (1979), $271 per capita; real growth rate, 3.7% (1979)

Agriculture: main crops—cotton, coffee, sisal on mainland

Major industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products

Electric power: 275,000 kW capacity (1980); 964 million kWh produced (1980), 51 kWh per capita

Exports: $684 million (f.o.b., 1979); coffee, cotton, sisal, cashew nuts, meat, diamonds, cloves, tobacco, tea

Imports: $1,194 million (f.o.b., 1979); manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs

Major trade partners: exports—China, UK, Hong Kong, India, US; imports—UK, China, West Germany, US, Japan

External public debt and ratio: $1.2 billion, 7.3% (1979)

Budget: (1979/80) revenue $890 million, current expenditures $1,110 million, development expenditures $525 million

Monetary conversion rate: 8.1898 Tanzanian shillings=US$1 (June 1980)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Zanzibar:

GNP: $35 million (1967)

Agriculture: main crops—cloves, coconuts

Industries: agricultural processing

Electric power: see Mainland (above)

Exports: $504 million (f.o.b., 1977); cloves and clove products, coconut products

Imports: $723 million (c.i.f., 1977); mainly foodstuffs and consumer goods

Major trade partners: imports—China, Japan, and mainland Tanzania; exports—Singapore, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Pakistan

Aid: economic aid commitments from Western (non-US) countries (1970-79), ODA and OOF, $100 million; US, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $200 million

Exchange rate: 8.00 Tanzanian shillings=US$1

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge; 2,595 km meter gauge (1.00 m), 6.4 km double track; 962 km Tan-Zam Railroad 1.067-meter gauge in Tanzania

Highways: total 34,227 km, 3,588 km paved; 5,529 km gravel or crushed stone; remainder improved and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 982 km crude oil

Inland waterways: 1,168 km of navigable streams; several thousand km navigable on Lakes Tanganyika, Victoria, and Malawi

Ports: 3 major (Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga)

Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 95 total, 88 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 45 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, radio relay, and troposcatter; 88,700 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 5 AM and no FM stations, 1 TV station; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,220,000; 2,421,000 fit for military service

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1981, $179 million; 9% of central government budget