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The World Factbook (1982)/Tunisia

TUNISIAEdit

World Factbook (1982) Tunisia.jpg
(See reference map VII)

LANDEdit

164,206 km2; 28% arable land and tree crops, 23% range and esparto grass, 6% forest, 43% desert, waste, or urban

Land boundaries: 1,408 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 12 nm exclusive fisheries zone follows the 50-meter isobath for part of the coast, maximum 65 nm)

Coastline: 1,143 km (includes offshore islands)

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 6,842,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.7%

Nationality: noun—Tunisian(s); adjective—Tunisian

Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% European, less than 1% Jewish

Religion: 98% Muslim, 1% Christian, 1% Jewish

Language: Arabic (official), Arabic and French (commerce)

Literacy: about 50%

Labor force: 4 million, 40% agriculture; 15%-25% unemployed; shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: 25% of labor force; General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent of Destourian Socialist Party

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Republic of Tunisia

Type: republic

Capital: Tunis

Political subdivisions: 17 governorates (provinces)

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; constitution patterned on Turkish and US constitutions adopted 1959; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session; legal education at Institute of Higher Studies and Superior School of Law of the University of Tunis

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 June

Branches: executive dominant; unicameral legislative largely advisory; judicial, patterned on French and Koranic systems Government leaders: President Habib BOURGUIBA; Prime Minister Mohamed MZALI

Suffrage: universal over age 21

Elections: national elections held every five years; last elections 1 November 1981

Political party and leader: Destourian Socialist Party, led by Habib Bourguiba, is official ruling party

Voting strength (1981 election): over 95% Destourian Socialist Party; 3.23% Social Democrats, under 1% Popular United Movement, under 1% Communist Party

Communists: a small number of nominal Communists, mostly students; Tunisian Communist Party legalized in July 1981

Member of: AFDB, Arab League, AIOEC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, ISCON, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GDP: $8.5 billion (1980 prelim.), $980 per capita; 60% private consumption, 15.3% government consumption, 27.6% investment; average annual growth (1975-80), 7.1%

Agriculture: main crops—cereals (barley and wheat), olives, grapes, citrus fruits, and vegetables

Major sectors: agriculture; industry—mining (phosphate), energy (petroleum, natural gas), manufacturing (food processing and textiles), services (transport, telecommunications, tourism, government)

Electric power: 814,900 kW capacity (1980); 2.428 billion kWh produced (1980), 371 kWh per capita

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1980); 51% crude petroleum, 14% phosphates, 8% textiles

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1980)

Major trade partners: exports—France, Italy, West Germany, Greece

Tourism and foreign worker remittances: $622 million (1980)

Budget: (1980 prelim.) total revenue and grants $2.4 billion; current expenditures $1.7 billion; development expenditures, including capital transfers and net lending, $881 million

Monetary conversion rate: 0.51 Tunisian dinar (TD)=US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 2,089 km total; 503 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,586 km meter gauge (1.000 m)

Highways: 17,140 km total; 7,940 km bituminous, 660 km gravel; 2,000 km improved earth; 6,540 km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 10 km refined products; 372 km natural gas

Ports: 4 major, 8 minor

Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in

Airfields: 29 total, 26 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the system is above the African average; facilities consist of open-wire lines, multiconductor cable, or radio relay; key centers are Safaqis, Susah, Bizerte, and Tunis; 145,000 telephones (2.3 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, 3 FM, and 11 TV stations; 3 submarine cables

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,590,000; 887,000 fit for military service; about 77,000 reach military age (20) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, $261 million; 9% of central government budget


TURKEYEdit

World Factbook (1982) Turkey.jpg
(See reference map VI)

LANDEdit

766,640 km2; 35% cropland, 25% meadows and pastures, 23% forested, 17% other

Land boundaries: 2,574 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm except in Black Sea where it is 12 nm (fishing 12 nm)

Coastline: 7,200 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 48,105,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.2%

Nationality: noun—Turk(s); adjective—Turkish

Ethnic divisions: 85% Turkish, 12% Kurd, 3% other

Religion: 99% Muslim (mostly Sunni), 1% other (mostly Christian and Jewish)

Language: Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy: 62%

Labor force: 17.14 million; 58% agriculture, 13% industry, 29% service; surplus of unskilled labor (1980)

Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Republic of Turkey

Type: republic

Capital: Ankara

Political subdivisions: 67 provinces

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; constitution adopted 1961, but is now being revised by an assembly selected by the military government that took over on 12 September 1980; legal education at Universities of Ankara and Istanbul; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Republic Day, 29 October