The World Factbook (1982)/Yugoslavia

The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency
Yugoslavia

YUGOSLAVIAEdit

World Factbook (1982) Yugoslavia.jpg
(See reference map V)

LANDEdit

255,892 km2; 32% arable, 25% meadows and pastures, 34% forested, 9% other

Land boundaries: 3,001 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm

Coastline: 1,521 km (mainland), plus 2,414 km (offshore islands)

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 22,689,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.8%

Nationality: noun—Yugoslav(s); adjective—Yugoslav

Ethnic divisions: 39.7% Serb, 22.1% Croat, 8.4% Muslims, 8.2% Slovene, 6.4% Albanian, 5.8% Macedonian, 2.5% Montenegrin, 2.3% Hungarian, 4.6% other (1971 census)

Religion: 41% Serbian Orthodox, 32% Roman Catholic, 12% Muslim, 3% other, 12% none (1953 census)

Language: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian, and Italian

Literacy: 80.3% (1961)

Labor force: 9.3 million (1980); 29% agriculture, 27% mining and manufacturing, 20% noneconomic activities; estimated unemployment averaged at least 10% of domestic labor force in 1981

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Type: Communist state, federal republic in form

Capital: Belgrade

Political subdivisions: six republics with two autonomous provinces (within the Republic of Serbia)

Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory; constitution adopted 1974; legal education at several law schools; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Proclamation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 29 November

Branches: parliament (Federal Assembly) constitutionally supreme; executive includes cabinet (Federal Executive Council) and the federal administration; judiciary; the State Presidency is a collective policymaking body composed of a representative from each republic and province, Sergej KRAIGHER presides as President of the Republic

Government leader: Veselin Djuranovic, President of the Federal Executive Council

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: Federal Assembly elected every four years by a complicated, indirect system of voting

Political parties and leaders: League of Communists of Yugoslavia (LCY) only; leaders are party President Dusan Dragosavac, influential Presidium members Milos Minic, Vladimir Bakaric, and Stane Dolanc

Communists: 2.1 million party members (December 1981)

Other political or pressure groups: Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia (SAWPY), the major mass front organization for the LCY; Confederation of Trade Unions of Yugoslavia (CTUY), Union of Youth of Yugoslavia (UYY), Federation of Yugoslav War Veterans (SUBNOR)

Member of: ASSIMER, CEMA (observer but participates in certain commissions), EC (five-year nonpreferential trade agreement signed in May 1973 currently being renegotiated), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITC, ITU, NAM, OECD (participant in some activities), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $66.3 billion (1980 est., at 1980 prices), $2,900 per capita; real growth rate 3% (1980)

Agriculture: diversified agriculture with many small private holdings and large agricultural combines; main crops—corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets, and sunflowers; occasionally a net exporter of foodstuffs and live animals; imports tropical products, cotton, wool, and vegetable meal feeds; caloric intake, 3,539 calories per day per capita (1975)

Fishing: catch 56,000 metric tons (1979)

Major industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, oil refining, chemicals, textiles, wood processing, food processing

Shortages: electricity, fuels, steel

Crude steel: 3.6 million metric tons produced (1980), 160 kg per capita

Electric power: 15,113,000 kW capacity (1981); 63.3 billion kWh produced (1981), 2,797 kWh per capita

Exports: $8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1980); 51% raw materials and semimanufactures, 15% equipment, 34% consumer goods

Imports: $15.1 billion (c.i.f., 1980); 71% raw materials and semimanufactures, 19% equipment, 10% consumer goods

Major trade partners: 62% non-Communist countries; 38% Communist countries, of which 25% USSR (1981)

Monetary conversion rate: 38.7 dinars=US$1 (November 1981)

Fiscal year: same as calendar year (all data refer to calendar year or to middle or end of calendar year as indicated)

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 9,465 km total; 9,465 km standard gauge (1.435 m); 891 km double track; 3,167 km electrified (1980),

Highways: 155,842 km total; 56,655 km asphalt, concrete, stone block; 38,642 km asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 20,545 km earth (1980)

Inland waterways: 2,600 km (1978)

Freight carried: rail—84.9 million metric tons, 25.0 billion metric ton/km (1980); highway—201.7 million metric tons, 19.0 billion metric ton/km (1980); waterway—26.0 million metric tons, 5.0 billion metric ton/km (excluding international transit traffic)

Pipelines: 1,373 km crude oil; 2,760 km natural gas; 150 km refined products

Ports: 9 major (most important: Rijeka, Split, Koper, Bar, and Ploce), 24 minor; principal inland water port is Belgrade (1979)

Airfields: 124 total, 109 usable; 41 with permanent-surface runways, 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,968,000; 4,814,000 fit for military service; 188,000 reach military age (19) annually

Military budget: announced for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, 102 billion dinars; about 5.8% of national income