The World Factbook (1990)/Mongolia



World Factbook (1990) Mongolia.jpg

See regional map VIII


Total area: 1,565,000 km²; land area: 1,565,000 km²

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 8,114 km total; China 4,673 km, USSR 3,441 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Natural resources: coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use: 1% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 79% meadows and pastures; 10% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: harsh and rugged

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Soviet Union


Population: 2,187,275 (July 1990), growth rate 2.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Mongolian(s); adjective—Mongolian

Ethnic divisions: 90% Mongol, 4% Kazakh, 2% Chinese, 2% Russian, 2% other

Religion: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, about 4% Muslim, limited religious activity because of Communist regime

Language: Khalkha Mongol used by over 90% of population; minor languages include Turkic, Russian, and Chinese

Literacy: 80% (est.); 100% claimed (1985)

Labor force: NA, but primarily agricultural; over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: 425,000 members of the Central Council of Mongolian Trade Unions (CCMTU) controlled by the government (1984)


Long-form name: Mongolian People's Republic; abbreviated MPR

Type: Communist state

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular—aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular—hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Ölgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovl, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay,_Hentiy, Hovd, Hövsgöl, Ömnögovi, Övörhangay, Selenge, Sühbaatar, Töv, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China; formerly Outer Mongolia)

Constitution: 6 July 1960

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: People's Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Executive branch: chairman and deputy chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Hural, Presidium of the People's Great Hural, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Great Hural

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Hural Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 21 March 1990);

Head of Government—Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sharabyn GUNGAADORJ (since 21 March 1990);

Political parties and leaders: only party Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Gombojabin Ochirbat, General Secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held July 1991); results—Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat elected by the People's Great Hural;

People's Great Hural—last held on 22 June 1986 (next to be held June 1990); results—MPRP was the only party; seats—(370 total) MPRP 370

Communists: MPRP membership 88,150 (1986 est.)


Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gendengiin NYAMDOO; US—Ambassador Richard L. WILLIAMS

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is a five-pointed star above the national emblem (soyombo—a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representations for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)


Overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock — Mongolia has the highest number of livestock per person in the world. In recent years extensive mineral resources have been developed with Soviet support. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $880 (1985 est.); average real growth rate 3.6% (1976-85 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.19 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.9 billion (1987 est.)

Exports: $388 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities—livestock, animal products, wool, hides, fluorspar, nonferrous metals, minerals; partners—nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with USSR)

Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., 1985); commodities—machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea; partners—nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with USSR)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 10.9% (1985)

Electricity: 657,000 kW capacity; 29,500 million kWh produced, 1,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: processing of animal products, building materials, food and beverage, mining (particularly coal)

Agriculture: accounts for 90% of exports and provides livelihood for about 50% of the population; livestock raising predominates (sheep, goats, horses); crops—wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

Aid: about $500-$700 million annually from USSR

Currency: tughrik (plural—tughriks); 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1—3.355 (1986-1988), 3.600 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 1,750 km 1.524-meter broad gauge (1986)

Highways: 46,700 km total; 1,000 km hard surface; 45,700 km other surfaces (1986)

Inland waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1986)

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft

Airports: 80 total, 30 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; fewer than 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations—13 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (with 18 provincial relays); relay of Soviet TV; 60,000 TV sets; 186,000 radio receivers; at least 1 satellite earth station

Defense Forces

Branches: Mongolian People's Army, Air Force (negligible)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 518,482; 338,652 fit for military service; 24,783 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA