The World Factbook (1990)/San Marino

San Marino

World Factbook (1990) San Marino.jpg

See regional map V


Total area: 60 km²; land area: 60 km²

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundary: 39 km with Italy

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Natural resources: building stones

Land use: 17% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 83% other

Environment: dominated by the Appenines

Note: landlocked; world's smallest republic; enclave of Italy


Population: 23,123 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 8 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Sanmarinese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Sanmarinese

Ethnic divisions: Sanmarinese, Italian

Religion: Roman Catholic

Language: Italian

Literacy: 97%

Labor force: about 4,300

Organized labor: Democratic Federation of Sanmarinese Workers (affiliated with ICFTU) has about 1,800 members; Communist-dominated General Federation of Labor, 1,400 members


Long-form name: Republic of San Marino

Type: republic

Capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular—castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 (by tradition)

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3 September

Executive branch: two captains regent, Congress of State (cabinet); real executive power is wielded by the secretary of state for foreign affairs and the secretary of state for internal affairs

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale)

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)

Leaders: Co-Chiefs of State and Co-Heads of Government—Captain Regent Salvatori REVES (since April 1989) and Captain Regent Luciano CARDELLI (since April 1989); Captains Regent are elected for six-month terms

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DCS), Gabriele Gatti; Communist Party (PCS), Gilberto Ghiotti; Socialist Unity Party (PSU), Emilio Della Balda and Patrizia Busignani; San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), Antonio Volpinari; San Marino Social Democratic Party (PSDS), Augusto Casali; San Marino Republican Party (PRS), Cristoforo Buscarini

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Grand and General Council—last held 29 May 1988 (next to be held by May 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(60 total) DCS 27, PCS 18, PSU 8, PSS 7

Communists: about 300 members; the PCS, in conjunction with the PSS, PSU, and PSDS, has led the government since 1978

Other political parties or pressure groups: political parties influenced by policies of their counterparts in Italy

Member of: ICJ, ITU, IRC, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WTO; observer status in NAM

Diplomatic representation: San Marino maintains honorary Consulates General in Washington and New York, and an honorary Consulate in Detroit; US—no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino; Consulate General at 38 Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci, Florence, Italy (mailing address is APO NY 09019); telephone [39](55) 298-276

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)


Overview: The economy relies heavily on the tourist industry as a source of revenue. More than 2 million tourists visit each year, contributing about 60% to GDP. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is another important income producer. The manufacturing sector employs nearly 40% of the labor force and agriculture less than 4%. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to northern Italy.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1985)

Budget: revenues $99.2 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1983)

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodity trade consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide variety of consumer manufactures

Imports: see Exports

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: supplied by Italy

Industries: wine, olive oil, cement, leather, textile, tourist

Agriculture: employs less than 4% of labor force; products—wheat, grapes, corn, olives, meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs, horses; depends on Italy for food imports

Aid: NA

Currency: Italian lira (plural—lire); 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi; also mints its own coins

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1—1,262.5 (January 1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Highways: 104 km

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 11,700 telephones; stations—no AM, 20 FM, no TV; radio relay and cable links into Italian networks; no communication satellite facilities

Defense Forces

Branches: public security or police force of less than 50 people

Military manpower: all fit men ages 16-60 constitute a militia that can serve as an army

Defense expenditures: NA