The World Factbook (1990)/Zambia


World Factbook (1990) Zambia.jpg

See regional map VII


Total area: 752,610 km²; land area: 740,720 km²

Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,664 km total; Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 47% meadows and pastures; 27% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Note: landlocked


Population: 8,112,782 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: -6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 55 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Zambian(s); adjective—Zambian

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% African, 1.1% European, 0.2% other

Religion: 50-75% Christian, 1% Muslim and Hindu, remainder indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); about 70 indigenous languages

Literacy: 75.7%

Labor force: 2,455,000; 85% agriculture; 6% mining, manufacturing, and construction; 9% transport and services

Organized labor: about 238,000 wage earners are unionized


Long-form name: Republic of Zambia

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK; formerly Northern Rhodesia)

Constitution: 25 August 1973

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Dr. Kenneth David KAUNDA (since 24 October 1964);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Gen. Malimba MASHEKE (since 15 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party United National Independence Party (UNIP), Kenneth Kaunda

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 26 October 1988 (next to be held October 1993); results—President Kenneth Kaunda was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held 26 October 1988 (next to be held October 1993); results—UNIP is the only party; seats—(136 total, 125 elected) UNIP 125

Communists: no Communist party


Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul J. F. LUSAKA; Chancery at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-9717 through 9721; US—Ambassador Jeffrey DAVIDOW; Embassy at corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka (mailing address is P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka); telephone [2601] 214911

Flag: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag


Overview: Despite temporary growth in 1988, the economy has been in decline for more than a decade with falling imports and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stem from a sustained drop in copper production and ineffective economic policies. In 1988 real GDP stood only slightly higher than that of 10 years before, while an annual population growth of more than 3% has brought a decline in per capita GDP of 25% during the same period. A high inflation rate has also added to Zambia's economic woes in recent years.

GDP: $4.0 billion, per capita $530; real growth rate 6.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 55.7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $570 million; expenditures $939 million, including capital expenditures of $36 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $1,184 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco; partners—EC, Japan, South Africa, US

Imports: $687 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures; partners—EC, Japan, South Africa, US

External debt: $6.9 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA% (1986)

Electricity: 1,900,000 kW capacity; 8,245 million kWh produced, 1 ,050 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copper mining and processing, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops—corn (food staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs produced; marginally self-sufficient in corn

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $466 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $533 million

Currency: Zambian kwacha (plural—kwacha); 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1—21.7865 (January 1990), 12.9032 (1989), 8.2237 (1988), 8.8889 (1987), 7.3046 (1986), 2.7137 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track

Highways: 36,370 km total; 6,500 km paved, 7,000 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika

Pipelines: 1,724 km crude oil

Ports: Mpulungu (lake port)

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 121 total, 106 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; 71,700 telephones; stations—11 AM, 3 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force, Police, Paramilitary

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,683,758; 883,283 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA