Open main menu

The mineral industries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia


THE MINERAL INDUSTRIES OF

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia

By Walter G. Steblez


Europe's Adriatic Balkan region is part of the southern portion of the Mediterranean Alpine folded zone, which extends through the Dinarides of the former Yugoslavia (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia), the Albanides of Albania, and the Hellenides of Greece. The exploitation of the Bor copper deposit in Serbia may have had prehistoric beginnings; however, mining for base and precious metals may be traced through historical records to at least the 5th century BC.

More recently (from the 1930s to 2000), mineral deposits in the region became better defined. Commercial resources of major base metals included those of aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Precious metals (gold, silver, palladium, and platinum) were found mainly in association with such base metals as copper, lead, and zinc. Industrial minerals are represented by a broad range of carbonate and silicate rocks, clays, gravels and sands, and volcanic material. Mineral fuels included coal (lignite), natural gas, and petroleum.

Until the early 1990s, the mining, processing, and downstream exploitation of base metals established the region as a major European source of copper, lead, and zinc and a major world producer of chromite. The transition of the region from central economic planning to market economy systems from 1991 to 2000, however, began a swift deconstruction of existing political, commercial, and social structures. The ensuing political, social, and ethnic tensions and conflicts destroyed or degraded much of the region's mineral industries and industrial infrastructure. In 2000, active conflict in the region centered in Kosovo Province in Serbia and Montenegro and in Macedonia.

The future status of the minerals industries in the countries of the Adriatic Balkan region will only be clarified following political settlement and normalization not only between the states in the region, but also within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Serbia and Montenegro.

ALBANIA

In 2000, Albania continued to make progress toward fully developing a market economy system. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 7.8% compared with that of 1999. This was the third year of sustained economic growth, following a major downturn in 1997 that was caused partly by internal economic issues related to Albania's transition to a market economy and partly by regional instability, especially in the neighboring republics of the former Yugoslavia.

Mineral deposits that traditionally are associated with Albania include chromite, copper ore, and nickeliferous iron ore, as well as natural gas and petroleum. In 2000, with the exception of nickeliferous iron ore, these deposits and such other minerals as bauxite, phosphate rock, dolomite, gypsum, and marble have been intermittently worked. Only chromite, copper, gas, and oil, which are minerals of major commercial importance, have shown sustained exploitation.

Under the central economic planning system, especially from the late 1970s through 1990, Albania's chromite mining operations were among the more important components of the mineral industry. During this period, Albania was a leading world producer and exporter of chromite; the country often was ranked second in terms of export and third in terms of production. During this period, exports of chromite, ferrochromium, and petroleum refinery products constituted the country's chief sources of foreign exchange.

For much of the 1990s, Albania's chromite mining and processing industry generally paralleled the moribund performance of the country's economy. Mine production, which amounted to more than 1 million metric tons per year (Mt/yr) of chromite in the 1980s, declined to 236,000 metric tons (t) by 1995, and fell to 79,445 t in 1999. Following several years of unsuccessful searches for foreign partners to invest in the chromite mining and processing industry, in 2000, the Government of Albania awarded Hayri Ogelman Madencilik of Turkey a long-term concession to upgrade and operate the Kalimash mining and beneficiation complex and, in addition, to develop mines at the Perollajt and Vllahane deposits in the northeastern part of the country. Hayri Ogelman Madencilik also planned to invest about $40 million in these projects as well as for the construction of a new ferrochromium plant in Elbasan (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001a, p. 17).

The existing ferrochromium plant at Elbasan came under operational management of ferrochromium producer, Darfo S.p.A. of Italy because of a long-term, 30-year concession agreement with the Government of Albania (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001a, p. 17). The agreement also gave Darfo the right to operate the Pojska and the Prrenjas chromite mines; the Pojska Mine had not produced since 1996, and the Prrenjas Mine last reported production in 1998 (980 t). Darfo's investment plan would amount to $15 million, of which $14.5 million was earmarked for modernization of the Elbasan ferrochromium plant and $0.5 million was to be invested in the Pojska and the Prrenjas Mines. Darfo sought a second concession to operate the Bulquize mining and beneficiation complex.

In 2000, the Turkish copper smelting concern, Ber-Ober Madencilik San've Tic As (Ber-Ober), was granted a 30-year concession to operate Albania's copper industry on a build-operate-transfer basis. The concession included mines and processing facilities in the Lezhe, Midrite, and Puke Districts. Ber-Ober planned to invest about $24.5 million in Albania's copper industry (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001a, p. 17).

Between 1994 and 1996, there was a hiatus of steel production at the Elbasan steelworks, which virtually had been abandoned during the 1990s. Some production resumed in 1997, 1998, and 1999, which amounted to 20,533 t, 19,527 t, and 4,813 t, respectively. In 1999, operations and management at Elbasan came under control of Kurum Steel Co. of Turkey under a 20-year lease agreement with the Government of Albania. By the beginning of 2000, production at Elbasan had risen to more than 10,000 metric tons per month from less than 10,000 metric tons per year (t/yr) (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001, p. 18). In 2000, Kurum's operations at Elbasan were based on two 15-t electric arc furnaces, a third electric arc furnace being converted to a ladle furnace, and one ladle furnace. In addition, Kurum operated a 250,000-t/yr billet caster, a 20,000-t/yr medium sections mill, a 180,000-t/yr bar and 30,000-t/yr wire rod mill, and a 10,000-t/yr merchant bar mill. Total finished carbon steel capacity at Elbasan in 2000 was 240,000 t/yr. Scrap steel raw materials were imported from Turkey and Ukraine. Target markets included Kosovo (Ayers, 2000).

The privatization and sale of the Fushe-Kruje cement plant for $12.5 million in April was among the major events in the industrial minerals sector during the year (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001a, p. 12, 15). The plant reportedly had production capacity of 150,000 t/yr of cement. The new owner RMC-ECF (a United Kingdom-Lebanese consortium) instituted an investment program to raise the capacity to meet 45% of domestic needs, thereby reducing imports. Recent cement output has not exceeded the 243,000 t produced in 1995, and imports have ranged from 500,000 to 600,000 t/yr. Facility expansion was expected to be completed in 2001. In 1997, the Lebanon-based cement trading and producing concern Seament Holding S.A.L. acquired a 70% stake in the Elbasan Cement Factory and 70% in United Quarries, which operated an adjacent limestone quarry. Facility expansion also was planned at the Elbasan plant, which would include the installation of a new 500,000-t/yr dry process clinker kiln. The project would include the possible participation of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; financing could range between $15 million and $18 million (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001a, p. 12, 15).

Albania's energy production was based on coal, hydropower, natural gas, and petroleum production. The output of such mineral fuels as natural gas and petroleum, however, was central to the country's future developmental plans. The country's reported recoverable reserves of petroleum amounted to about 550 million metric tons. The state petroleum- and natural-gas-producing company Albpetrol Ltd. was reorganized in 1999 into three commercial companies—APC (the new official designation of Albpetrol), which was in charge of petroleum production; Servcom Sh.A., which was in charge of handling services; and Armo, which was in charge of refining and marketing (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001a, p. 17). With the participation of the World Bank and the Government of Italy, Armo was the first to be privatized in 2001. Most of the Albania's petroleum was extracted at Berat and Fier in the south-central and southwestern parts of the country, respectively. The major refineries were at Ballsh, which had capacity of 1 Mt/yr, and at Fier, which had capacity of about one-half that of Ballsh. The Ballsh refinery indicated plans to start the production of lead-free refined gasoline in 2001. Three other refineries with a cumulative capacity of 1 Mt/yr were capable only of primary processing.

Another major activity in the petroleum sector involved a memorandum of understanding that was signed during the year relative to the construction of a trans-Balkan pipeline that would extend from Burgas on the coast of Bulgaria through the city of Skopje in Macedonia to the port of Vlore in Albania. The Burgas Vlore Pipeline was projected to be about 913 kilometers long and have a total cost of $1.13 billion. The pipeline would be built and operated by the U.S.-based consortium Albanian, Macedonian, and Bulgarian Oil Corp. Financing would be based on bank credits from international financial institutions (about $60 million), and the balance, from the sale of company shares. Construction was scheduled to start in 2001 and to be completed in 2005. The pipeline was intended to carry 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum from Russia and other states of the former Soviet Union from the Black Sea to western European markets.

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Bosnia and Herzegovina's mineral resources with associated mining and processing facilities remained divided within the country's two administrative zones—the Federation of Bosnian Moslems and Croatians (FBC), which formed one entity (about 51% of Bosnia and Herzegovina), and the Republika Srpska (RS) with a predominantly Serbian population, which formed the other entity (49%). In 2000, the process of reintegrating the two zones continued to show little progress.

The economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina continued to be difficult to gauge owing to the lack of uniform reporting by each side to the Agency for Statistics in Sarajevo. The growth rate of the country's GDP for 1999, which continued to be driven by transfers from abroad and by capital inflows, was revised to 7% from the 10% reported earlier (Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2000, p. 36). A similar GDP growth rate in 2000 was expected but would be contingent on continued financial assistance from the international community, which continued to focus its efforts on the development of a market economy and the reconstruction of Bosnia and Herzegovina's postwar industry and infrastructure (U.S. Agency for International Development, 2000a).

Industrial production in the FBC rose by 8.8% in 2000 compared with that of 1999. The energy sector, which represented about 35% of the value of industrial output (coal production and electric power), accounted for most of this increase. Overall, mining output, which accounted for more than 10% of total industrial production, rose by about 10.4% in 2000 compared with that of 1999. In the FBC, coal was produced in the Tuzla and the Zenica regions with most of the output earmarked for the Kakanj and the Tuzla powerplants. The FBC accounted for about 80% of total resources of brown coal and for about 60% of the lignite in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bauxite and alumina were produced in the southern and western areas of the FBC, and aluminum was smelted in Mostar. Lead and zinc ore has been produced at Olovo and Vares, but the mining status of these operations was uncertain in 2000. Iron ore production was centered at Jablanica and Vares, and that of manganese ore, at Bosanska Krupa.

The FBC was the only producer of steel in Bosnia and Herzegovina. BH Steel Co. Zenica produced pig iron and carbon steel; additional cold-rolled steel and pipe was produced at Unis in Sarajevo. In 2000, major activities in the steel sector included a contract awarded to Danieli SpA of Italy by BH Steel to supply a new 100-t electric arc furnace and to modernize an existing light section mill.

The FBC also had exploitable resources of barite, gypsum, magnesite, and rock salt. The levels of output of these as well as other mineral commodities, however, were not fully clear in 2000.

In the RS, industrial production increased by 5.6% in 2000 compared with that of 1999. The increase was buoyed largely by an 8.6% increase in the output of raw materials, of which nonferrous metals and base chemicals reportedly recorded the largest increase in production (Köhl, 2001). All branches of the minerals industry (mining to semimanufactures), however, represented about 20% of total industrial output.

Bauxite deposits of regional importance were worked at Vlasenica and Zvornik in the eastern RS and near Banja Luka in the northwestern RS. Although the RS was not a producer of aluminum, alumina was refined at Zvornik for export. Lead and zinc were mined at Srebrenica. Substantial deposits of nickel also had been worked at the Vardiste Mines near Visegrad. Although complete data on mineral production have been scarce, the latest data (1998) on capacity utilization suggest a low level of production within the minerals industry sector of the RS. In ferrous metals mining and beneficiation, nonferrous metals mining, and nonferrous metals production, capacity utilization amounted to about 20%, 5%, and 8%, respectively. Capacity utilization for total downstream metalworking amounted to about 61%. Capacity utilization in industrial minerals mining and processing had fallen to about 14% and 3%, respectively. In the cement, concrete, and sand production branches, capacity utilization amounted to 24%. Coal production and petroleum-refining branches reported having attained capacity utilization levels of 59% and 26%, respectively (U.S. Agency for International Development, 2000b, p. 48–54).

The modernization and privatization of the mineral industries in both halves of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as the establishment of reliable markets continue to be essential for their long-term viability.

CROATIA

Petroleum production and refining remained the chief components of Croatia's minerals industry. Small quantities of ferrous and nonferrous metals and industrial minerals were produced, mainly for domestic needs.

In 2000, following a year of economic stagnation, Croatia's GDP grew by 3.5%, and industrial production, by about 1.7%. The total value of output of the mining and quarrying sector increased by 1.8%, of which the value of petroleum output increased by 2%. The output of petroleum refinery products, base metals, and processed industrial minerals rose by 5.4%, 4.4%, and 4.1%, respectively.

Major activities in the oil and gas sector included the Government's plan to privatize Croatia's state-owned oil company Industrija Nafte d.d. Zagreb (INA) in 2002. INA operated domestic oilfields and gasfields southeast of Zagreb near the Hungarian border and along the Adriatic coast. The country's primary source of petroleum came from imports via the Adria pipeline that runs from Omisalj on the Adriatic coast toward Sisak (refinery) to the east and then northward towards Hungary. About two-thirds of the crude oil consumed by Croatia was imported from oilfields that INA operated under contract in Angola, Egypt, and Russia. New offshore Adriatic deposits were under development and exploitation through a joint venture with ENI of Italy (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001, p. 13). Also, INA's Sisak refinery began to ship petroleum refinery products to Serbia and Montenegro in October shortly after the cancellation of the international embargo. Other developments involved Jadranski Naftovod, d.d. Zagreb (JANAF), in which INA held a 38% stake. In October, JANAF and Russia concluded an agreement that called for Yukos of Russia to participate in the modernization of the Adria pipeline and its linkage with Yukos's Druzhba pipeline, which supplies Central Europe with petroleum. The project would allow Yukos to transport crude petroleum to the port of Omisajl in Croatia for loading onto tankers (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001b, p. 13).

Croatia's production of metals was based mainly on domestic and imported secondary raw materials. With the exception of crude steel, the output of which fell by nearly 8%, the production of aluminum semimanufactures (output of primary aluminum declined slightly) and ferroalloys registered recovery in 2000. Ferroalloy (ferrochromium) production resumed following a break in output in 1999.

Jadranska Zelejzara Split on the Adriatic coast and SP MK Zeljezare Sisak d.d. in Sisak composed the country's steel industry. Major activities in the iron and steel industry in 2000 included a contract Jadranska awarded to Voest Alpine Industrieanlagenbau of Austria to modernize Jadranska's operations. The renovation of Jadranska would cost about $10 million and include the installation of a new electric arc furnace, a two-stand Concast billet caster, and a rolling mill. The new electric arc furnace, which would replace two older furnaces, was scheduled for startup in September 2001 and would have a design capacity of 81,000 t/yr. Total steel production capacity at Jadranska was to be about 170,000 t/yr (Metal Bulletin, 2000a). Other issues in the steel industry involved the European Union's (EU) imposition of a definitive 23% duty on imports of Croatian seamless pipe and tube in response to findings of dumping by the European Commission. This measure replaced the imposition of a provisional 31.2% duty by the EU in 1999 (Burgert, 2000).

There was a rise in output in the industrial minerals sector. The cement industry, which helped drive the quarrying of industrial minerals used in construction saw production increase by more than 3% compared with that of 1999. Foreign investment by a United Kingdom-based consortium in Dalmacija Cement, which amounted to $48.01 million, mainly was earmarked to convert operations from fuel oil to coal and petroleum-based coke.

The outlook for Croatia's economy and minerals industry, as well as for that of the other republics of the former Yugoslavia, is captive to political and social stabilization in the region.

MACEDONIA

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia) showed strong recovery from the economic downturn that followed the Kosovo conflict of 1999. The GDP increased by 5.1% compared with that of 1999. The industrial minerals and construction material branches of industry were major contributors to this rebound, which mainly was caused by demand generated by reconstruction efforts in neighboring Kosovo. Freer access to markets in the EU also helped improve the country's economic performance in 2000 (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001, p. 2-5). In 2000, industry and mining accounted for 21.1% of Macedonia's GDP. Compared with that of 1999, the increase in the total value of industrial production exceeded 5%, of which the output of coal, iron and steel, nonferrous ores and metals, and construction materials accounted for 2.1%, 4.3%, 4.8%, and 5.1% respectively (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001, p. 12).

The Government of Macedonia remained committed to developing the country's market economy system as well as promoting foreign investment. In 2000, foreign investment was represented almost in all branches of the minerals industry.

Macedonia produced a range of metals that included copper, ferroalloys, lead, silver, steel products, and zinc. The country's secondary aluminum industry centered on Alumina A.D. in Skopje, which had the capacity to produce 20,000 t/yr of billets and 12,000 t/yr of semimanufactures. The denationalization of major enterprises in the metals branch had important results during the year. The Skopje-based Feni-Rudnici i Industrija za Nikel, Celik i Antimon (FENI), which produced mainly ferronickel, was acquired by Societe Commerciale de Metaux et Mineraux (SCMM) of France for $2.25 million. FENI was 1 of 12 loss-making Macedonian enterprises that were determined to be suitable for closure or sale by the International Monetary Fund. Earlier in the year, Glencore International AG of Switzerland and other commercial enterprises had conducted negotiations with the Government to purchase FENI, which did not prove successful. The terms of SCMM's acquisition of FENI included a purchase price of $2.25 million and a commitment to invest a further $36 million in FENI's operation (Cahners Business Information, 2000; Hope, 2000). The Government of Macedonia also sold 82% of shares of the country's principal mine producer of copper Bucim, Rabotna Organiziacija za Rudarstvo i Metalurgija za Baker's (Bucim) (246,270 shares at $6.06 per share) through the Macedonian Stock Exchange. Bucim operated a mine and mill near Radovis. Other enterprises that were slated for sale or closure included ferroalloy producer Jugohrom, Hemijsko-Elektrometalurski Kombinat and the lead and zinc mining, beneficiation, and smelting complex Prepobotuvacki, Kombinat Zletovo-Sasa (Hope, 2000). Steel was produced at AD Makstil (a subsidiary of Duferco). Duferco had made investments that included upgrading the steel plant's continuous casters and electric arc furnaces and the installation of a ladle furnace. In 2000, Makstil reported that the production of heavy plate exceeded 240,000 t.

Macedonia also produced such industrial minerals as bentonite, feldspar, gypsum, sand and gravel, and stone (carbonate and silicate), as well as cement and other construction materials that were based on domestic quarried products. About 20% of mine output of industrial minerals was consumed domestically; the balance was exported mainly to other Balkan countries, the EU, and Russia. In 2000, important activities in this branch, including its downstream construction materials group, included a planned sale of Mermeren Kombinat Prilep, which was the country's largest producer of marble, to I. Kiriakidis S.A. of Drama, Greece. The Cyprus-based consortium Balkcem Ltd. (comprising Titan Cement S.A. of Greece and Holderbank Group of Switzerland) invested $30.7 million in A.D. Cementarnica USJE (USJE) for facility modernization to reduce costs and to increase environmental protection. To help achieve the latter, Balkcem, which had acquired 86.4% of USJE's shares in 1998, planned to discontinue USJE's production of asbestos and asbestos cement in 2001 (Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, 2000).

Coal and petroleum constituted about 52% and 15%, respectively, of total fuel sources at electric power generators. Most coal (lignite) was from domestic mining; however, all natural gas and petroleum had to be imported. Major foreign investment in the energy sector was accomplished in late 1999 with the purchase of OKTA A.D., Macedonia's sole petroleum refinery. In addition to the $32 million purchase price, Hellenic Petroleum S.A. indicated that it would allocate an additional $40 million for the modernization of the refinery. In December, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development indicated approval of a $50 million loan to help finance the Thessaloniki-Skopje crude petroleum pipeline. The proposed pipeline, which would carry 2.5 Mt/yr of petroleum, was expected to reduce transportation costs of petroleum to Macedonia. Additionally, the proposed pipeline, which would extend from the Greek port of Thessaloniki to its OKTA terminus, was considered to be a better environmental alternative to the existing rail and trucking petroleum delivery route that follows the Vardar River, which also is a wildlife habitat (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001, p. 17).

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Serbia and Montenegro began the year facing a major effort to rebuild roads, electric power stations, steel mills, and other industrial plants and infrastructure that had been heavily damaged during the Kosovo conflict of 1999. Additionally, bridges that had been destroyed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) air campaign remained effective obstacles to normal international freight traffic, which included a significant amount of mineral raw materials, on the Danube River.

Despite continuing economic sanctions imposed by the international community and the loss of effective political and economic control of Kosovo (with resources of nickel, lead, and zinc ores, coal, and production facilities for lead and zinc, ferronickel, and tin-plate, as well as a substantial portion of lignite-producing mines), the economy of Serbia and Montenegro rebounded from the sharp decline of 18% in the GDP in 1999. In 2000, the country's GDP rose by 7%, and industrial production, by 12% compared with those of 1999 (Serbia and Montenegro Federal Statistical Office, 2001, p. 4).

The yearend results of the minerals industry generally showed improvement in performance compared with those of 1999. The value of output levels attained in 2000 in the mineral fuels branch showed increases of 8%, 11%, and 6% for coal, oil and gas, and oil derivatives, respectively; iron and steel, industrial (nonmetallic) minerals, and nonferrous metals branches recorded 152%, 38%, and 7% increases in output, respectively, compared with 1999 production levels (Serbia and Montenegro Federal Statistical Office, 2001, p. 4). A comparison of output with prewar mineral production levels achieved in 1998, however, underscores a far less than full recovery.

The gross weight of mine output of lead and zinc and copper ores was 52% and 35%, respectively, below respective output levels achieved in 1998; the production of refined lead, silver, copper, and zinc, fell short by 95%, 78%, 52%, and 42%, respectively. In the nonferrous metals branch, only alumina, aluminum, and bauxite operations, which are in Montenegro, registered substantial gains compared with 1998 in terms of physical production levels, largely because of favorable treatment that was accorded to Montenegro's economy by the European Commission. Aluminum, alumina, and aluminum hydroxide were the only products that would be allowed entry into the EU from Serbia and Montenegro duty free (Metal Bulletin, 2000c). To meet prospective export opportunities, Montenegro's Podgorica smelter (managed by Glencore) announced plans to decrease idle capacity at the plant and to lower production costs (Reuters Ltd., 2000a). Such subsidiary semimanufacturing operations as rolling mills, casting plants, and other similar facilities were to be offered for sale during the year (Metal Bulletin, 2000b).

Exports of most nonferrous metals and nonferrous metal semimanufactures registered increases in 2000, albeit not at the levels of aluminum and its alloys. Major issues in the nonferrous metals industry remained centered on the Bor and the Trepca mining, beneficiation, smelting, and refining complexes for copper and lead and zinc, respectively. Rudarsko Topionicki Bazen's Bor mining, beneficiation, and smelting complex, which accounted for all of Serbia and Montenegro's mine, smelter, and refinery output of copper production, was the subject of domestic and international scrutiny and concern about the alleged smuggling of gold recovered from copper mining to foreign metals markets (Smith, 2001). Kosovo-based Rudarsko-Metalursko-Hemijski Kombinat za Olovo i Cink Trepca (Trepca), which had operated only the lead plant fed by stockpiled concentrates since resuming operation in July 1999, was seized by NATO forces. According to NATO spokespersons, the objective of the seizure was to bring the smelter into compliance with environmental regulations (Mining Journal, 2000; Reuter Ltd., 2000b). NATO authorities, however, promised to keep and pay the Trepca workforce at their current (2000) salary levels despite a modernization program that could take several years (Maguire, 2000). Trepca also had been a producer of such associated metals as antimony, bismuth, cadmium, gold, and silver.

The gross weight production, in order of processing, of crude steel, pig iron, and steel semimanufactures fell short of their 1998 production levels by 28%, 32%, and 58%, respectively. In 2000, the Yugoslav Iron and Steel Federation commissioned Usinor Consultants of France to study ways to raise the competitiveness of Serbia and Montenegro's steel industry. As part of an overall rationalization strategy, Usinor urged a rapid privatization of the Sartid AD Smederevo integrated steel mill in Serbia and Zeljezra Niksic AD in Montenegro. Near-term plans for facility expansion at Sartid also included the installation of a 150,000-t/yr galvanizing line and a new continuous caster, as well as a pulverized coal injection system in the No. 2 blast furnace. Plans at Zeljezara Niksic included the installation of a new electric arc furnace, a new continuous casting unit, and a new ladle furnace.

The situation for industrial and mineral fuels was not dissimilar to that of the metals; most commodities in 2000 were substantially below their 1998 output levels, with the exception of bentonite, brown coal, gypsum, lime, quartz sand, and salt, which showed increases. A negotiated lease by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo of the Sharr cement plant (near the Macedonian border) to Holderbank Financière Glaris Ltd. was one of the salient events in the industrial minerals branch. Under the terms of the lease, Holderbank would invest about $16.4 million in the Sharr cement plant to modernize production and to institute environmental protection and health and safety standards. The full operation of the 600,000-t/yr Sharr cement plant and attendant quarries, whose production included clay, limestone, and marl, also would help stabilize employment in the region.

At yearend, striking coal miners in Serbia helped bring about a recognition of election results by the Government. Political and economic stability in the region, however, appears to be a long-term prospect.

SLOVENIA

Slovenia's minerals industry produced a modest range and minor quantities of mineral commodities that included coal, natural gas, petroleum, and a variety of industrial minerals. The country relied heavily on imports of fossil fuels, ferrous and nonferrous ores and metals, and other mining and quarrying products.

With well-developed systems of transportation and modern telecommunications, Slovenia had one of the more technically advanced industrial bases of the republics of the former Yugoslavia. Chemicals, electronics and telecommunications, and retail were the sectors with highest rates of growth (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001, p. 3). In 2000, the performance of the country's economy remained positive, given the increase in the GDP of 4.25% compared with that of 1999; the total value of industrial production rose by 6.2%. The output and fabrication of metals showed combined gains in excess of 12%. The mining and quarrying share of industrial output, however, declined by 2.7%, as did that of industrial mineral products, which declined by 3.6%. Also, a substantial decline of production of processed mineral fuels (primarily coke and petroleum refinery products) was noted.

With the exception of nonferrous metals, whose value of imports continued to match that of exports, Slovenia depended heavily on imports for almost all mineral commodities. According to the latest available trade data (1999), this dependency, valued in U.S. dollars, increased for most commodity groups in 1999 compared with that of 1998. In 1999, the net value of imports of gold (nonmonetary), metal ores and scrap, and iron and steel increased by 70%, 11.5%, and 1.2%, respectively. Net imports of industrial mineral goods rose by about 5.7%. With respect to mineral fuels, the combined net import value of coal, coal briquettes, and coke increased by about 63%, but that of crude and refined petroleum declined by about 17% compared with those of 1998 (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2000, p. 390-391).

The Government continued to promote the country's transition process to a market economy system. The Energy Act was adopted in 1999 to promote privatization and stimulate foreign investment in the energy sector. Major activities in the energy sector included a program of modernization at the Krsko nuclear powerplant, which Slovenia jointly owns and operates with neighboring Croatia (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001, p. 14).

In 2000, salient activities in the steel industry included the addition of a new automated quality inspection line at INEXA Store Ltd., which was valued at $1.2 million.[1] INEXA also planned to modernize the plant's rolling mills. SZ Jeklo Store d.o.o. was privatized in 1999 and acquired by INEXA Group of Sweden. Additionally, a new forging line was added at the SZ Ravne d.o.o. steel mill; the new line replaced an older unit to produce bar sections, flat sections, and other products from all grades of steel.

Important activities in the nonferrous metals industry included the planned facility expansion at Slovenia's aluminum smelter Kidricevo Talum d.o.o. that would increase production capacity to about 155,000 t of primary and secondary aluminum by 2002 from about 100,000 t in 2000. Talum obtained outside financing for the project (a new pot room) that amounted to $76 million in addition to its own capital. Talum also planned to produce 117,000 t of aluminum in 2001 (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001, p. 14).

Cement, clays, dimension stone, and silica products were among the industrial minerals produced in Slovenia. Consumption of cement and other construction materials continued to increase, which, in turn, would further increase demand for other industrial minerals as well as for steel and other base metals. If Slovenia should join the EU, then this trend may well accelerate with developmental emphasis being placed on rail and road infrastructure.

References cited

  • Ayers, Joanne, 2000, A light at the end of the tunnel: Metal Bulletin Monthly, August, no. 356, p. 70–71.
  • Burgert, Philip, 2000, EU imposes duties on pipe and tube: New York, Cahners Business Information press release, 1 p.
  • Cahners Business Information, 2000, Macedonia makes 2 metal sales deals: Cahners Business Information, November 13, 1 p.
  • Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2000, Annual report 1999: Sarajevo, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 54 p.
  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2001a, Albania--Investment profile: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, March, 32 p.
  • European— — —2001b, FYR Croatia--Investment profile 2001: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, April, 25 p.
  • European— — —2001c, FYR Macedonia--Investment profile 2001: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, April, 27 p.
  • European— — —2001d, Slovenia--Investment profile 2001: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, April, 28 p.
  • Hope, Kerin, 2000, Macedonia's mines under threat: Financial Times [London], August 11, no. 34293, p. 26.
  • Köhl, Christian, 2001, Danieli to build Bosnia and Herzegovina sites: Cahners Business Information, April 6, 1 p.
  • Maguire, Sean, 2000, NATO troops take control of Kosovo Serb smelter: Reuters Ltd., August 14, 2 p.
  • Metal Bulletin, 2000a, Croatia's Split steelworks awards contract for overhaul: Metal Bulletin, no. 8498, August 7, p. 19.
  • Metal— — —2000b, Europe seeks to protect Montenegrin Al industry: Metal Bulletin, July 3, no. 8489, p. 4.
  • Metal— — —2000c, Podgorica downstream plants are put up for sale: Metal Bulletin, no. 8491, July 10, p. 10.
  • Mining Journal, 2000, Trepca smelter seized by NATO: Mining Journal, v. 335, no. 8596, August 18, p. 134.
  • Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, 2000, Proposed guarantee to Balkan Cement Ltd. for investment in A.D. Cementarnica USJE: Multilateral *Investment Guarantee Agency, March 2, MIGA/R2000-7, 10 p.
  • Reuters Ltd., 2000a, Montenegro smelter to raise output 17%: Reuters Ltd., February 15, 1 p.
  • Reuters— — —2000b, Repair of Trepca could take years--UN: Reuters Ltd., August 14, 2 p.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Federal Statistical Office, 2001, INDEX--Monthly review of economic statistics of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Serbia and *Montenegro Federal Statistical Office, February, no. 2, 73 p.
  • Smith, J.R., 2001, The hunt for Yugoslav riches: Washington Post, March 11, p. A1, A20. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2000, *Statistical yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia--Mining and manufacturing: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 680 p.
  • U.S. Agency for International Development, 2000a, Country profile--Bosnia and Herzegovina: U.S. Agency for International Development, August, 4 p.
  • USAID— — —2000b, BIH economic update: U.S. Agency for International Development, February 25, 67 p.
TABLE 1 ALBANIA, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, CROATIA, MACEDONIA, SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO, AND SLOVENIA: PRODUCTION OF MINERAL COMMODITIES 1/ 2/ (Metric tons unless otherwise specified)
Country and commodity 1996   1997   1998   1999   2000  
ALBANIA 3/
Metals:
Bauxite -   4,454   4,128   4,624   5,000 e/
Chromium:
Chromite, gross weight thousand tons 236,358   157,203   150,285   79,445   80,000 e/
Marketable ore do. 113,361   84,423   81,994   64,597   65,000 e/
Concentrate do. 30,402   21,881   20,195   6,837   5,000 e/
Ferrochromium do. 31,189   31,144   30,252   28,120   25,000 e/
Copper:
Ore:
Gross weight do. 187,765   24,895   53,477   33,945   35,000 e/
Concentrate 10,807   869   2,294   8,691   9,000 e/
Cu content e/ 2,500   220   3,200   900 r/ 900
Metal, primary:
Smelter (blister) 1,424   --   1,632   1,281   13,00 e/
Refined 1,544   --   1,150   3,42   350 e/
Iron and steel, metal:
Pig iron e/ 10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000
Crude steel -- r/ 20,533 r/ 19,537   4,913 r/ 180,000 e/
Rolled steel   --   43,000   42,000   8700   17,000 e/
Industrial minerals:
Cement, hydraulic e/ thousand tons 200   150   150   150   200;  
Clay, kaolin e/ 500   500   500   500   500  
Dolomite e/ 50,000   50,000   50,000   50,000   50,000  
Fertilizer, manufactured:
Phosphatic --   26,604   12,284   8,600   9,000 e/
Urea e/ 3,000   3,000   3,000   3,000   3,000  
Nitrogen, N content of ammonia e/ 15,000   10,000 r/ 10,000 r/ 10,000 r/ 10,000  
Olivinite e/ 3,00   3,00   3,00   3,00   2,00  
Phosphate rock (12%-15% ) e/ 1,000   1,000   1,000   1,000   1,000  
Salt e/ 10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000  
Sodium compounds, n.e.s., soda ash, calcined e/ 1,00   1,00   --   --   --  
Sulfuric acid e/ 1,000   500 r/ 500 r/ 500 r/ 500  
Mineral fuels and related materials:
Asphalt and bitumen, natural 4/ thousand tons 19,597   16,900   15,782   16,625   17,000 e/
Coal, lignite do. 68,936   38,900   33,000   30,000   30,000 e/
Gas, natural, gross production 5/ million cubic meters 22,698   18,271   16,551   14,167   14,000 e/
Petroleum:
Coke 63,472   33,678   57,842   47,543   50,000 e/
Crude:
Gross weight thousand tons 448,214   359,666   364,627   323,009   320,000 e/
Converted e/ thousand 42-gallon barrels 3,300   2,400   2,000   2,400 r/; 2,400  
Refinery products do. 503,995   315,072   379,131   328,875   324,000 e/
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA e/ 6/
Metals:
Aluminum:
Bauxite 75,000   75,000   75,000   75,000   75,000  
Alumina 50,000   40,000   40,000   40,000   40,000  
Metal ingot, primary and secondary 15,000   15,000   15,000   15,000   15,000
Iron and steel:
Ore and concentrate:
Ore, gross weight 100,000   100,000   100,000   100,000   100,000  
Ore, Fe content 35,000   35,000   35,000   35,000   36,000  
Agglomerate 40,000   40,000   40,000   40,000   40,000  
Metal:
Ferroalloys:
Ferrosilicon 1000   1000   1000   500 r/ 500  
Silicon 100   100   100   100   100  
Pig iron 100,000   100,000   100,000   100,000   100,000  
Crude steel 115,000   110,000   110,000   110,000   110,000  
Semimanufactures 100,000   100,000   90,000   90,000   95,000  

Lead:
Mineral concentrator output:
Ore, gross weight (Pb-Zn ore) 10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000
Pb content of ores 200   200   200   200   200  
Pb concentrate 400   400   400   400   400  
Metal, smelter, primary and secondary 100   100   100   100   100  
Manganese ore:
Gross weight 2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000  
Mn content 500   500   500   500   500  
Zinc:
Zn content of Pb-Zn ore 300   300   300   300   300  
Concentrate output, gross weight 600   600   600   600   600  
Industrial minerals:
Asbestos, all kinds 500   500   500   500   500  
Barite concentrate 2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000  
Cement thousand tons 150   200   300   300   300  
Clays:
Bentonite 800   800   800   800   800  
Ceramic clay, crude 20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000  
Kaolin:
Crude 3,000   3,000   3,000   3,000   3,000  
Calcined 1,500   1,500   1,500   1,500   1,500  
Gypsum:
Crude 30,000   30,000   30,000   30,000   30,000  
Calcined 3,000   3,000   3,000   3,000   3,000  
Lime thousand tons 50   50   50   50   50  
Magnesite, crude 2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000  
Nitrogen, N content of ammonia 500   500   500   500   500  
Glass sand 50,000   50,000   50,000   50,000   50,000  
Salt, all sources 50,000   50,000   50,000   50,000   50,000  
Sand and gravel, excluding glass sand thousand cubic meters 500   500   500   500   500  
Sodium compounds:
Soda ash 10,000   5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000  
Caustic soda 10,000   5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000  
Sodium bicarbonate 1,000   500   500   500   500  
Stone, excluding quartz and quartzite, dimension, crude:
Ornamental square meters 20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000  
Other cubic meters 2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000  
Crushed and brown, n.e.s. thousand cubic meters 500   500   500   500   500  
Sulfur, byproduct of metallurgy thousand tons 1   1   1   1   1  
Mineral fuels and related materials:
Brown coal and lignite do. 1,808 7/ 1,810 7/ 1,764 7/ 1,800   1,800
Petroleum refinery products thousand 42-gallon barrels --   500   500   500   500  
CROATIA 6/
Metals:
Aluminum:
Metal, ingot, primary and secondary 32,959   17,800   16,112 r/ 14,461 r/ 14,403
Alloys 5,257   3,354   2,191   843   977
Semimanufactures (rolled) 15,107   21,166   26,148   29,465   30,161  
Iron and steel, metal:
Ferrochromium 10,559 r/ 24,231   11,861 r/ --   15,753  
Steel, crude, from electric furnaces 45,752   68,733   104,854   74,429 r/ 68,360  
Industrial minerals:
Cement thousand tons 1,842   2,134   2,294   2,712   2,852  
Clays:
Bentonite 9,728   7,331   7,581   8,441   10,013  
Ceramic clay 10,000 e/ 10,000 e/ 5,022   6,000   6,100 e/
Fire clay, crude e/ 5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000   5,500  
Gypsum:
Crude 86,060   102,470   107,800 r/ 137,991   150,765  
Calcined --   1,260   1,259   1,236   1,176  
Lime thousand tons 192   208   216   198   220  
Nitrogen, N content of ammonia do. 307   331   248   306 r/ 328  
Pumice and related materials, volcanic tuff do. 64   63   38   55   38  
Quartz, quartzite, glass sand 43,508   97,563   112,018 r/ 99,078 r/ 95,636  
Salt, all sources 18,820   16,620   24,050 r/ 18,373 r/ 33,668  
Sand and gravel, excluding glass sand thousand cubic meters 1,401   3,853   4,316   3,644   3,480  
Stone, excluding quartz and quartzite, dimension, crude:
Ornamental square meters 1,029,437   1,130,728   1,133,405   1,457,334 r/ 608,707  
Crushed and brown, n.e.s. thousand cubic meters 9,099   10,520   11,459   11,871   11,000 e/
Other e/ cubic meters 20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000   25,000  
Sulfur, byproduct of metallurgy e/ 15,000   15,000   15,000   15,000   15,000  
Mineral fuels and related materials:
Carbon, black 26,735   24,124   22,165   17,589   20,029  
Coal, bituminous thousand tons 64   49   51   15 r/ --  
Gas, natural, gross production million cubic meters 1,786   1,717   1,570   1,567   1,768  
Petroleum: As reported thousand tons 1,469   1,496   1,535 r/ 1,618 r/
Converted e/ thousand 42-gallon barrels 11,000   11,000   10,400   9,600   10,300  
Refinery products 4,731,974   5,056,289   5,053,000   5,438,000   5,700,000  
MACEDONIA e/ 6/
Metals:
Aluminum, metal, ingot, primary and secondary 4,000   4,000   5,850 7/ 5,000   4,500  
Cadmium, smelter output kilograms 85 4/ 50 /r 50 r/ 50 r/ 50  
Chromite:
Ore, gross weight 5,000   5,000   --   --   --  
Concentrate (produced largely from imported ores) 3,000   3,000   --   --   --  
Copper, mine and concentrate output:
Ore:
Gross weight thousand tons 2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000   2,000  
Cu content 8,484 4/ 8,000   9,100   10,000 r/ 10,000  
Concentrate:
Gross weight 20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000  
Cu content 13,500   13,000   9,100   9,000   9,000  
Gold kilograms 752 4/ 650   700   750 r/ 750  
Iron and steel:
Iron ore:
Gross weight 20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000  
Fe content of ore 1,000   1,000   1,000   1,000   1,000  
Concentrate 15,000   15,000   15,000   15,000   15,000  
Pellets 10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000  
Agglomerate 5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000  
Metal:
Ferroalloys:
Ferrochromium, low C 3,780 7/ 460 7/ -- /7 -- 7/ --  
Ferronickel (38% Ni), gross weight 7,900   7,900   9,500   5,000   --  
Ferrosilicon 57,220   55,000   96,700   63,000   65,000  
Silicon 1,000   1,000   1,000 r/ --   --  
Total 69,900   64,400   107,200 r/ 7/ 68,000 r/ 7/ 65,000  
Steel, crude 27,000   30,000   --   -- 7/   --  
Semimanufactures, hot rolled plate 109,000 r/ 7/ 183,700 r/ 7/ 251,081   159,643 r/ 7/ 244,044 7/
Lead:
Mine output:
Ore, gross weight (Pb-Zn ore) 846,244 7/ 850,000   867,182 7/ 670,000   850,000  
Pb content 27,000   28,000   26,000   26,000 7/ 25,000  
Concentrate, gross weight 16,885 7/ 17,000   14,328 7/ 12,300 r/ 7/ 16,500  

Primary and secondary:
Smelter 23,000 r/ 20,000   20,000   20,000   20,000  
Refined 23,600 r/ 26,046 r/ 7/ 28,415 7/ 19,738 r/ 7/ 22,900  
Nickel, metal, Ni content of FeNi 3,000   5,300   5,800   1,900 7/ --  
Silver kilograms 20,025 r/ 7/ 18,760 r/ 7/ 20,000   22,000 r/ 20,000  
Zinc:
Concentrate 15,017 7/ 15,800 r/ 14,328 7/ 8,000   12,200  
Metal, refined, primary and secondary:
Smelter 7,000   7,000   7,000   7,000   7,000  
Electrolytic 38,000   53,000   57,162 7/ 48,000 7/ 62,800  
Industrial minerals:
Cement thousand tons 491 7/ 500 7/ 461 7/ 520 7/ 585  
Clays, bentonite 30,000   30,000   30,000   30,000   30,000  
Diatomite 5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000  
Feldspar --   --   8,137 7/ 11,000   10,000  
Gypsum:
Crude 25,000   25,000   25,000   25,000   25,000  
Calcined 5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000  
Lime 20,000   10,000   924   -- 7/ 1,000  
Pumice and related materials, volcanic tuff 75,000   100,000   100,000   150,000   150,000  
Sand and gravel, excluding glass sand thousand cubic meters 130   130   130   150 r/ 150  
Stone, excluding quartz and quartzite, dimension, crude:
Ornamental square meters 186,783 7/ 190,000   190,000   200,000 r/ 200,000  
Crushed and brown, n.e.s. thousand cubic meters 400   400   400   400   400  
Other cubic meters 10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000  
Sulfur, byproduct of metallurgy thousand tons 6   6   6   6   6  
Talc:
Crude 10,000   10,000   10,000   9,000 r/ 10,000  
Washed 7,000   7,000   7,000   7,000   7,000  
Mineral fuels and related materials:
Coal, lignite thousand tons 7,887 7/ 7,165 7/ 7,500   7,500   7,000  
Petroleum refinery products thousand 42-gallon barrels 6,000   6,000   6,000   6,000   6,000  
SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO 8/
Metals:
Aluminum:
Gross weight:
Alumina, calcined 186,354   160,000   152,619   156,012   185,000 e/
Bauxite 323,000   470,000   226,000   500,000   630,000  
Metal ingot, primary and secondary 37,346   65,743   60,090   72,505   88,151  
Antimony, metal (9/)   --   --   --   --  
Bismuth, metal kilograms 21   20 e/ 430   --   --  
Cadmium do. 79,195   80,000 e/ 17,320   --   --  
Copper:
Mine and concentrator output:
Ore:
Gross weight thousand tons 20,026   20,507   19,939   15,975   12,896  
Cu content 82,526   82,500   84,627   62,777   52,000 e/
Concentrate:
Gross weight 337,861   361,000   372,103   272,172   200,000 e/
Cu content 69,500   73,600   70,900 e/ 51,700   41,000 e/
Metal, primary:
Blister and anodes:
Primary 59,940   59,000 e/ 101,000   54,000   45,000 e/
Remelted 65,287   60,000 e/ 101,925   49,782   45,000 e/
Total 125,227   119,000 e/ 202,925   103,782   90,000  
Refined:
Primary 59,940   70,534   54,000   48,000   45,632  
Remelted 44,060   43,000   40,396   1,902   40,000 e/
Total 104,000   113,534   94,396   49,902   85,600 e/
Gold, refined kilograms
Iron and steel: 4,000   4,000   2,684   1,260   1,300  
Ore and concentrate,

agglomerate

50,000 e/ 25,000   5,125   2,088   2,000 e/
Metal:
Ferroalloys, ferronickel 6,501   6,500 e/ 1,215   --   --  
Pig iron 535,000   907,000   825,916   134,882   563,000  
Crude steel 679,000   979,000   948,314   226,240   682,000  
Semimanufactures 860,000   1,460,000   1,740,000   296,300   739,000  
Lead:
Mine and concentrator output:
Ore:
Gross weight (Pb-Zn ore) 856,468   1,049,000   1,248,852   348,605   602,000  
Pb content 22,327   27,000 e/ 24,750   4,553   12,000 e/
Concentrate:
Gross weight 29,009   31,000 e/ 32,691   6,536   25,000 e/
Pb content 10,000   11,000   12,000   3,200   9,000  
Metal, primary and secondary:
Smelter 44,600   41,000   35,576   9,000 r/ 18,000  
Refined 30,317   23,632   23,756   3,690   1,242  
Magnesium, metal 2,500 e/ 2,500 r/ e/ 3,965   1,203   1,200  
Nickel, metal, Ni content of FeNi 2,556   2,440   466   --   --  
Platinum-group metals:
Palladium kilograms 56   55 e/ 54   21   21 e/
Platinum do. 3   3 e/ 3   3   3 e/
Selenium do. 37,840   38,000 e/ 40,866   20,080   20,000 e/
Silver do. 68,805   42,640   34,474   7,643 r/ 7,645  
Zinc:
Zn content:
Pb-Zn ore 21,765   25,000 e/ 20,285   4,329   12,000 e/
Concentrate 12,000   13,000   14,000   5,000 e/ 11,000 e/
Concentrator output, gross weight 37,012   35,000 e/ 40,530   10,286   23,000 e/
Refined 29,954   29,454   14,415   683 r/ 8,291  
Industrial minerals:
Asbestos, all kinds 509   765   1,452   361   563  
Cement thousand tons 2,205   2,011   2,253   1,575   2,117  
Clays:
Bentonite 95   100 e/ 68   77   75 e/
Ceramic clay 36,021   35,000 e/ 40,033   29,420   30,000 e/
Fire clay:
Crude 43,053   51,000   45,319   25,766   30,000 e/
Calcined e/ 8,000   10,000   10,000   4,000   10,000  
Kaolin:
Crude 60,000 e/ 60,000 e/ 75,092   40,321   40,000 e/
Washed e/ 6,000   6,000   6,000   4,000   4,000  
Feldspar, crude 4,801   4,880   4,280   3,453   3,000 e/
Gypsum, crude 44,257   32,124   27,778   33,962   30,000 e/
Lime thousand tons 456   460   480   381   497  
Magnesite:
Crude do. 89   98   949   31   40  
Caustic calcined 10,601   6,327   7,044   2,000   3,000 e/
Mica, all grades 200 e/ 200 e/ 247   229   230  
Nitrogen, N content of ammonia 235,070   235,000   166,152   75,788   150,000 e/
Pumice and related materials, volcanic tuff 120,135   120,000 e/ 120,000   50,000   120,000 e/
Quartz sand thousand tons 361   366   353   253   418  
Salt, all sources 21,646   28,000   78,148   63,834   78,277  
Sand and gravel, excluding glass sand thousand cubic meters 3,291   2,351   3,060   2,006   2,000  
Sodium compounds:
Caustic soda 20,214   64,713   63,344   13,720   7,415  
Sodium sulfate 7,000 e/ 5,000   1,896   1,321   800 e/ Stone, excluding quartz and quartzite, dimension, crude:
Ornamental square meters 219,000   206,000   258,000   182,000   20,000 e/
Crushed and brown, n.e.s. thousand cubic meters 2,263   2,665   3,085   1,937   3,000 e/
Other, stone blocks cubic meters 12,196   9,817   1,630   786   1,000 e/
Sulfur, byproduct: e/
Metallurgy thousand tons 110   100   100   100   100  
Petroleum do. 1   1   1   1   1  
Total do. 111   101   101   101   101  
Mineral fuels and related materials:
Coal:
Bituminous thousand tons 63   92   105   49   88  
Brown do. 539   512   390   413   398  
Lignite do. 37,828   42,313   43,577   30,967   33,638  
Total do. 38,430   42,917   44,072   31,429   34,124  
Gas, natural, gross production million cubic meters 671   688   731 r/ 679 r/ 729  
Petroleum:
Crude:
Gross weight thousand tons 1,030   979   913   705   805  
Converted e/ thousand 42-gallon barrels 7,600   7,500   6,800   5,200   6,000 4/
Refinery products thousand tons 1,800 r/ 3,167 r/ 2,549 r/ 1,047 r/ 1,100 e/

SLOVENIA 6/

Metals:
Aluminum, metal, ingot, primary and secondary 59,486   74,400   73,803 r/ 77,200 r/ e/ 100,000  
Iron and steel, metal:
Ferroalloys:
Ferrochromium 23,142   9,232   10,621   560   600  
Ferrosilicocalcium e/ 200   200   200   200   200  
Ferrosilicon e/ 10,000   10,000   10,000   8,000   9,000  
Steel, crude, from electric furnaces 328,000   372,700   405,210   405,000   450,000  
Semimanufactures 175,000   150,000   150,000   100,000 e/ 100,000  
Lead, metal:
Primary and secondary:
Smelter e/ 6,000   7,000   7,000   5,800 r/ 6,000  
Refined 5,601   15,000   14,000   15,000   15,000 e/
Semimanufactures, rolled 241   300   300   300 e/ 300 e/
Industrial minerals:
Cement thousand tons 1,026   1,113   1,149   1,224 r/ 1,300  
Clays:
Ceramic clay, crude e/ 2,500   2,500   2,500   2,500   2,500  
Fire clay 600   --   --   -- e/ -- e/
Kaolin: e/
Crude 10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000  
Washed 4,000   4,000   4,000   4,000   4,000  
Lime thousand tons 136   140   150   150 e/ 150 e/
Pumice and related materials, volcanic tuff e/ 40,000   40,000   40,000   40,000   40,000  
Quartz, quartzite, glass sand: e/
Quartz and quartzite 10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000   10,000  
Glass sand 200,000   200,000   200,000   200,000   200,000  
Total 210,000   210,000   210,000   210,000   210,000  
Salt, all sources 4,033   5,000   5,000   5,000   5,000  
Sand and gravel, excluding glass sand thousand tons 10,498   10,298   10,076   12,637 r/ 14,000  
Stone, excluding quartz and quartzite, crude: e/
Dimension 93,000   82,000   91,000   104,000   105,000  
Other cubic meters 3,000   3,000   3,000   3,000   3,000  
Mineral fuels and related materials:
Coal:
Brown thousand tons 841   812   827   758 r/ 800  
Lignite do. 3,937   4,163   4,100 r/ 3,804 r/ 3,900  
Gas, natural, gross production thousand cubic meters 12,840   12,100   12,500   12,500 e/ 12,500 e/
Petroleum, crude thousand tons 1,400   1,100   900   100   100 e/

e/ Estimated. r/ Revised. -- Zero.
1/ Estimated data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add totals shown.
2/ Table includes data available through May 18, 2001.
3/ In addition to commodities listed, a variety of industrial minerals and construction materials (common clay, quartz, sand and gravel, stone, and titanomagnesite) are produced; output is not reported quantitatively, and available information is inadequate to make reliable estimates of output levels.
4/ Includes asphalt and bitumen produced at petroleum refineries.
5/ Separate data on marketable production are not available, but gross and marketed output are regarded as being nearly equal. 6/ In addition to the commodities listed, common clay was also produced, but available information was inadequate to make reliable estimates of output.
7/ Reported figure.
8/ In addition to the commodities listed, common clay and diatomite are also produced, but available information was inadequate to make reliable estimates of output.


TABLE 2
ALBANIA: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2000 1/
(Thousand metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity Location of main facilities (all state-owned) Annual capacity
Cement   Elbasan, 32 kilometers southeast of Tirana; Kruje, 20 kilometers northwest of Tirana; Shkoder, 85 kilometers northwest of Tirana; and Vlore, southwest of Tirana 1,200
Chromite   Bater (including Bater I and II and Martanesh), 40 kilometers northwest of Tirana 450
Do.   Bulquize (including Bulquize south, Fush, Terrnove, and Todo Maco), 35 kilometers northwest of Tirana 450
Do.   Kalimash, 60 kilometers north of Tirana 250
Do.   Kam, 70 kilometers north of Tirana 100
Do.   Klos, 20 kilometers northeast of Tirana 50
Do.   Pogradec (including Katjiel, Memelisht, Pojske, Pishkash, and Prrenjas), 50 kilometers east of Tirana 100
Ferrochromium   Burrel, 35 kilometers northeast of Tirana 40
Do.   Elbasan, 32 kilometers southeast of Tirana 36
Copper:
Ore   Fushe-Arrez, 80 kilometers north of Tirana 350
Do.   Gjejan, 100 kilometers northeast of Tirana 150
Do.   Golaj (including Nikoliq and Pus), 120 kilometers northeast of Tirana 150
Do.   Kurbnesh-Perlat, 55 kilometers northeast of Tirana 100
Do.   Rehove, 110 kilometers southeast of Tirana 100
Do.   Reps (including Gurch, Lajo, Spac, and Thurr), 55 kilometers north of Tirana 350
Do.   Rreshen, 50 kilometers north of Tirana 50
Do.   Shkoder (including Palaj, Karma I and II), 85 kilometers northwest of Tirana 100
Smelter   Kukes, 110 kilometers northeast of Tirana 6
Do.   Lac, 35 kilometers northwest of Tirana 7
Do.   Rubik, 50 kilometers north of Tirana 4
Iron ore   Prrenjas (Bushtrica, Prrenjas, Skorska I and II), 70 kilometers southeast of Tirana 650
Do.   Guri i Kuq (including Cervenake, Grasishta, Guri i Kuq, Hudenisht and Gun Perfjrgjur), 25 kilometers east of Tirana 500
Steel   "Steel of the Party" Metallurgical Combine at Elbasan 150
Nickel, smelter   Elbasan 6
Coal, lignite   Maneze, Mezes, and Valias Mines in Tirana Durres area; Krabe Mine, 20 kilometers southeast of Tirana; Alarup and Cervnake Mines, in Pogradec area, 80 kilometers southeast of Tirana; Mborje-Drenove Mine in Korce area, 85 kilometers southwest of Tirana; and Memaliaj Mine in Tepelene area, 110 kilometers south of Tirana 2,500
Natural gas million cubic feet Gasfields on southwest Albania between Ballsh and Fier 16,000
Petroleum:
Crude 42-gallon barrels per day Oilfields at Marineze, Ballsh, Shqisht, Patos, Kucova, Gorrisht, and others 35,000
Refined do. Refineries: Ballsh, Cerrik, Fier, and Stalin 33,000
1/ A substantial portion of these enterprises have been operating significantly below capacity during the transition to a market economy; the capacities provided in this table only represent the latest available information and may not show the true status of these enterprises.

TABLE 3
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2000
(Thousand metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity   Major operating companies Location of main facilities Annual capacity
Alumina   Energoinvest Plants at Birac-Zvornik 600
Do.   do Plant at Mostar 280
Aluminum   do. Smelter at Mostar 92
Bauxite   do. Mines at Vlasenica, Jajce, Bosanska Krupa, Posusje, Listica, Citluk, and other locations. 2,000
Coal:
Brown   SOUR Titovi Rudnici Uglja, Tuzla Mines in BiH 12,000
Lignite   do. do. 7,000
Cement   Gik Hidrogradnja, Tvornica Cementa BiH Plant at Kakanj 650
Ferroalloys   Elktrobosna, Elektrohemijska i Eletrotermijska Industrija Plant at Jajce 80
Iron ore   Rudarsko Metalurski Kombinat Zenica Mines at Vares, Ljubija, and Radovan 5,000
Lead-zinc ore   Energoinvest Mine and mill at Srebrenica 300
Manganese ore   Mangan-Energoinvest Mine and concentrator at Buzim 100
Petroleum:
Refined thousand barrels per day Energoinvest: Rafinerija Nafte Bosanski Brod Refinery at Bosanski Brod 100
Pig iron   Rudarsko metalurski Kombinat Zenica (RMK Zenica) 4 blast furnaces at Zenica 2,250
Do.   do. 2 blast furnaces at Vares 100
Do.   do. Electric reduction furnaces at Iljas 100
Salt cubic meters per year Hemijski Kombinat "Sodaso," Rudnik Soli i Solni Bunari Rock salt mines at Tusanj 120,000
Do. do. do. Production from brine at Tuzla 2,000,000
Steel, crude   Rudarsko Metalurski Kombinat Zenica Plant at Zenica 2060


TABLE 4,br />CROATIA: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERALS INDUSTRY IN 2000
(Thousand metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity   Major operating companies Location of main facilities Annual capacity
Alumina   Jadral, Jadranski Aluminijum Jadral Alumina Plant 150
Aluminum   Boris Kidric Tvornica Lakih Metala Smelter at Sibenik 75
Do.   Top-Tvornica Olovni i Aluminjskikh Semimanufactures producer at Savska NA
Bauxite   Jadral, Jadranski Aluminijum Mines in at Obrovac, Drnis, and other locations 450
Coal, bituminous   Istarski Ugljenokopi Rasa Mines at Labin and Potpican 500
Cement   Dalmacija Cement Sv. Jurai plant at Kastel Sucurac 1,300
Do.   do. Sv. Kajo plant at Solin 750
Do.   do. Majdan plant at Solin Majdan 780
Do.   Istra Cement International D.D. Plant at Pula 70
Do.   Tvornica Cementa Koromacno Plant at Koromacno 420
Do.   Tvornica Cementa Umag D.D. Cement plant at Umag 480
Do.   Nasicecement D.D. Nacise plant at Tajnovac 840
Natural gas style="border-bottom:1px solid black;" million cubic feet do. Main natural gasfields at Bogsic Lug, and Molve 70,000
Petroleum:
Crude thousand barrels per day Industrija Nafted.d. Zagreb (INA) Oilfields in Croatia and Slovenia include Benicanci, Zutica, Struzec, Ivanic Grad, and Lendava 70
Do. do. do. Refineries at Urinj and Rijeka 160
Do. do. do. Refinery at Sisak 150
Pig iron   Metalurski Kombinat Zeljezara Sisak Two blast furnaces at Sisak 235
Salt cubic meters Solana Pag, Solana Ante Festin Marine salt: Pag Island 13
Steel, crude   SP MK Zeljezare Sisak d.d. Plant at Sisak 401
Do.   Jadranska Zelejzara Split Plant at Split 120
NA Not available.

TABLE 5
MACEDONIA: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2000
(Thousand metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity   Major operating companies Location of main facilities Annual capacity e/
Cement   Azbestcementa "Usje" Preduzece za Proizvodnju Cementa Plant at Skopje 2,190
Chromite, concentrate   Jugohrom, Hemijsko-Elektrometakurski Kombinat (HEK) Concentrator at Radusa 150
Copper ore   Bucim, Rabotna Organizacija za Rudarstvo i Metalurgija za Baker Mine and mill at Bucim, near Radovis 7,000
Ferroalloys   Jugohrom, Hemijsko-Elektrometalurski Kombinat (HEK)-Jegunovce Plant at Jegunovce 80
Iron ore   Skopje, Rudnici i Zeljezarnica Skopje Mines at Tajmiste, Demir Hisar, and Damjan 1,000
Lead-zinc ore   Prepobotuvacki, Kombinat Zletovo-Sasa: Sase, Rudnici za Olovo i Cink Mine and mill near Kamenica |700Do. Zletovo, Rudnici za Olovo i Cink Mine and mill near Probistip 300
Lead metal   Zletovo, Topilnica za Cink i Olovo Imperial smelter at Titov Veles 40
Do.   do. Refinery at Titov Veles 40
Nickel: 1/
Ore   Feni-Rudnici i Industrija za Nikel, Celik i Antimon Mine and opencast mine near Kavadarci 2,300
Metal   do. Ferronickel plant at Kavadarci 161
Pig iron   Skopje, Rudnici i Zeljezarnica Skopje Five Elkem electric furances at Skopje 430
Steel, crude   do. Plant at Skopje 980
Zinc metal   Zletovo, Topilnica za Cink i Olovo Imperial Smelter plant and refinery at Titov Veles 65
e/ Estimated.
1/ Nickel in ferronickel.

TABLE 6
SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO: STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2000
(Thousand of metric tons unless otherwise specified)

Commodity   Major operating companies Location of main facilities Annual capcity.
Alumina   Kombinat Aluminijuma Titograd Plant at Titograd, Montenegro 200.
Aluminum   do. Smelter at Titograd, Montenegro 100.
Antimony, ores and concentrates   Zajaca, Rudarsko Tapionicarski Bazen Mines and mills near Zajaca, Serbia 80.
Do.   do. Mines and mill at Rajiceva Gora, Serbia 300.
Antimony, metal   do. Smelter at Zajaca, Serbia 4
Bauxite   Rudnici Boksita, Niksic Mines in Montenegro at Kutsko Brdo, Zagrad, Biocki Stan, Durakov Dol, and other locations 650
Coal:
Bituminous   Ibarski Rudnici Kamenog Uglja Mines at Jarando and Usce, near Baljevac na Ibru, Serbia 250
Lignite   SOUR Kolubara, Rudarsko Energetsko Industrijski Kombinat, RO Opencast mines: Polje B and Polje D 10,000
Do.   Kolubara Povrsinski Kopovi Tamnavski Kopovi (also known as Kolubarski Rudnici Lignita), near Vreoci, Serbia 14,000
Do.   SOUR Elektroprivreda Kosova, RO Kosovo, Proizvodnja Separacija i Transport Uglja Opencast mines at Dobro Selo and Belacevac, near Obilic, Serbia 2,000
Cement   Becinska Fabrika Cementa Plant at Beocin, Serbia 2031
Do.   Fabrika Cementa Novi Plant at Popovac, Serbia 1613
Copper   Popovac Rudarsko Topionicki Bazen Bor Smelter at Bor, Serbia 180
Do.   do. Electrolytic refinery at Bor, Serbia 180.
Do.   do. Mine and mill at Bor, Serbia 5,000 ore.
Do.   do. Mine and mill at Majdanpek, Serbia Mine and mill at Veliki Krivelj, Serbia 15,000 ore.
Do.   do. Mine and mill at Veliki Krivelj, Serbia 8,000 ore.
Lead-zinc ore   Rudarsko-Metalursko-Hemijski Kombinat za Olovo i Cink Trepca Mines at Ajvalija, Kopanaonik, Badovac; Trepca, Trepca, Blagodat, Lece; Veliki Majdan, Tisovak; and Kisnica, Rudnik, Suplja Stijena 5000
Do.   Rudarsko-Metalursko-Hemijski Kombinat za Olovo i Cink Trepca Mills at Kriva Feja, Lece, Rudnik, Badovac, Leposavic, Zvecan, and Maravce, Suplja Stijena 3,160.


This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).

  1. Where necessary, values have been converted from German deutsche marks (DM) to U.S. dollars (US$) at the rate of DM1.00=US$0.48.