Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute/Volume 17


TRANSACTIONS


AND


PROCEEDINGS


OF THE


NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE,


1884.


VOL. XVII.


EDITED AND PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE INSTITUTE,


By

JAMES HECTOR, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.


Issued May, 1885.


WELLINGTON:
LYON AND BLAIR, PRINTERS, LAMBTON QUAY

TRUBNER & CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON.


CORRIGENDA.




PAGE.
  5, line 3 from bottom, for corner read cornu
 13, 16, 19 and 20, for Plate VII. read Plate VIII.
 16, line 9, read Chermes (Anisophleba) pini,
 20 and 31, for Plate VIII. read Plate VII.
151, line 20, for Phaomidæ read Phasmidæ
158, line 19, for Pupirora read Pupivora
167, to last 3 lines in table of dimensions, add from snout
179, line 16, for Wairau read Wairoa
260, line 1, for luteo-vivens read luteo-virens
263, line 10 from bottom, for vividulum read viridulum
268, line 22, for hyssoid read byssoid
270, line 23, for primatisect read pinnatisect
274, line 10 from bottom, for isolated read abundant
293, line 11, for heavier read hairier
314, line 22, for pisaniopsis read pisanopsis
342, line 9 from bottom, for lakes read caves
361, line 14, for Timaru read London
369, line 21, for straum read steam
369, line 14 from bottom, for Maddeburg read Magdeburg
372, line 23, for lava read Java
376, line 4, for Secchi read Facchini
376, line 8 from bottom, for Breithom read Breithorn
384, line 22, for intense read vitreous
403, line 22, for Cosee read Coxe

CONTENTS.




TRANSACTIONS.


I.—Zoology.
PAGES
Art. I. Notes on the Skeleton and Baleen of a Fin-whale (Balænoptera musculus?) recently acquired by the Otago University Museum. By T. Jeffery Parker, B. Sc. Lond., Professor of Biology in the University of Otago 3–13
II. Note on an Aphidian Insect infesting Pine Trees, with Observations on the Name "Chermes" or "Kermes." By W. M. Maskell, F.R.M.S. 13–19
III. On a Parasite of the Penguin. By W. M. Maskell 19–20
IV. Further Notes on Coccidæ in New Zealand. By W. M. Maskell 20–31
V. On the Spiders of New Zealand. By A. T. Urquhart 31–53
VI. The Fresh-water Shells of New Zealand belonging to the Family Limnæidæ. By Professor F. W. Hutton 54–58
VII. Description of a new Species of Paper Nautilus (Argonauta gracilis). By T. W. Kirk 58–59
VIII. Notice of the Occurrence of the Eastern Golden Plover (Charadrius fulvus, Gml.) near Wellington. By T. W. Kirk 59–60
IX. Notes on some New Zealand Birds, exhibiting curious Variations of Colour. By T. W. Kirk 60–62
X. Supplement to a Monograph of the New Zealand Geometrina. By E. Meyrick, B.A. 62–68
XI. Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-lepidoptera. By E. Meyrick 68–120
XII. Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-lepidoptera. By E. Meyrick 121–140
XIII. Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-lepidoptera. By E. Meyrick 141–149
XIV. Description of a small Lizard, a Species of Naultinus, supposed to be new to Science. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 149–151
XV. A Description of some newly-discovered New Zealand Insects believed to be new to Science. By W. Colenso 151–160
XVI. Notes on New Zealand Fishes. By W. Arthur, C.E. 160–172
XVII. Notes on Moa Remains in the Mackenzie Country and other Localities. By Frederick R. Chapman 172–178
XVIII. Objections to the Introduction of Beasts of Prey to destroy the Rabbit. By H. B. Martin 179–182
XIX. A short Description of a few Experiments bearing on the Question of Spontaneous Generation. By Dr. J. Hudson 182–186
XX. Notes on New Zealand Ornithology. By A. Reischek; communicated by Dr. Hector 187–198
XXI. Description of a new Octopus. By James Park 198–199
XXII. The Plague of Rats in Nelson and Marlborough. By John Meeson, B.A. 199–207
XXIII. Notes on the Dolphins of the New Zealand Seas. By James Hector, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S. 207–211
II.—Botany.
XXIV. On the Flowering Plants of Stewart Island. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 213–228
XXV. On the Ferns and Fern Allies of Stewart Island. By T. Kirk 228–234
XXVI. New Species of Plants. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., Curator of the Auckland Museum 235–236
XXVII. A Description of some newly-discovered and rare Indigenous Plants; being a further Contribution towards the making known the Botany of New Zealand. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 237–265
XXVIII. A List of Fungi recently discovered in New Zealand. By W. Colenso 265–269
XXIX. Description of new Species of Native Plants. By D. Petrie, M.A. 269–271
XXX. Description of three new Species of Uncinia. By D. Petrie 271–272
XXXI. Description of a new Species of Carmichælia, with Notes on the Distribution of the Species native to Otago. By D. Petrie 272–274
XXXII. On the Botany of Te Aroha Mountain. By J. Adams, B.A. 275–287
XXXIII. Description of a new Species of Erigeron. By J. Buchanan, F.L.S. 287–288
XXXIV. Notes on Loranthus fieldii, Buchanan. By H. C. Field; communicated by Dr. Buller 288–290
XXXV. Notes on the Occurrence and Habits of some of our New Zealand Plants. By W. S. Hamilton 290–293
XXXVI. On the Punui of Stewart Island, Aralia lyallii, n.s. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 293–297
XXXVII. Description of a new Species of Fagus. By T. Kirk 297–298
XXXVIII. Notes on the New Zealand Beeches. By T. Kirk 293–306
III.—Geology.
XXXIX. On the Age of the Orakei Bay Beds near Auckland. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 307–313
XL. Descriptions of new Tertiary Shells. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 313–332
XLI. On the Geological Structure of the Southern Alps of New Zealand, in the Provincial Districts of Canterbury and Westland. By Professor Julius von Haast, C.M.G., Ph.D., F.R.S. 332–337
XLII. Note on Geological Structure of the Canterbury Mountains. By Dr. Hector, Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand 337–340
XLIII. Analysis of Slate in contact with Granite from Preservation Inlet, New Zealand. By A. Liversidge, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, University of Sydney; communicated by Professor F. W. Hutton 340–341
XLIV. On Water-worn Pebbles in the Soil. By James Coutts Crawford 341–342
XLV. On Changes in the Hataitai Valley. By James Coutts Crawford 342–343
XLVI. On the Drift Beds of Wakapuaka and Port Hills, with Remarks on the Boulder Bank and its Formation. By W. Wells 344–350
XLVII. The Ascent of Mount Franklin. By James Park, Survey Department 350–356
IV.—Miscellaneous.
XLVIII. On the recent Sun-glows and the Theories that have been advanced to account for them. By John Meeson, B.A. 357–386
XLIX. Red Sunsets. By William Ringwood 386–397
L. On a System of Technical Education for Artizans. By C. W. Purnell 398–407
LI. On Gravitational Experiments. By T. Wakelin 407–410
LII. Is Life a Distinct Force? By R. H. Bakewell, M.D., Fellow of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of London, etc. 410–417
LIII. Description of Mayor Island, Bay of Plenty. By E. C. Gold-Smith 417–427
LIV. On the Establishment of a Grand Hotel and Sanatorium in the Rotorua District. By James Stewart, M. Inst. C.E. 427–435
LV. Cat's Eye Bay. By Donald Sutherland 435–436
NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE.
Sixteenth Annual Report of the Board of Governors 439–440

PROCEEDINGS.
WELLINGTON PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY.
Address by the President, Dr. Buller, C.M.G., F.R.S. (abstract) 443–446
On a Deposit of Ironstone at Kawakawa, Bay of Islands. By A. McKay 446
On the Geology of Kawhia Harbour and the Mokau Country. By Dr. Hector 447
On the Suitability of New Zealand White Pine when creosoted for Railway Sleepers. By Dr. Hector 447
Notes on an Excursion to the Islands of Tonga, Samoa, Fiji, etc. By J. C. Crawford 447
On a Peculiar Form of Gold in Quartz. By Dr. Hector 447
List of Plants injured by Frost, at Taita, near Wellington. By T. Mason 447–448
Review of a Paper on the Moa by A. de Quatrefages. By W. M. Maskell 448
Notes on Identity of Minerals from the Wade and Makara. By Dr. Hector 448
On the Kea or Mountain Parrot. By A. McKay (abstract) 449
On Floating Breakwaters. By E. A. Gibbon 449
Abstract of Report for 1884 449–450
Election of Officers for 1885 450
On Australian Cave Paintings 450
Remarks on new New Zealand Birds. By Dr. Buller (abstract) 450
AUCKLAND INSTITUTE.
Anniversary Address by the President (abstract) 451–452
Notes on a Bird called Malau. By the Rev. S. W. Baker (abstract) 452
A Decade of new Feroniidæ. By Captain T. Broun, M.E.S. 452
New Species of Pselaphidæ. By Captain Broun 453
The Curse of Charity. By E. A. Mackechnie (abstract) 453–454
Observations on Geyser Eruptions and Terrace Formations. Part I. By J. Martin, F.G.S. 454
Buddhism and its Evolution Theories. Part I. By J. Murray Moore, M.D. 454
Geyser Eruptions and Terrace Formations. Part II. By J. Martin, F.G.S. 454
New Species of Coleoptera. By Captain T. Broun, M.E.S. 454
Buddhism and its Evolution Theories. Part II. By J. Murray Moore, M.D. 454
A successful Litigant. By E. A. Mackechnie 455
Notes on the Fertilization of certain New Zealand Plants. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 455
On re-naming New Zealand. By W. H. Blyth 455
Abstract of Report for 1884 455–456
Election of Officers for 1885 456
PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE OF CANTERBURY.
On Earthquakes. By Professor Hutton 457
Technical Education. By D. Blair 457
The Diamond Fields of South Africa. By Professor Hutton 457
The exceptional Advantage of New Zealand for Sericiculture. By G. B. Federli 457
Haast1|In Memoriam—Ferdinand Ritter von Hochstetter. By Professor Julius von Haast, C.M.G., Ph.D., F.R.S. 458
Remarks on the Canõn District of Colorado. By Professor Julius von Haast, C.M.G., Ph.D., F.R.S. 458
Resolutions regarding the New Zealand Institute 458
Abstract of Annual Report 459
Election of Officers for 1885 459
Address by the President 459
Origin of the Fauna and Flora of New Zealand. Part II. By Professor Hutton 459
OTAGO INSTITUTE.
On the New Zealand Institute, its Relation to the Affiliated Societies and to Scientific Work in New Zealand generally. By G. M. Thomson. (Abstract) 460–461
On the Anatomy of the Sea Mussel (Mytilus latus). By A. Purdie 461
On Additions to the Museum. By Prof. T. J. Parker, B.Sc. (abstract) 461–462
On the Early History of New Zealand. By Dr. Hocken 461
On some Mineral Occurrences in Dusky Sound. By Prof. Ulrich 462
Abstract of Annual Report 462
Election of Officers for 1885 462
On some Scientific Duties of the Government. By the President 462
WESTLAND INSTITUTE.
Abstract of Annual Report 463
HAWKE'S BAY PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE.
Election of Officers for 1884 464
On the Volcanic Disturbances in the Straits of Sunda. By the President 464
On the Birds of the Petane District, Hawke's Bay. By A. Hamilton 464
Exhibition of Fruit of the Persimmon. By Mr. Gilberd 464
On the Vegetating Caterpillar of New Zealand. By A. Hamilton 464
On Additions to the Museum. By A. Hamilton 464–465
Observations on some Hybrid Ducks. By Taylor White
A Plea for National Education. By H. Hill, B.A., Inspector of Schools 465
Remarks on New Zealand Birds. By A. Hamilton 465
Remarks on Echinoderms. By A. Hamilton 465
On a Species of Cuttlefish (Ommastrephes sloanii). By A. Hamilton (abstract) 465
On the Effect of the Scientific Societies of New Zealand on the Character of the Nation. By A. Hamilton 466
Abstract of Annual Report 466
Election of Officers for 1885 466
SOUTHLAND INSTITUTE.
On Development. By Dr. Galbraith 467
On the Records of an old English Borough. By the Rev. H. Stocker 467
On the Lignine Origin of the Quartz-pebble Beds of Southland. By W. S. Hamilton 467
On the Settlement of the People on the Lands. By Mr. Morgan 167
On the Senses and the Intellect. By Dr. Closs 167
On Alcohol. By Dr. Macpherson 168
On the Chemistry of Explosives. By P. F. Daniel 168
Abstract of Annual Report 468
Election of Officers for 1885 468
NELSON PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY.
The History of the English Alphabet. By the Rev. St. Clair Tisdall 469
The Ascent of Mount Franklin. By W. S. Curtis 469
Some Observations on the Protozoa. By J. Gully, jun. 469
Agricultural Chemistry. By T. Hackett 469
On the Protection of Native Birds. By Hugh Martin 469
Nelson, a.d. 2,000. By the Rev. Dr. Taylor 469
Annual Address by the President 470
Abstract of Annual Report 470
Election of Officers for 1884–85 470
Resolution regarding the Constitution of the New Zealand Institute 470
Sanitary Law and its Influence on the Health and Well-being of the Community. By W. Wells 471
On the Protection of Native Birds. By Hugh Martin (abstract) 471

APPENDIX.
Meteorological Statistics for 1884 xlv.
Notes on the Weather during 1884 xlvi.
Earthquakes reported in New Zealand during 1884 xvlii.
Honorary Members of the New Zealand Institute xlviii.
Ordinary Members of the New Zealand Institute xlviii.–lxi.
List of Institutions and Individuals to whom this Volume is presented lxii.–lxv.
Corrigenda iii.
Contents v.–ix.
List of Plates x.
Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute xi.
Abstracts of Rules and Statutes of the New Zealand Institute xi.–xiii.
List of Incorporated Societies xiv.
Officers of Incorporated Societies, and Extracts from the Rules xiv.–xvi.
Anniversary Address of the President, His Excellency Sir W. F. D. Jervois G.C.M.G., C.B., etc. xix.–xli.



LIST OF PLATES.


TO FACE
PAGE.
I. Presidential Address.—Waitemata Harbour Defences xxxiv.
II. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} Port Nicholson Defences xxxiv.
III. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} Lyttelton Harbour Defences xxxiv.
IV. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} Otago Harbour Defences xxxiv.
V. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} Bluff Harbour Defences xxxiv.
VI. Parker.—Balænoptera musculus 8
VII. Maskell.Coccidæ 24
VIII. {{{1}}}Kermaphis pini, var. lævis
Ixodes eudyptidis
16
IX. Urquhart.—Spiders 32
X. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} 40
XI. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} 48
XII. Hutton.Limnæidæ 56
XIII. T. W. Kirk.Argonauta gracilis and A. tuberculata 58
XIV. Arthur.—New Zealand Fishes 168
XV. Buchanan.Erigeron novæ-zealandiæ 288
XVI. T. Kirk.Fagus blairii 298
XVII. {{{1}}}Stilbocarpa polaris, Aralia lyallii 296
XVIII. Hutton.—Fossil Shells 320
XIX. Ringwood.—Diagram showing Equatorial Velocity of the Earth 392
XX. Sutherland.—Cat's Eye Bay 436