Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute/Volume 2











Issued April, 1870.




The first volume of the "Transactions" contained several Communications and Essays that had accumulated from previous years, and it was therefore anticipated in the Preface that the succeeding volumes would not equal it in size. The present issue, however, has not fallen off in this respect, as it contains almost an equal number of pages, which are of larger size; while the number of original Articles has increased from twenty-three to sixty-three, contributed by thirty-two different authors.

The arrangement of the work has been improved by dividing it into Sections, according to the subjects treated of.

Part I. contains the original communications of the various Societies, during the Session of 1869, which have been selected for publication by the Councils of the Societies, and approved by the Board of Governors of the Institute.

These Articles have been classified, for convenience of reference, under the following Sections: I. Natural History,—II. Botany,—III. Chemistry,—IV. Geology,—V. Miscellaneous.

There are three exceptions to this arrangement, owing to the papers not having been received in time for insertion in their proper places:—a Zoological paper by Dr. Haast, "On the Ziphid Whale," and one on a Botanical subject by Mr. Buchanan, appearing among the Miscellaneous Articles; and at page 385, near the end of the volume, an Ornithological paper, by Mr. Buller, has been inserted.

Part II. contains Lectures on Scientific subjects, delivered during the year, in addition to one, by Mr. Fitzgerald, reserved from last year.

Part III. consists of the Minutes of the Proceedings of Meetings of the various Incorporated Societies, which have been condensed from Reports furnished by the Secretaries. Among these Reports will be found abstracts of papers that have not been printed at length, and the Annual Addresses of the Presidents of the Societies.

In the Appendix will be found an abstract of the Meteorological Returns for the year.

The number of members of affiliated Societies, who are entitled to receive copies of this volume, gratis, according to the lists published in the Appendix, has increased from 255 in 1868, to 342 in last year. The Governors also distribute, as presentations or in exchange, about fifty copies in addition, to various Learned Bodies and Public Libraries.

Although the supply of algebraic type, obtained for the purpose, is still imperfect, the two papers by Captain Hutton, reserved from last year, have been printed in this volume; the deficiencies being supplied by a few letters and signs not generally used in mathematical formulæ, for which the reader's indulgence is requested.

Amongst the papers reserved are several relating to purely medical subjects, chiefly communicated to the Medical Section of the Auckland Institute. As these papers do not contain matter of general interest, the Board considered it advisable to hold them over for future publication, in a separate form, for the professional reader.

Whenever it was found possible, without delaying the progress of the work through the press, proof sheets were submitted to the authors for revision, but in the majority of cases this was found to be impracticable; in which case the final revision, as well as the preparation of the papers for the press, was performed by the Editor. In one instance, the author, Mr. Potts, came from Canterbury to revise the proof sheets of his paper on "Birds," for which attention the Editor desires to express his thanks.

Although every care has been taken to avoid typographical errors, it is necessary to call the attention of authors, and the Secretaries of Societies, to the desirability of forwarding the manuscripts in a more legible form; as, in several instances, the papers had to be re-copied before they were placed in the hands of the printer, thereby greatly increasing the chance of misinterpreting the author's meaning.

Several small errors have been observed since the work has passed through the press, but only those that seriously affect the author's meaning have been placed in an errata slip.

The Illustrations to the present volume have all been drawn on prepared paper, by Mr. Buchanan, and transferred to stone at the Government Lithographic Press,—the Hon. the Colonial Secretary having allowed the Board to make an arrangement with the Government Printer, for the purpose of securing for the work the superior appliances and skill available in the Government Printing Office.

The Editor has again to acknowledge the great assistance which he has received from Mr. R. L. Holmes, who, at considerable personal inconvenience, remained in Wellington to superintend the passing of the work through the press.

The thanks of the Board are also due to Mr. J. Buchanan, who has devoted a large portion of his leisure time to the illustrations of the work.


Page  49, in Foot-note, for "170,000" read "189,000."
{{{1}}} 101, line 23, for "sepals, 4-valvate" read "sepals 4, valvate."
{{{1}}} 107, {{{1}}} 39, change parenthesis from before "Eleogeton," to commencement of line.
{{{1}}} 145, {{{1}}} 31, for "unitica" read "mutica."
{{{1}}} 164, in Foot-note, for "scientific" read "specific."
{{{1}}} 165, line 7, for "extinct" read "recent."
{{{1}}} 167, {{{1}}} 21, for "Turritella" read " Tornatella."
{{{1}}} 222, {{{1}}} 48, for "our" read "one."
{{{1}}} 285, {{{1}}} 30, for "instructive" read "instinctive."
{{{1}}} 289, {{{1}}} 29, for "quarrel" read "general."
{{{1}}} 371, {{{1}}} 53, after "rocks," for full-stop insert a comma.
{{{1}}} 388, {{{1}}} 50, for "white-crested" read "white-breasted."


Anniversary Address of the President, Sir George F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., delivered to the Members of the New Zealand Institute, July 24, 1869 3–9
Anniversary Address, delivered to the Members of the Wellington Philosophical Society, June 19, 1869, by J. C. Crawford, F.G.S., Vice-President 306–398
Anniversary Address, delivered to the Members of the Auckland Institute, June 7, 1869, by T. B. Gillies, President 405–410
Anniversary Address, delivered to the Members of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, October 8, 1869, by Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., President 421–424
Inaugural Address, delivered to the Members of the Otago Institute, July 20, 1869, by His Honor Mr. Justice Ward 425–427
Natural History.
Art. I. On the New Zealand Sword-fish. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 13–16
II. On the Tuatara (Hatteria punctata). By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 17–20
III. On the Anatomy of Naultinus Greyii. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 20–21
IV. On the Balænidæ, or Whales with baleen. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. With Notes by Dr. Hector 21–28
V. On Seals of the genus Stenorhyncus, captured on the East Coast of Otago. By J. S. Webb 28–32
VI. On a (probably new) variety of the Small-nailed Seal,—Stenorhyncus Leptonyx, of Cuvier, and De Blainville, and allied to the Phoca Leopardina of Jameson. By Rev. Charles Fraser, M.A., F.G.S. 33–34
VII. On a species of Ophisurus, found on the Coast of New Zealand. By James Hector, M.D., F.R.S. With anatomical observations by F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 34–40
VIII. On the Birds of New Zealand. By T. H. Potts 40–78
IX. Description of two Birds new to the Fauna of New Zealand. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 78–80
X. On the introduction of the Pheasant into the Province of Auckland. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 80
XI. On the Katipo, a poisonous spider of New Zealand. By F. W. Wright, L.M.P. New Zealand 81–84
XII. On four Fishes, commonly found in the River Avon; with a consideration of the question, "What is Whitebait?" By Ll. Powell, M.R.C.S.St.A. 84–87
XIII. On the New Zealand Frog (Leiopelma Hockstetterii); with an account of a remarkable feature in the history of some species of Australian Frogs. By A. Wander Aitken 87–88
XLV. Preliminary notice of a Ziphid Whale, probably Berardius Arnuxii, stranded on December 16, 1868, on the sea beach, near New Brighton, Canterbury. By Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 190–192
LXIII. Notes on the Ornithology of New Zealand. By Walter Buller, F.L.S., F.G.S. 385–392
XIV. On some new species of New Zealand Plants. By John Buchanan, of the Geological Survey Department 88–89
XV. On the Botany of the Thames Gold Fields. By T. Kirk 89–100
XVI. An account of the Puka (Meryta Sinclairii). By T. Kirk 100–102
XVII. On Grasses, and other plants, adapted for pasturage in the Province of Auckland, especially with regard to indigenous kinds. By T. Kirk 102–106
XVIII. On the occurrence of Orobanche; a genus new to the Flora of New Zealand. By T. Kirk 106
XIX. On the discovery of Isoëtes, and other genera of Rhizocarpæ, new to the Flora of New Zealand. By T. Kirk 107
XX. On Epacris purpurascens, Br., in New Zealand; with remarks on Epacris pauciflora, A. Rich. By T. Kirk 107–108
XXI. On the structure and colour of the fibre of Phormium tenax. By T. Nottidge 108–111
XXII. On the structure of the Leaf of Phormium tenax. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 111–116
XXIII. On the New Zealand Flax (Phormium tenax). By Major Heaphy, V.C. 116–117
XXIV. On the Vegetation of the neighbourhood of Christchurch, including Riccarton, Dry Bush, etc. By J. F. Armstrong. With Introductory Remarks on the Distribution of Plants in the Province of Canterbury. By J. Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 118–128
XXV. On Irrigation as applied to the growth of New Zealand Flax. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 129–131
XXVI. On the Naturalized Plants of New Zealand, especially with regard to those occurring in the Province of Auckland. By T. Kirk 131–146
LXI. List of Plants found in the Northern District of the Province of Auckland. By J. Buchanan, and T. Kirk 239–247
XXVII. On the production of certain Crystalline Phosphates and Arseniates. By W. Skey, Analyst to the Geological Survey of New Zealand 146–148
XXVIII. On the effects of the application of the Hot Blast to Blow-pipe purposes; and the proposed substitution of Heated Air for Oxygen in the production of certain thermal and illmninating effects. Preliminary notice. By W. Skey 148–150
XXIX. On the alkalinity of Carbonate of Lime. By W. Skey 150–151
XXX. On the absorptive properties of Silica; and its direct hydration by contact with water. By W. Skey 151–152
XXXI. On the examination of the bark of Coprosma grandifolia, for Alkaloids. By W. Skey 152
XXXII. On the extraction of the poisonous principle of the Tutu plant (Coriaria ruscifolia). By W. Skey 153–155
XXXIII. On the Fusibility of Platinum in the Blow-pipe Flame. By W. Skey 155
XXXIV. On the application of Iodine and Bromine, for the detection of gold when in minute quantities. By W. Skey 156–157
XXXV. Remarks on the Coast Line between Kai Iwi and Waitotara, on the West Coast of the Province of Wellington. By R. Pharazyn, F.R.G.S. 158–160
XXXVI. On Alluvial Gold in the Province of Wellington. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 160
XXXVII. On the Geology of the North Head of Manukau Harbour. By Captain Hutton, F.G.S. 161
XXXVIII. Description of Lava Caves at the "Three Kings," near Auckland. By James Stewart, C.E., Assoc. Inst. C.E. 162–163
XXXIX. On the Wanganui Beds (Upper Tertiaries). By J. Buchanan, of the Geological Survey of New Zealand 163–166
XL. On the Tertiary Series of Oamaru and Moeraki. By Charles Traill 166–169
XLI. Account of a visit to a Hot Spring called "Te Puia," near Wangape lake, Central Waikato, Auckland; in August, 1868. By R. Gillies 169–173
XLII. On Improvements in the Processes for Extracting and Saving Gold. By T. Heale, C.E. 174–176
XLIII. Notes on the Geology of the Outlying Islands of New Zealand; with extracts from Official Reports. Communicated by James Hector, M.D., F.R.S., Director Geological Survey of New Zealand 176–186
XLIV. Notes on a Collection of Saurian remains, from the Waipara River, Canterbury, in the possession of J. H. Cockburn Hood, Esq. By J. Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 186–189
XLVI. On University Education, as adapted to the circumstances and prospects of the Colony of New Zealand. By Rev. Charles Fraser, M.A., F.G.S. 192–196
XLVII. On the General Principles of an Education Scheme for New Zealand. By W. S. Hamilton, Mathematical Master, Wellington College and Grammar School 196–197
XLVIII. On the River Systems of the south portion of the Province of Wellington. By J. T. Stewart 198–203
XLIX. On the Raising of the s.s. "Taranaki." By J. T. Stewart 203–211
L. On Thorough Drainage. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 211–213
LI. On the Surface Fall of Water, as a guide for Under Drainage. By James Baber, C.E. 213
LII. On Sewage Irrigation, and its results, with a Sketch of the Main Drainage Systems of London and Paris. By S. Tancred, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 214–218
LIII. On the Drainage Works at Remuera Swamp. By J. Baber, C. E. 219
LIV. On the Comparative Performances of certain River Steamers on the Waikato. By James Stewart, C.E. 220–221
LV. On the earlier Earthquake Waves observed on the Coast of New Zealand. By C. Davie, Chief Surveyor, Province of Canterbury 222–223
LVI. On a series of Tables for facilitating the Calculation of Altitudes from Barometrical Observations in Mountainous Countries; with explanations. By E. Dobson, C.E., Assoc. Inst. C.E. 223–226
LVII. The earth of New Zealand, a bad Conductor of Electricity, as compared with that of other countries. By F. E. Wright 226–227
LVIII. On the Mechanical Principles involved in the Flight of the Albatros. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 227–232
LIX. On the Mechanical Principles involved in the Sailing Flight of the Albatros. By J. S. Webb 233–236
LX. On Sinking Funds. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 236–239
LXII. On the Sand-worn Stones of Evans' Bay. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 247–248
On the Nature of Art. By James Edward Fitzgerald 251–265
Man's Place in Creation. By C. W. Richmond, one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of New Zealand 267–281
The Modern Aspect of Natural Theology. By C. W. Richmond, one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of New Zealand 281–297
On the Changes effected in the Natural Features of a New Country by the Introduction of Civilized Races. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. Part 1 299–313
Dittodittodittodittoditto Part 2 313–330
On certain Modern Projects of Inter-communication, and their relation to New Zealand. By F. Wakefield, F.L.S. 331–341
On the Geology of the Province of Wellington. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 343–360
On Mining in New Zealand. Abstract of four Lectures. By James Hector, M.D., F.R.S., Director Geological Survey of New Zealand 361–384
 1. On the preservation of meat by bi-sulphite of lime. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 396
 2. On dusting vines and fruit trees, affected with blight, with flour of sulphur, etc. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 396
 3. On the poisoning of an Elephant, through eating Tutu (Coriaria ruscifolia). By J. Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 399
 4. On Silver Ore from Stewart's Island. By W. Skey, Analyst Geol. Survey of New Zealand 399
 5. Comparative review of the way in which gold occurs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. By J. Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 400
 6. On the Mud Fish (Neochanna apoda, Günther), from Hokitika. By J. Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 402
 7. On a remarkable Meteor observed in Wellington, November 8, 1869. By Rev. A. Stock, B.A. 402
 8. Preliminary notes on the bones of a fossil Penguin. By J. Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 403
 9. On the decrease of Honey in the Auckland Province. By R. Todd, C.E 411
10. On Artificial Stone. By A. G. Purchas, M.D. 411
11. On the Latent Heat contained in the aqueous vapour in the Atmosphere. By J. A. Wilson 413
12. On a remarkable Phenomenon observed at a Hot Spring near Lake Taupo. By Captain J. G. Corbett 414
Minutes of Meetings: Session of 1869.
Wellington Philosophical Society 395–404
Auckland Institute 404–417
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury 417–425
Otago Institute 425–430
Meteorological Statistics of New Zealand for 1869 431
List of Earthquakes in New Zealand in 1869 433
List of Members 435
Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute x
Abstract of Rules and Statutes of the New Zealand Institute xi–xii
List of Incorporated Societies xiii
List of Office-bearers, and Extracts from the Laws of Incorporated Societies xiii–xvi


 1. Sword-fish of the Southern Seas, showing anatomy of the head  14
 2a. Skull of Balæna marginata, Gray  22
 2b. Rorqualus major, and R. minor  26
 3. Ophisurus Novæ Zelandæ  34
 4. Nests of New Zealand Birds  50
 5. Dittoditto  58
 6. Dittoditto  66
 7. Isoetes Kirkii, Braun. 160
 8. Phormium tenax—showing stracture of leaf 112
 9. Sections between Kai Iwi and Waitotara rivers 158
 9a. Section along the coast north of Manukau Harbour, etc. 160
10. Sketch Plan of Caves at "Three Kings," near Auckland 162
11. Map showing river systems of the southern parts of the Province of Wellington 198
12. Lifting apparatus used for s. s. "Taranaki" 204
13. Junction of Moawhanga with Rangitikei rivers 354
14. Geological Map and Section of Grey Coal-field 380
15. Section of Shakespere Cliff, Wanganui 164
16. Fish of the River Avon, Canterbury  84
17. Sand-worn Stones of Evans' Bay 246
18. Sketch Map of Province of Auckland, North 132
19. Map and Section of North-Western District of Otago 372
20. Drainage Works at Remuera Swamp 218
21. Comparative Map of New Zealand and Australian Cordillera 366

This work was published before January 1, 1927, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.