Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute/Volume 5











Issued May, 1873.




The Editor has to acknowledge the assistance received from Mr. W. T. L. Travers, Mr. J. T. Thomson, Captain Hutton, Captain Edwin, and Mr. W. Skey, in the revision of the papers by those gentlemen.

He has also to acknowledge the assistance received from Mr. R. B. Gore in the preparation of the Meteorological Tables in the Appendix.

The only change which has been made in the arrangement of the volume since last year is that certain lectures and addresses delivered before the Societies have been printed in the Appendix instead of in the body of the work.

The Illustrations have as hitherto been lithographed by Mr. J. Buchanan, and the Board have again to thank the Honourable Colonial Secretary for allowing the use of the Government lithographic press.

Wellington, 29th April, 1873.


Page 111, lines  8 and 29, for "grapes" read "grasses."
{{{1}}} 170, {{{1}}} 12 for "Macleyius" read "Macleayius."
{{{1}}} 171, C. 78, for "Himantopus spicatus" read "Himantopus varius."
{{{1}}} 198, {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}
{{{1}}} 281, Salticus appressus, line 1, for ".8 inch" read ".4 inch."
{{{1}}} 282, Salticus minax, line 10, for "libral" read "tibial."
{{{1}}} 282, {{{1}}} line 12, for "four-fifths" read "four-tenths."
{{{1}}} 283, line  1, for "three-fifths" read "three-tenths."
{{{1}}} 283, Salticus atratus, line 1, for "male the largest" read "the largest male."
{{{1}}} 284, line  4, after "specimens" dele ";"
{{{1}}} 284, Salticus fumosus, line 1, for ".8 in." read ".4 in."
{{{1}}} 285, line  1, for "libral" read "tibial."
{{{1}}} 285, {{{1}}} 24, for "mustilinus" read "mustelinus."
{{{1}}} 287, {{{1}}} 26, for "chelinous" read "chitinous."
{{{1}}} 311, lines 11 and 12, for "Alexander" read "Anderson."
{{{1}}} 331, line 25, for "A. cunninghamii" read "A. banksii."
{{{1}}} 340, {{{1}}}  7 from bottom {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}
{{{1}}} 351, {{{1}}} 21, before "Phormium" insert "Arthropodium cirrhatum, Br., A. candidum, Raoul."
{{{1}}} 379, {{{1}}} 18, after "gold" dele ","
{{{1}}} {{{1}}} {{{1}}}{{{1}}} {{{1}}} "reduce" insert ","
{{{1}}} {{{1}}} {{{1}}}{{{1}}} {{{1}}} "locate" insert "it."
{{{1}}} 381, {{{1}}}  8, for "Secondly" read "Further."
{{{1}}} {{{1}}} {{{1}}} 12, for "thirdly" read "secondly."
{{{1}}} 432, {{{1}}}  8 from bottom, for "harbour" read "head."
{{{1}}} 439, {{{1}}}  3, for "marine" read "massive."


The "Minimum Temperature on Grass," or terrestrial radiation readings for Bealey, which appear in Table VI. of the Reports on the Climate of New Zealand, published in Vols, V., VI., and the present Vol, (VII.), are unreliable, owing to errors in the instrument.


Anniversary Address of the President, H.E. Sir George F. Bowen, G.C.M.G. 1–10
Fourth Annual Report by the Governors 11–12
Accounts of the New Zealand Institute, 1871–2 12
Report by Manager 12–16
Art. I. On the Life and Times of Te Rauparaha. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 19–93
II. On Moa Beds. By W. B. D. Mantell, F.G.S. 94–97
III. An Account of the First Discovery of Moa Remains. By Rev. R. Taylor, F.G.S. 97–101
IV. On New Zealand Lake Pas. By Rev. R. Taylor 101–102
V. A Description of the Earnsclough Moa Cave. By the Hon. Capt. Fraser, F.R.G.S. 102–105
VI. On the Effect of Wind-driven Sand as a Cutting Agent. By Edwin Stowe, B.A. 105–106
VII. On Local Variations of Atmospheric Pressure dependent on the Strength of Winds. By J. S. Webb 106–108
VIII. On the Reclamation of Land devastated by the Encroachment of Sand. By C. D. Whitcombe 108–111
IX. Directions for Raising and Spreading Ammophila arundinacea and Elymus arenarius. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 111
X. On the Taieri Floods. By G. M. Barr 111–119
XI. An Astronomical Telescope on a New Construction. By H. Skey 119–125
XII. Description of a Reflecting Telescope made in Wellington by W. F. Parsons. Communicated by James Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 125–128
XIII. On the Influence of Change of Latitude on Ships' Compasses. By Commander R. A. Edwin, R.N, 128–130
XIV. On Barata Numerals. By J. T. Thomson, F.R.G.S. 131–138
XV. Notes on the Stone Epoch at the Cape of Good Hope. By B. H. Darnell, 138–139
XVI. On the Flight of the Black-backed Gull (Larus dominicanus). By Captain F. W. Hutton, C.M.Z.S. 140–144
XVII. On Compound Engines. By William Lodder 144–150
XVIII. Notes on Rurima Rocks. By Major W. G. Mair 151–153
XIX. On the Whales and Dolphins of the New Zealand Seas. By James Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 154–170
XX. On the Birds of New Zealand (Part III.). By T. H. Potts, F.L.S. 171–205
XXI. Remarks on some Birds of New Zealand. By Otto Finsch, Ph.D. of Bremen, Hon. Mem. N.Z. Inst. 206–212
XXII. On the Birds of the Chatham Islands. By H. H. Travers. With Introductory Remarks on the Avifauna and Flora of the Islands in their Relation to those of New Zealand. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 212–222
XXIII. Notes on some of the Birds brought by Mr. Henry Travers from the Chatham Islands, with Descriptions of the New Species. By Captain F. W. Hutton, C.M.Z.S. 222–224
XXIV. Notes on some of the New Zealand Birds. By James Morton; communicated by Captain Hutton 225–226
XXV. Note on Colluricincla concinna, Hutton. By Captain F. W. Hutton 226–227
XXVI. On the Geographical Relations of the New Zealand Fauna. By Captain F. W. Hutton 227–256
XXVII. On the New Zealand Sertularians. By Captain F. W. Hutton 256–259
XXVIII. Contributions to the Ichthyology of New Zealand. By Captain F. W. Hutton 259–272
XXIX. Notes on some Undescribed Fishes of New Zealand. By Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., Director of the Canterbury Museum 272–278
XXX. Notice of a New Species of Moth in New Zealand. By Walter L. Buller, D.Sc, F.L.S., etc. 279–280
XXXI. On the Spiders of New Zealand (Part I., Genus Salticus). By Ll. Powell, M.D. 280–286
XXXII. Notes on the Stridulating Organs of the Cicada. By Ll. Powell, M.D. 286–288
XXXIII. On the Direct Injuries to Vegetation in New Zealand by various Insects, especially with reference to Larvae of Moths and Beetles feeding upon the Field Crops; and the expediency of introducing Insectivorous Birds as a Remedy. By R. W. Fereday, C.M.E.S.L. 289–294
XXXIV. Remarks on the Coleoptera of Canterbury, New Zealand. By C. M. Wakefield 294–304
XXXV. On the Skeleton of an Aboriginal Inhabitant of the Chatham Islands. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 304–306
XXXVI. Observations on Naultinus pacificus, Gray. By F. J. Knox 307–308
XXXVII. Note on Ctenolabrus knoxi. By F. J. Knox 308
XXXVIII. Preliminary Notes on Mr. H. H. Travers' Recent Collections of Plants from the Chatham Islands. By Baron Ferd. von Mueller, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., Hon. Mem. N.Z. Inst. 309–310
XXXIX. On the Origin in New Zealand of Polygonum aviculare, L. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 310–314
XL. Further Notes on the Nativity of Polygonum aviculare, L., in New Zealand, in reply to Mr. Travers. By Thomas Kirk, F.L.S. 315–320
XLI. Notes on thee Naturalized Plants of the Chatham Islands. By T. Kirk 320–322
XLII. Notes on the Flora of the Lake District of the North Island. By T. Kirk 322–345
XLIII. On the Specific Characters of Dicksonia antarctica, Br., and Dicksonia lanata, Col. By T. Kirk 345–347
XLIV. Notice of a Remarkable Arborescent Fern on Ngongotaha. By T. Kirk 347–348
XLV. Notice of a New Species of Senecio (S. hectori). By John Buchanan, of the Geological Survey of New Zealand 348–349
XLVI. List of Plants found on Miramar Peninsula, Wellington Harbour. By J. Buchanan 349–352
XLVII. On the Fertilization of the New Zealand species of Pterostylis. By Thomas F. Cheeseman 352–357
XLVIII. On the Growth of Phormium tenax. By the Hon. Col. Haultain 357–360
XLIX. Notes on Plants collected near Invercargill. By J. S. Webb 360–363
L. On the Botany and Conchology of Great Omaha. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 363–369
LI. On the Mode of producing Auriferous Alloys by Wet Processes. By W. Skey, Analyst to the Geological Survey of New Zealand 370–372
LII. Critical Notes upon the Alleged Nuclear Action of Gold upon Gold reduced from Solution by Organic Matter. By W. Skey 372–375
LIII. On the Absorption of certain Alkaloids by Aluminous Silicates. By W. Skey 375–376
LIV. On the Proposed Substitution of Acetate for Sulphate of Copper in the Manufacture of Iodine. By W. Skey 376–377
LV. On the Formation of Gold Nuggets in Drift. By W. Skey 377–383
LVI. On the Date of the Last Great Glacier Period in New Zealand and the Formation of Lake Wakatipu. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 384–396
LVII. Notes on Miramar Peninsula, Wellington Harbour. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 396–400
Abstract Report of Council for 1871 403
Election of Office-bearers for 1872 403
Natural History Notes. By W. Buller, D.Sc., F.G.S. 404–405
The Ascent of Tauakira. By H. C. Field 405–406
Anniversary Address of the President, James Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 407–424
Notes on Parasitic Animals. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 424
On the Stone Period of South Africa. By Dr. Comrie, R.N. 425
On South American Geology and Topography. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 425–426
Notes on the New Zealand Hawk. By W. Buller, D.Sc, F.L.S. 427
Note on the Fur Seal of New Zealand. By J. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S., Hon. Member, N.Z. Inst. 428
On the Chief Features of the Vegetation of the District between Maketu and Lake Taupo. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 428–429
List of Human, Moa, and other Bones found on Miramar Peninsula. By Dr. Hector 431
Notes on the Anatomy of the Huia. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 431
Account of the Turner Reef, Marlborough. By Dr. Hector 432
Travels on the West Coast of the South Island. By Hon. W. Fox 433–434
Description of the Extinct Gigantic Bird of Prey, Hokioi. By a Maori; communicated by Sir G. Grey, K.C.B., Hon. Mem. N.Z. Inst. 435
Observations on the Comparative Anatomy of the Penguin. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 436
Further Notice of Bones of a Fossil Penguin (Palæeudyptes antarcticus, Huxley) By Dr. Hector 438–439
Notice of a Parrot-fish (Odax vittatus). By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 439
Abstract Report of Council for 1872 439–440
Election of Office-bearers for 1873 440
Abstract of Annual Report 441–442
Election of Officers for 1872 442
Anniversary Address of the President, Theophilus Heale 442–449
On the Occurrence of the Sprat and Anchovy at the Thames. By Captain Hutton, F.G.S. 449–450
On the Occurrence of the Clover Dodder (Cuscuta trifolii) in the Waikato District. By Major W. G. Mair 450–451
On the Rate of Growth of Native Trees under Cultivation. By J. Baber, C.E. 451–452
On the Cultivation of Native Trees. By D. Hay 452–455
On Shells collected North of the Auckland Isthmus. By T. B. Gillies 455
On a New Mode of compiling Tables of Logarithms. By R. J. Pearce 455
On the Introduction of Trout to New Zealand. By T. B. Gillies 456
On the Mud-fish (Neochanna apoda), being extracts from letters written by G. G. Fitzgerald and S. E. Vollams; communicated by W. C. Roberts 456–457
On a Remarkable Instance of Refraction of the Hakarimata and Taupiri Ranges. By Major W. G. Mair 457–458
Anniversary Address of the President, His Honour Mr. Justice Gresson 459–465
On Darwin's Provisional Hypothesis of Pangenesis. By Dr. A. C. Barker 465
Note on the Size and Weight of the Smallest Particles visible to the Highest Powers of the Microscope. By Ll. Powell, M.D. 465
On the Practical Uses of an Observatory. By W. M. Maskell 467
Annual Report 467–468
Election of Officers for 1873 468
Abstract of Annual Report 469–470
Election of Officers for year ending 30th June, 1873 470
Anniversary Address of the President, His Honour Mr. Justice Chapman 470–480
On a Fish of the genus Bovichthys, caught near Dunedin. By J. S. Webb 480
On a Supposed Hybrid. By A. C. Purdie 480–481
On Recent Additions to the Museum. By A. C. Purdie 481
Description of a Submarine Boat for Gold-mining under Water. By M. Villaine 481
Remarks on Kiwis captured near Dunedin. By R. Gillies 482
On the Mineral Resources of Nelson Province. By J. Tatton 484
Election of Officers for 1873 485
On the Cultivation of Sugar-beet in New Zealand. By T. Mackay, C.E. 485–487
Meteorological Statistics of New Zealand for 1872 xix–xxi
Earthquakes reported in New Zealand during 1872 xxi
Comparative Abstract for 1872 and Previous Years xxii
Notes on the Weather during 1872 xxiii–xxiv
Lecture on the Formation of Mountains. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S., C.M.Z.S. xxv–xxxiv
On the Influence of Temperature on Infant Mortality. By Dr. Deck xxxv–xlii
Observations on the Zodiacal Light, tending to show its Connection with the Sun's Motion in Space. By H. Skey xliii–xlvii
Notes on the Zodiacal Light. By J. S. Webb xlvii–xlix
On the Work of the Past Year in Astronomy and Celestial Physics. By J. S. Webb l–lviii
List of Members lix–lxv

Preface iii
Addenda et Errata iv
Contents v–ix
List of Plates ix–x
Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute xi
Abstracts of Rules and Statutes of the New Zealand Institute xi–xiii
List of Incorporated Societies xiv
List of Officers and Extracts from the Rules of Incorporated Societies xiv–xvi


Plate I. Hector.—Skulls of Clymenia obscura and Electra clancula 158
II. {{{1}}} Skulls of Delphinus forsteri and Clymenia novæ-zealandiæ 158
III. {{{1}}} Dolichodon layardii, lower jaw and tooth; Electra clancula; Delphinus forsteri 162
IV. {{{1}}} Skull of Epiodon chathamiensis 166
V. {{{1}}} Lower jaw and teeth of E. chathamiensis 166
VI. {{{1}}} Tympanic bones—1a. & b. Neobalæna marginata; 2. Eubalæna australis; 3a. & b. Megaptera novæ-zealandiæ; 4a. & b. Mesoplodon knoxi; 5a. & b. Berardius arnuxii 170
VII. Hutton.—Scorpis hectori, Chilodactylus spectahilis, Mendosoma lineata 262
VIII. {{{1}}} Sebastes percoides, Scorpæna cruenta, Neptomenus bilineatus, Ditrema violacea 262
IX. {{{1}}} Cyttus traversi, Eleotris radiata, Clinus rubrum, Mugil cephalotus 264
X. {{{1}}} Ctenolabrus knoxi, Labrichthys bothryocosmus, L. psittacula 264
XI. {{{1}}} Calloptilum punctatum, Ammotretis guntheri, Rhombusolea leporina 268
XII. {{{1}}} Rhombosolea tapirina, Clupea sprattus var. antipodum, Geotria chilensis, G. australis 271
XV. {{{1}}} Lepidotrigla brachyoptera, Eleotris gobioides, Trypterygium compressum, Clinus flavescens, Photicthys argenteus, Scopelus parvimanus 268
Pl. XVI. Haast.—Haplodactylus donaldii, Kathetostoma giganteum, Leptoscopus huttonii, Notothenia maoriensis, Bowenia novæ-zealandiæ 278
XVII. Potts.—Nests of Certhiparus novæ-zealandiæ and Creadion carunculatus 184
XVIII. {{{1}}} Rallus pectoralis and R. pictus
XIX. Powell.—Stridulating organs of Cicada
1. Salticus appressus; 2. S. minax; 3. S. atratus; 4. S. V-notatus; 6. S. fumosus; 7. S. mustelinus; 8. S. albobarbatus
XX. Cheeseman.—Pterostylis trullifolia 356
XXI. Crawford.—Plan of Miramar Peninsula 396
XXII. Buller.—Porina mairi 280
XIII. Deck.—Tables to accompany Lecture on Infant Mortality App. xxxvi
XIV. H. Skey.—Diagram of the Zodiacal Light {{{1}}}xxxvi