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Welcome to my user page, which is my second home Wiki apart from Wikimedia Commons. For personal information, please refer to my Commons user page for foreigners.


In general, law. While I may engage in opportunistic edits at here, law-related edits are my mainstay.

The following are some of the works dealt by me:

A Tale of Two CitiesEdit

A list of Singaporean and Hong Kong laws as gazetted/reproduced immediately by revised editions, with my comments/complaints:


Note: With effect from 2022-01-01, all chapter numbers are abolished for the 2020 revised editions. The former chapter numbers are only for reference.

  • Administration of Justice (Protection) Act 2016 (19 of 2016)
    • The result of codifying Singapore's contempt of court law. Still continues the country's strict (draconian?) law on contempt of court.
  • Carbon Pricing Act 2018 (23 of 2018)
    • Nevertheless another piece of national-development oriented enactment with respect to environment protection.
  • Children Development Co-Savings Act 2001 (13 of 2001/Cap. 38A)
    • An Act aiming to boost the fertility rate of Singaporeans by the Singaporean government. After all, Singapore is facing low birth rate since it becomes a developed nation.
  • Copyright Act 1987 (2 of 1987/Cap. 63)
    • The Singaporean copyright law. About 2 months after I've finished this enactment here, a new Copyright Bill was gazetted, and would probably replace this enactment in short time  .
      • Repealed wef. 21 November 2021
    • See Copyright Act 2021 (22 of 2021) (transcription project)
  • Cybersecurity Act 2018 (26 of 2018)
    • To be honest, instead of using the guise of "cybersecurity" to do with all the repression, this piece of enactment is a genuine cybersecurity-oriented law by focusing on Internet infrastructure safety and the development of cybersecurity.
  • Human Organ Transplant Act 1987 (15 of 1987/Cap. 131A)
    • Establishes the opt-out mechanism for organ transplant, i.e. your organs will be used for transplant once you're dead if you don't object it. Whether it's effective remains doubted.
  • Liquor Control (Supply and Consumption) Act 2015 (5 of 2015)
    • Replaced the original liquor control policy under the Customs Act (44 of 1960/Cap. 70) after the Little India Riots
  • Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act 1990 (26 of 1990/Cap. 167A)
    • A strategic legal weapon to stabilize the society for a multi-cultural nation like Singapore. Amendment assented in 2019 but not yet commenced, which aims at foreign interference through religious activities and added penal provisions to the Act.
  • Moneylenders Act 2008 (22 of 2008/Cap. 188)
    • Revised the old Moneylenders Act to better regulate the lawful moneylending industry in Singapore. Also expanded caning as a measure to punish principals of debtor harassment.
  • Passports Act 2007 (33 of 2007/Cap. 220)
    • An Act to revise the legal regime of one of the most convenient passports in the world. Previously Singaporean Passports are regulated under regulations under the old Passports Act.
  • Political Donations Act 2000 (20 of 2000/Cap. 236)
  • Protection from Harassment Act 2014 (17 of 2014/Cap. 256A)
    • Mostly deals with offences of personal harassment, also suggested as one of the basis of anti-doxxing laws in Hong Kong by pro-establishment camp.
  • Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act 2019 (18 of 2019)
    • The famous/notorious Singaporean Fake News Law, one can expect how much scrutiny it will face from human rights organizations. Too bad that Singapore is an ally of the Western world, so nothing else happens apart from mere condemnation.
  • Public Order Act 2009 (15 of 2009/Cap. 257A)
    • You know, the law which makes one-man smiley-face protests without permit illegal, lol.
  • Public Order and Safety (Special Powers) Act 2018 (26 of 2018)
    • Empowers extra power to the police and military in case of contingency, but inclusion of large-scale peaceful demonstrations as "serious incident" in section 3 of the Act caused another wave of controversies.
  • Remote Gambling Act 2014 (34 of 2014)
    • Another attempt by Singaporean authorities to legalize and regulate gambling after the passage of Casino Control Act 2006 (10 of 2006)
  • Sale of Food (Prohibition of Chewing Gum) Regulations 2003 (S 182/2003/Cap. 283, Rg. 2)
    • One of the SLs to implement the chewing gum ban in Singapore, apart from the Regulation of Imports and Exports (Chewing Gum) Regulations (Cap. 272A, Rg. 4)

Hong KongEdit

  • Broadcasting Ordinance (48 of 2000/Cap. 562)
    • Updates the law on television, will later be indirectly involved in the HKTV licensing controversy.
  • Chief Executive Election Ordinance (21 of 2001/Cap. 569)
    • Implements Annex 1 and 2 of the Hong Kong Basic Law. Continues to be a bone of contention since its enactment, and directly/indirectly related to the 2014 and 2019 protests.
  • Deposit Protection Scheme Ordinance (7 of 2004/Cap. 581)
    • Safeguarding your money deposited in banks, and also a foundation to a mature banking industry.
  • Interception of Communications and Surveillance Ordinance (20 of 2006/Cap. 589)
    • Replaces the Interception of Communications Ordinance (Cap. 532) that never commenced (also the last principal ordinance enacted in British HK), and somehow solved the troubles since the questionable Law Enforcement (Covert Surveillance Procedures) Order was declared unconstitutional... Nevertheless, the lack of penal provisions on illegal surveillance when compared to the old Interception of Communications Ordinance attracted criticism.
    • Tbh while the question of "what executive orders do" in Macau are clearly defined (eg. updating civil servant quota for government agencies, publishing new logos for new government agencies, or announcing the absence of the Chief Executive and appointment of Acting Chief Executive per Law 2/1999 (Basic Law on Government Organization)), basically executive orders and its accompanying Legal Supplement No. 5 are only meant for the Public Service (Administration) Order (and it's amendments).
      • And BTW, I must say the Chinese version of the Interception of Communications Ordinance is one of the shittiest bilingual enactments of Hong Kong law. I'm wondering if James To actually did a machine translation from the English text when he drafted the Chinese version of that Ordinance.
  • Hong Kong National Security Law (Translation on G.N. (E.) 72 of 2020) (Original text is L.N. 136 of 2020 as Promulgation of National Law 2020)
  • and its Implementation Rules (L.N. 139 of 2020)
  • Hong Kong Reunification Ordinance (110 of 1997)
    • The first post-handover legislation passed by the PLC, which makes several amendments to existing legislation and provide for transitional measures. Also compare with Law 1/1999 (Reunification Law) in Macau.
  • Land Titles Ordinance (26 of 2004/Cap. 585)
    • One of the biggest potholes in Hong Kong legal history (along with other examples like the Dangerous Goods (Amendment) Ordinance 2002). Originally the administration expected that the Ordinance would commence in 2 years, now in 2021 the DOJ claims that they're going to submit an amendment ordinance to the LC...
  • Legislation Publication Ordinance (13 of 2011/Cap. 641)
    • The ordinance which makes consolidated enactments published on HKeL legally valid when printed as verified copies, in line with Australian and New Zealand practice where Acts published on the official websites are genuine consolidated enactments. (After all, they don't use gazettes to publish Acts...)
  • Mainland Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Ordinance (9 of 2008/Cap. 597)
  • Mainland Judgments in Matrimonial and Family Cases (Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement) Ordinance (11 of 2021/Cap. 639)
    • Enacted to implement reciprocal enforcement agreements between Mainland China and Hong Kong, which cover civil, commercial and matrimonial suits.
  • Minimum Wage Ordinance (15 of 2010/Cap. 608)
    • Confirms the minimum wage in Hong Kong after years of bickering between business and labour organizations. Now they're starting another wave on standard working hours, let's hope that I'll be entitled to this once I leave university...

Amendments matters...Edit

  • Crimes (Amendment) Ordinance 2021 (35 of 2021, HK)
    • Inserted a new part in the Crimes Ordinance (Cap. 200) to criminalize voyeurism specifically, after a HKCFA judgment ruled that access to computer with criminal or dishonest intent is inapplicable to voyeurism: See Secretary for Justice v Cheng Ka Yee & Others ([2019] HKCFA 9, [2019] 22 HKCFAR 97).
  • Immigration (Amendment) Ordinance 2009 (13 of 2009, HK)
    • Added section 38AA into the Immigration Ordinance (Cap. 115) to directly criminalize illegal working. Since then 38AA has become an important legal weapon to prosecute illegal workers.
  • Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Act 2012 (30 of 2012, SG)
  • Penal Code (Amendment) Act 2012 (32 of 2012, SG)
    • Two piece of law giving the SGHC discretion not to condemn convicted murderers and drug traffickers to death under certain circumstances.
  • Statute Law Reform Act 2021 (4 of 2021, SG)
    • Changed the citation method and abolished the original chapter system of Singaporean laws (i.e. no more "Chapter XXX of the XXXX Edition", comparable to the pre-1990 old citation method in Hong Kong), and abolishes the Singaporean-equivalent Emergency Regulations Ordinance.
    • Though the Singaporean president still holds the power to issue emergency ordinances once an emergency is proclaimed per Article 150 of the Singaporean Constitution.

English Criminal Statutes SeriesEdit

I'd like to express my gratitude to Inductiveload, who assisted me with dealing with the tables in the following enactments.

  • Offences against the Person Act 1861 (24 & 25 Vict c. 100) (Not did by me)
  • Explosive Substances Act, 1883 (46 Vict. c. 3)
    • Obviously, the Act is enacted to suppress illicit use of explosives, which given by its lengthy lifespan, had been used to deal with offenders from Irish activists to Islamist terrorists.
    • Refer to Part VII of the Crimes Ordinance (Cap. 200) for same provisions in Hong Kong.
    • But honestly, I'm also curious about how well this Act would work with the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings. In Hong Kong, we have section 11B (read with section 14(7A)) of the United Nations (Anti-Terrorism Measures) Ordinance (Cap. 575) that deal with bombings under that convention. So perhaps the UK Parliament thinks that the Explosive Substances Act, 1883 can fulfill the convention requirement?
  • Prevention of Crime Act, 1953 (1 & 2 Eliz. c. 14)
    • Criminalizes possession of offensive weapons in public places without lawful authority or reasonable excuse. Later amended by the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 (2012 c. 10) to create another fresh offence of threatening with offensive weapon in public.
    • The Act is also the basis of section 33 of the Public Order Ordinance (Cap. 245) in Hong Kong, and is an useful reference when dealing with charges under s. 33, although s. 33 provides different sentencing arrangement (see subsection (2) of s. 33).
    • Although in light of all the mess in 2019, the administration do need to seriously consider a revision on s. 33 (along with other content) of the Public Order Ordinance to clarify what is an "offensive weapon", like, how to properly deal with extra-powerful laser pointers?
  • Criminal Damage Act 1971 (1971 c. 48)
    • Reforms then-archaic English law on vandalism (N.B., the Malicious Damage Act 1861 enacted approximately at the same period of the Offences against the Person Act 1861).
    • While broad enough, the enactment is not applicable to intangible properties like computer data, which is the reason why the Computer Misuse Act 1990 is enacted.
    • Covered by Part VIII of the Crimes Ordinance in Hong Kong, and note that the corresponding provisions covers computer data (s. 59(1)(b) and 59(1A)).
  • Protection of Children Act 1978 (1971 c. 37)
    • Provided for punishment for child pornography after concerns on active pedophile organizations. Refer to Prevention of Child Pornography Ordinance (Cap. 579) and Sections 377BG to 377BL for relevant provisions in HK and SG.
    • While not mentioned in the Act, various civil organizations also enforces the Act by blacklisting relevant websites, in which an example can be found at here.
  • Theft Act 1978 (1978 c. 31)
    • Criminalizes offences related to deception, along with making off without payment (i.e. 霸王餐). ss. 1 and 2 has since been repealed by the Fraud Act 2006 to update provisions related to white-collar crimes.
    • Though ss. 18A to 18C of the Theft Ordinance (Cap. 210) in Hong Kong law are still active provisions since they are enacted in 1980.
  • Taking of Hostages Act 1982 (1982 c. 28)
    • Criminalizing hostage taking. In other words, if Pagett took hostage after the Act commences, he won't be able to use causation to defend (9up) his act.
  • Computer Misuse Act 1990 (1990 c. 18)
    • Creates statutory computer misuse offences, and is the template for other common law jurisdiction enactments like Computer Misuse Act 1993 in Singapore.
    • P.S., honestly, when can our administration consider revising our cybercrime legislation? It's obviously too obscure to prosecute all of these cases under the all-powerful "access to computer with criminal or dishonest intent"? (s. 161, Crimes Ordinance)
  • Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (1997 c. 40)
    • Dealing with the offence of harassment. While not explicitly marked, it seems that it's also somehow related to Singapore's Protection from Harassment Act 2014 (albeit with more recent drafting style)?
  • Sexual Offences Act 2003 (2003 c. 42)
    • Reforms English criminal law on sexual offences, introduces new measures on preventing repeated sex offenders, and strengthens penalty on child pornography by increasing maximum penalty to 10 years.
    • And it seems that the UK Parliament is quite satisfied with the "prevention order" model, and tried to expand it's usage to other legislation, eg. Serious Crime Act 2015 (2015 c. 9) section 73 (which inserts sections 5A to 5C to the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 (2003 c. 31)) and Part 2 of the Offensive Weapons Act 2019 (2019 c. 17) (Knife crime prevention orders).
    • Part of the Act is also used to improve portions related to sex offences in the Singaporean Penal Code 1871 vide the Criminal Law Reform Act 2019.
  • Fraud Act 2006 (2006 c. 35)
    • Basically dealing with white-collar crimes, also see the blurb regarding Theft Act 1978.
  • Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (2007 c. 19)
    • A piece of legislation focusing entirely on corporate manslaughter, an entirely corporate offence. Mostly used to prosecute industrial accidents.
  • Bribery Act 2010 (2010 c. 23)
    • An British effort to reform the archaic British criminal law on corruption (honestly, you want some 1889 or 1916 Acts to come up with modern corrupt practice?). So can I describe it's a "Great Leap Forward to 1960 or 1970"?


Macau LawsEdit

I'm also responsible for importing and maintaining the consolidated versions of Macau laws on Chinese Wikisource. At least, all laws after the handover, important pre-handover laws and all codes have been completely   Done . Whether administrative regulations will be continued depends on my workload on other projects.

Fun stuffsEdit

Not done by me, but found intersting:

  • The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, translated by Yei Theodora Ozaki
    • One of the earliest Japanese folklore. A more famous adaptation involves a tale of our shrine maiden with a thousand-year fhsja;nfska;f 17-year old gap youkai, engaging in some astonishing masochistic firework fighting with three immortals... You know.
  • Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things by Lafcadio Hearn
    • How should I comment on this? In the [redacted] series, there was the BBA who created the Land of Fantasy. . .
    • [Head smashed and rolled on keyboard again]


Big projects which are very likely to be suspended for a very long time