ṢAFFĀRIDS, a Persian dynasty of the 9th century, founded by Yaḳub (Yaqub) b. Laith b. Saffār (“copper smith”) about 866, who, originally a leader of bandits and outlaws, became governor of Sejistan. He soon added to his province Herat, Fars, Balkh and Tokharistan, overthrew the Tahirids in Khorasan, and, nominally still dependent on the caliphs of Bagdad, established a dynasty in Sejistan (see Caliphate, section C, Abbasids, § 10, and Persia: History, section B). Soon after 900 the dynasty became subordinate to the Sāmānids (q.v.) and few of its rulers had any real authority. Under the last of the dynasty, Taj ud-din Binaltagin (1225-1229), a usurper of the royal family of the Khwarizm shahs, the country was captured by the Mongols.
See S. Lane Poole, Mahommedan Dynasties (1894), p. 129; Stockvis, Manuel d'histoire (Leiden, 1888), vol. i. p. 137; on the later Ṣaffārids, H. Sauvaire, in the Numismatic Chronicle (1881).