CARLOS I. (1863–1908), king of Portugal, the third sovereign of Portugal of the line of Braganza-Coburg, son of King Louis I. and Maria Pia, daughter of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, was born on the 28th of September 1863. When about twenty years of age he spent a considerable time in travelling, visiting England in 1883. On the 22nd of May 1886 he married Marie Amélie, daughter of Philippe, duc d’Orléans, comte de Paris, and on the death of his father (19th of October 1889) he succeeded to the throne of Portugal. In that year the British government found it necessary to make formal remonstrances against Portuguese encroachments in South Africa, and relations between the two countries were greatly strained for some time. The king’s attitude during this critical period was one of conciliation, and his temperate, though firm, speech on opening the Cortes in January 1890 did much to strengthen the party of peace. In 1900–1901 also his friendly attitude towards Great Britain was shown by cordial toasts at a banquet to the officers of the British fleet at Lisbon. King Carlos distinguished himself as a patron of science and literature, and was himself an artist of some repute. In March 1894 he took a very active part in the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator, and a year later he decorated the Portuguese poet, João de Deus, with much honour at Lisbon. He took a great personal interest in deep-sea soundings and marine exploration, and published an account of some of his own investigations, the results themselves being shown at an oceanographic exhibition opened by him on the 12th of April 1897. In May 1907 the king suspended the constitution of Portugal and temporarily appointed Senhor Franco as dictator with a view to carrying out certain necessary reforms. Some discontent was aroused by this proceeding; this was increased by Franco’s drastic measures, and on the 1st of February 1908 King Carlos and his elder son, Louis, duke of Braganza (1887–1908), were assassinated whilst driving through the streets of Lisbon. The king was succeeded by his only surviving son, Manuel, duke of Beja (b. 1889), who took the title of Manuel II.
See S. M. El Rei D. Carlos I. e sua obra artistica e scientifica (Lisbon, 1908).