1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/East Liverpool

EAST LIVERPOOL, a city of Columbiana county, Ohio, U.S.A., on the Ohio river, about 106 m. S.E. of Cleveland. Pop. (1890) 10,956; (1900) 16,485, of whom 2112 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 20,387. It is served by the Pennsylvania railway, by river steamboats, and by interurban electric lines. Next to Trenton, New Jersey, East Liverpool is the most important place in the United States for the manufacture of earthenware and pottery, 4859 out of its 5228 wage-earners, or 92·9%, being employed in this industry in 1905, when $5,373,852 (83·5% of the value of all its factory products) was the value of the earthenware and pottery. No other city in the United States is so exclusively devoted to the manufacture of pottery; in 1908 there were 32 potteries in the city and its immediate vicinity. The manufacture of white ware, begun in 1872, is the most important branch of the industry—almost half of the “cream-coloured,” white granite ware and semivitreous porcelain produced in the United States in 1905 (in value, $4,344,468 out of $9,195,703) being manufactured in East Liverpool. Though there are large clay deposits in the vicinity, very little of it can be used for crockery, and most of the clay used in the city’s potteries is obtained from other states; some of it is imported from Europe. After 1872 a large number of skilled English pottery-workers settled in the city. The city’s product of pottery, terra-cotta and fireclay increased from $2,137,063 to $4,105,200 from 1890 to 1900, and in the latter year almost equalled that of Trenton, N.J., the two cities together producing more than half (50·9%) of the total pottery product of the United States; in 1905 East Liverpool and Trenton together produced 42·1% of the total value of the country’s pottery product. The municipality owns and operates its water-works. East Liverpool was settled in 1798, and was incorporated in 1834.