EGYPT, a country forming the N.E. extremity of Africa.[1] In the following account a division is made into (I.) Modern Egypt, and (II.) Ancient Egypt; but the history from the earliest times is given as a separate section (III.).

Section I. includes Geography, Economics, Government, Inhabitants, Finance and Army. Section II. is subdivided into:—(A) Exploration and Research; (B) The Country in Ancient Times; (C) Religion; (D) Language and Writing; (E) Art and Archaeology; (F) Chronology. Section III. is divided into three main periods:—(1) Ancient History; (2) the Mahommedan Period; (3) Modern History (from Mehemet Ali).

  1. By the Greek and Roman geographers Egypt was usually assigned to Libya (Africa), but by some early writers the Nile was thought to mark the division between Libya and Asia. The name occurs in Homer as Αἴγυπτος, but is of doubtful origin.