ENOCH (חַנֹך,חַנֹוך, Ḥănōkh, Teaching or Dedication). (1) In Gen. iv. 17, 18 (J), the eldest son of Cain, born while Cain was building a city, which he named after Enoch; nothing is known of the city. (2) In Gen. v. 24, &c. (P), seventh in descent from Adam in the line of Seth; he “walked with God,” and after 365 years “was not for God took him.” [(1) and (2) are often regarded as both corruptions of the seventh primitive king Evedorachos (Enmeduranki in cuneiform inscriptions), the two genealogies, Gen. iv. 16-24, v. 12-17, being variant forms of the Babylonian list of primitive kings. Enmeduranki is the favourite of the sun-god, cf. Enoch’s 365 years.] Heb. xi. 5 says Enoch “was not found, because God translated him.” Later Jewish legends represented him as receiving revelations on astronomy, &c., and as the first author; apparently following the Babylonian account which makes Enmeduranki receive instruction in all wisdom from the sun-god. Two apocryphal works written in the name of Enoch are extant, the Book of Enoch, compiled from documents written 200–50 B.C., quoted as the work of Enoch, Jude 14 and 15; and the Book of the Secrets of Enoch, A.D. 1–50. Cf. 1 Chron. i. 3; Luke iii. 37; Wisdom iv. 7-14; Ecclus. xliv. 16, xlix. 14. (3) Son, i.e. clan, of Midian, in Gen. xxv. 4; 1 Chron. i. 33. (4) Son, i.e. clan, of Reuben, E. V. Hanoch, Henoch, in Gen. xlvi. 9; Exod. vi. 14; Num. xxvi. 5; 1 Chron. v. 3. There may have been some historical connexion between these two clans with identical names.
- Eberhard Schrader, Die Keilinschriften und das A.T., 3rd ed., pp. 540 f.