1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Gallas, Matthias

GALLAS, MATTHIAS, Count of Campo, Duke of Lucera (1584–1647), Austrian soldier, first saw service in Flanders, and in Savoy with the Spaniards, and subsequently joined the forces of the Catholic League as captain. On the general outbreak of hostilities in Germany, Gallas, as colonel of an infantry regiment, distinguished himself, especially at the battle of Stadtlohn (1623). In 1630 he was serving as General-Feldwachtmeister under Collalto in Italy, and was mainly instrumental in the capture of Mantua. Made count of the Empire for this service, he returned to Germany for the campaign against Gustavus Adolphus. In command of a corps of Wallenstein’s army, he covered Bohemia against the Swedes in 1631–1632, and served at the Alte Veste near Nuremberg, and at Lützen. Further good service against Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar commended General Gallas to the notice of the emperor, who made him lieutenant-general in his own army. He was one of the chief conspirators against Wallenstein, and after the tragedy of Eger was appointed to the command of the army which Wallenstein had formed and led. At the great battle of Nördlingen (23rd of August 1634) in which the army of Sweden was almost annihilated, Gallas commanded the victorious Imperialists. His next command was in Lorraine, but even the Moselle valley had suffered so much from the ravages of war that his army perished of want. Still more was this the case in northern Germany, where Gallas commanded against the Swedish general Banér in 1637 and 1638. At first driving the Swedes before him, in the end he made a complete failure of the campaign, lost his command, and was subject to much ridicule. It was, however, rather the indiscipline of his men (the baneful legacy of Wallenstein’s methods) than his own faults which brought about his disastrous retreat across North Germany, and at a moment of crisis he was recalled to endeavour to stop Torstenson’s victorious advance, only to be shut up in Magdeburg, whence he escaped with the barest remnant of his forces. Once more relieved of his command, he was again recalled to make head against the Swedes in 1645 (after their victory at Jankow). Before long, old and warworn, he resigned his command, and died in 1647 at Vienna. His army had earned for itself the reputation of being the most cruel and rapacious force even in the Thirty Years’ War, and his Merode Brüder have survived in the word marauder. Like many other generals of that period, he had acquired much wealth and great territorial possessions (the latter mostly his share of Wallenstein’s estates). He was the founder of the Austrian family of Clam-Gallas, which furnished many distinguished soldiers to the Imperial army.