1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Garnier, Clément Joseph
GARNIER, CLÉMENT JOSEPH (1813–1881), French economist, was born at Beuil (Alpes maritimes) on the 3rd of October 1813. Coming to Paris he studied at the École de Commerce, of which he eventually became secretary and finally a professor. In 1842 he founded with Gilbert-Urbain Guillaumin (1801–1864) the Société d'Économie politique, becoming its secretary, a post which he held till his death; and in 1846 he organized the Association pour la Liberté des Échanges. He also helped to establish and edited for many years the Journal des économistes and the Annuaire de l'économie politique. Of the school of laissez faire, he was engaged during his whole life in the advancement of the science of political economy, and in the improvement of French commercial education. In 1873 he became a member of the Institute, and in 1876 a senator for the department in which he was born. He died at Paris on the 25th of September 1881. Of his writings, the following are the more important: Traité d'économie politique (1845), Richard Cobden et la Ligue (1846), Traité des finances (1862), and Principes du population (1857).