1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Graudenz

GRAUDENZ (Polish Grudziadz), a town in the kingdom of Prussia, province of West Prussia, on the right bank of the Vistula, 18 m. S.S.W. of Marienwerder and 37 m. by rail N.N.E. of Thorn. Pop. (1885) 17,336, (1905) 35,988. It has two Protestant and three Roman Catholic churches, and a synagogue. It is a place of considerable manufacturing activity. The town possesses a museum and a monument to Guillaume René Courbière (1733–1811), the defender of the town in 1807. It has fine promenades along the bank of the Vistula. Graudenz is an important place in the German system of fortifications, and has a garrison of considerable size.

Graudenz was founded about 1250, and received civic rights in 1291. At the peace of Thorn in 1466 it came under the lordship of Poland. From 1665 to 1759 it was held by Sweden, and in 1772 it came into the possession of Prussia. The fortress of Graudenz, which since 1873 has been used as a barracks and a military depot and prison, is situated on a steep eminence about 11/2 m. north of the town and outside its limits. It was completed by Frederick the Great in 1776, and was rendered famous through its defence by Courbière against the French in 1807.