1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Jurien de la Gravière, Jean Baptiste Edmond
JURIEN DE LA GRAVIÈRE, JEAN BAPTISTE EDMOND (1812–1892), French admiral, son of Admiral Jurien, who served through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and was a peer of France under Louis Philippe, was born on the 19th of November 1812. He entered the navy in 1828, was made a commander in 1841, and captain in 1850. During the Russian War he commanded a ship in the Black Sea. He was promoted to be rear-admiral on the 1st of December 1855, and appointed to the command of a squadron in the Adriatic in 1859, when he absolutely sealed the Austrian ports with a close blockade. In October 1861 he was appointed to command the squadron in the Gulf of Mexico, and two months later the expedition against Mexico. On the 15th of January 1862 he was promoted to be vice-admiral. During the Franco-German War of 1870 he had command of the French Mediterranean fleet, and in 1871 he was appointed “director of charts.” As having commanded in chief before the enemy, the age-limit was waived in his favour, and he was continued on the active list. Jurien died on the 4th of March 1892. He was a voluminous author of works on naval history and biography, most of which first appeared in the Revue des deux mondes. Among the most noteworthy of these are Guerres maritimes sous la république et l’empire, which was translated by Lord Dunsany under the title of Sketches of the Last Naval War (1848); Souvenirs d’un amiral (1860), that is, of his father, Admiral Jurien; La Marine d’autrefois (1865), largely autobiographical; and La Marine d’aujourd’hui (1872). In 1866 he was elected a member of the Academy.