1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Kempe, John

KEMPE, JOHN (c. 1380–1454), English cardinal, archbishop of Canterbury, and chancellor, was son of Thomas Kempe, a gentleman of Ollantigh, in the parish of Wye near Ashford, Kent. He was born about 1380 and educated at Merton College, Oxford. He practised as an ecclesiastical lawyer, was an assessor at the trial of Oldcastle, and in 1415 was made dean of the Court of Arches. Then he passed into the royal service, and being employed in the administration of Normandy was eventually made chancellor of the duchy. Early in 1419 he was elected bishop of Rochester, and was consecrated at Rouen on the 3rd of December. In February 1421 he was translated to Chichester, and in November following to London. During the minority of Henry VI. Kempe had a prominent position in the English council as a supporter of Henry Beaufort, whom he succeeded as chancellor in March 1426. In this same year he was promoted to the archbishopric of York. Kempe held office as chancellor for six years; his main task in government was to keep Humphrey of Gloucester in check. His resignation on the 28th of February 1432 was a concession to Gloucester. He still enjoyed Beaufort’s favour, and retaining his place in the council was employed on important missions, especially at the congress of Arras in 1435, and the conference at Calais in 1438. In December 1439 he was created cardinal, and during the next few years took less share in politics. He supported Suffolk over the king’s marriage with Margaret of Anjou; but afterwards there arose some difference between them, due in part to a dispute about the nomination of the cardinal’s nephew, Thomas Kempe, to the bishopric of London. At the time of Suffolk’s fall in January 1450 Kempe once more became chancellor. His appointment may have been due to the fact that he was not committed entirely to either party. In spite of his age and infirmity he showed some vigour in dealing with Cade’s rebellion, and by his official experience and skill did what he could for four years to sustain the king’s authority. He was rewarded by his translation to Canterbury in July 1452, when Pope Nicholas added as a special honour the title of cardinal-bishop of Santa Rufina. As Richard of York gained influence, Kempe became unpopular; men called him “the cursed cardinal,” and his fall seemed imminent when he died suddenly on the 22nd of March 1454. He was buried at Canterbury, in the choir. Kempe was a politician first, and hardly at all a bishop; and he was accused with some justice of neglecting his dioceses, especially at York. Still he was a capable official, and a faithful servant to Henry VI., who called him “one of the wisest lords of the land” (Paston Letters, i. 315). He founded a college at his native place at Wye, which was suppressed at the Reformation.

For contemporary authorities see under Henry VI. See also J. Raine’s Historians of the Church of York, vol. ii.; W. Dugdale’s Monasticon, iii. 254, vi. 1430–1432; and W. F. Hook’s Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury, v. 188–267.  (C. L. K.)