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MANDURIA, a city of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, from which it is 27 m. W. by road (22 m. E. of Taranto), 270 ft. above sea-level, and 8 m. N. of the coast. Pop. (1901), 12,199 (town); 13,190 (commune). It is close to the site of the ancient Manduria, considerable remains of the defences of which can still be seen; they consisted of a double line of wall built of rectangular blocks of stone, without mortar, and with a broad ditch in front. Some tombs with gold ornaments were found in 1886 (L. Viola in Notizie degli Scavi, 1886, 100). It was an important stronghold of the Messapii against Tarentum, and Archidamus III., king of Sparta, fell beneath its walls in 338 B.C., while leading the army of the latter (Plut., Agis, 3, calls the place Mandonion: see s.v. Archidamus). It revolted to Hannibal, but was stormed by the Romans in 209 B.C. Pliny mentions a spring here which never changed its level, and may still be seen. The town was destroyed by the Saracens in the 10th century; the inhabitants settled themselves on the site of the present town, at first called Casalnuovo, which resumed the old name in 1700.  (T. As.)