MONTERREY (usually spelled Monterey in English), a city of Mexico and capital of the state of Nuevo León, 606 m. by the old wagon road, and 671 m. by the Mexican National railway N. by W. of the city of Mexico, in lat. 25° 40′ N., long. 100° 25′ W. Pop. (1900), 62,266. Railway communications are provided by the Mexican National with the United States, with the national capital and southern Mexico, and with Matamoros, and by the Belgian line with Tampico on the Gulf coast, and with Treviño, or Venadito, on the Mexican International line, which gives access to the iron deposits of Durango. The city stands 1624 ft. above sea-level, between two spurs of one of the Sierra Madre ranges—the Cerro de la Silla (4149 ft.) on the east, and the Cerro de las Mitras (3618 ft.) on the west. The Santa Catarina river furnishes water-power for some of its industries. The surrounding district is fertile, and the rainfall about 22 in. The climate is dry and mild, and the city is frequented in winter by invalids from the United States. Monterrey is laid out with broad, straight streets crossing each other at right angles, and spreads over a large area. It is the see of the bishop of Linares, and has a large cathedral, a bishop’s palace and numerous churches. Among the public edifices are the government palace, municipal hall, national college, girls’ college, medical school, public hospital, theatre and penitentiary. Its public works include an interesting old reservoir, called the “Ojo de Agua,” and the “Puente Nuevo” (new bridge). Monterrey is the most important centre of northern Mexico, and large sums of foreign capital have been invested in its industries. Among its manufactories are woollen mills, smelting works, brass and iron foundries, a steel producing plant, sawmills, flour-mills, breweries, and a carriage and wagon factory.

Monterrey was founded in 1560 under the name of Santa Lucia de León; and in 1596, as Monterrey, was raised to the dignity of a city. In 1777 it became the see of a bishop, now suffragan to the archbishop of Guadalajara. During the war between Mexico and the United States General Zachary Taylor arrived before the city on the 19th of September 1846, with about 6600 men. Monterrey was defended by a Mexican force of about 10,000 under General Pedro de Ampudia. On the 20th Colonel John Garland (1792–1861) assaulted the lower (north-eastern) part of the city; he was driven back, but captured one of the forts. The attacks on the other forts on the east were unsuccessful. On the 21st and 22nd General W. J. Worth carried the forts west of Monterrey, and on the 23rd attacked the western part of the city, the troops slowly working their way toward the central plaza. On the same day American troops again advanced from the east, and were again forced back. On the morning of the 24th the terms of a capitulation were agreed upon—the Mexicans were permitted to retire, retaining their small arms and one field battery of six pieces with twenty-one rounds of ammunition, and an armistice of eight weeks was arranged. A disastrous flood, caused by heavy rains and the sudden overflow of the Santa Catarina river on the 28th of August 1909, swept away about one-fourth of the city, drowning 1200–1400 persons, and destroying about $12,000,000 (Mex.) worth of property.