1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Nebuchadrezzar
NEBUCHADREZZAR, or Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, the Ναβουκοδρόσορος of the Greeks. The first and last are nearer to the original name as it is found on the cuneiform monuments, viz. Nabu-kudurri-usur, “Nebo, defend the landmark.” Nebuchadrezzar seems to have been of Chaldean origin. He married Amuhia, daughter of the Median king, according to Abydenus, and in 605 B.C. defeated Necho at Carchemish, driving the Egyptians out of Asia and annexing Syria to the Babylonian empire. In the following year he succeeded his father Nabopolassar on the Babylonian throne, and continued the restoration of Babylon, which he made one of the wonders of the world. His “ new palace ” there was built in.fifteen days; temples were erected to the gods, the great walls of the city were constructed with a moat surrounding them, the Euphrates was lined with brick and a strong fortress erected. Canals were dug throughout the country and a great reservoir excavated near the capital. Only a fragment of his annals has been preserved, recording his campaign against Amasis (Ahmosi) of Egypt in his thirty-seventh year (567 B.C.) when he defeated the soldiers of “ Phut of the Ionians." Tyre revolted in the seventh year of his reign, and was besieged for thirteen years; a contract-tablet dated in his fortieth year shows that at that time it was under Babylonian officials. After the investment of Tyre Nebuchadrezzar marched against Jerusalem, put Iehoiakim to death and placed Iehoiachin on the throne. Three months later Iehoiachin was deposed and Zedekiah made king in his place. Zedekiah's revolt in 588 B.C. led to another siege of Jerusalem, which was taken and destroyed in 586 B.c. (see Jews and JERUSALEM). To this period probably belong an inscription of Nebuchadrezzar on the north bank of the Nahr el-Kelb near Beirut, and another in the Wadi Brissa in the Lebanon. From his inscriptions we gather that Nebuchadrezzar was a man of peculiarly religious character. A younger brother of his is called Nabo-sum-lisir.
See Josephus, Cont. Apion, i. 19; Eusebius, Praep. Evangel. x.