1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Palace

PALACE (Lat. Palatiiim, the name given by Augustus to his residence on the Palatine Hill), primarily the residence of a sovereign or prince, but in England, Spain and France extended to the residence of a bishop, and in the latter country to buildings appropriated to the public service, such as courts of justice, &c. In Italy the name is given to royal residences, to public buildings, and to such large mansions as in France are either known as chateaux if in the country, or hotels if in Paris.

The earliest palaces in Egypt are those built in the rear of the Temple of Karnak by Thothmes III. and near the Temple of Medinet Habu, both in Thebes; the earliest in Greece are those at Cnossus and Phaestus in Crete {c. 1500 B.C.), and at Tiryns in the citadel (c 1200 B.C.). The most remarkable series are those erected by the Assyrians at Nimroud, Koyunjik and Khorsabad (859-667 B.C.), which were followed by the Persian palaces at Persepolis and Susa; the Parthian palaces at Al Hadhr and Diarbekr; and the Sassanian palaces of Serbistan, Firuzabad and Ctesiphon. The only palace known of the late Greek style is that found at Palatitza in Macedonia. Of the Roman period there are many examples, beginning with those on the Palatine Hill commenced by Augustus, continued and added to by his successors, Tiberius, Caligula, Domitian, Hadrian and Septimus Severus, which covered an area of over 1,000,000 sq. ft. The villa of Hadrian was virtually an immense palace, the buildings of which extended over 7 m. in length; of more modest proportions are the palace of Diocletian at Spalato and a fine example at Treves in Germany. The palace of the Hebdomon at Constantinople, and a fragment at Ravenna of Theodoric's work, are all that remain of Byzantine palaces. Of Romanesque work the only examples are those at Gelnhausen built by Barbarossa, and the Wartburg in Germany. In the Gothic style in Italy, the best known examples are the ducal palace at Venice, and the Palazzi Vecchio and del Podesta (BargeUo) at Florence; in France, the palace of the popes at Avignon, and the episcopal palaces of Beauvais, Laon, Poitiers and Lisieux; in England, the bishops' palaces of Wells, Norwich, Lincoln, portions of Edward the Confessor's palace at Westminster, and Wolsey's palace at Hampton Court; while such great country mansions as the " castles " of Alnwick, KenQworth, Warwick, Rochester, Raglan and Stokesay, or Haddon Hall, come in the same category though the name is not employed. Belonging to the Mahommedan style are the palaces of the Alhambra and the Alcazar in Spain. Of I the Renaissance period, nimierous palaces exist in every country, the more important examples in Italy being those of the Vatican, the Quirinal and the Cancellaria, in Rome; the Caprarola near Rome; the palace of Caserta near Naples; the Pitti at Florence; the Palazzo del Te at Mantua; the court and eastern portion of the ducal palace of Venice, and the numerous examples of the Grand Canal; in France, the Louvre, the TuUeries (destroyed), and the Luxembourg, in Paris; Versailles and St Germain-en-Laye; and the chateaux of la Rochefoucauld, Fontainebleau, Chambord, Blois, Amboise, Chenonceaux and other palaces on the Loire; in Germany, the castle of Heidelberg, and the Zwinger palace at Dresden; in Spain, the palace of Charles V. at Grenada, the Escorial and the palace of Madrid; in England, the palace of Vv'hitehall by Inigo Jones, of which only the banqueting hall was built, Windsor Castle, Blenheim, Chatsworth, Hampton Court; and in Scotland, the palaces of Holyrood and Linlithgow.