1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Periodicals
PERIODICALS, a general term for literary publications which appear in numbers or parts at regular intervals of time—as a rule, weekly, monthly or quarterly. The term strictly includes “newspapers” (q.v.), but in the narrower sense usually intended it is distinguished as a convenient expression for periodical publications which differ from newspapers in not being primarily for the circulation of news or information of ephemeral interest, and in being issued at longer intervals. In modern times the weekly journal has become so much of the nature of a newspaper that it seldom can be called a periodical in this sense. The present article chiefly deals with publications devoted to general literature, literary and critical reviews and magazines for the supply of miscellaneous reading. In the article Societies (q.v.) an account is separately given of the transactions and proceedings of learned and scientific bodies, Year-books, almanacs, directories and other annuals belong to a distinct type of publication, and are not referred to here.
The first literary periodical in English was the Mercurius librarius, or a Faithful Account of all Books and Pamphlets (1680), a mere catalogue, published weekly or fortnightly in London, followed by Weekly Memorials for the Ingenious (Jan. 16, 1681–1682 to Jan. 15, 1683), which was more of the type of the Journal des Savants (see under France below), whence it borrowed many contributions. Of the History of Learning (1691)—another with the same title came out in 1694—only a few numbers appeared, as the conductor, De la Crose, started the monthly Works of the Learned (Aug. 1691 to April 1692), devoted principally to continental scholarship. The monthly Compleat Library (1692 to 1694) was a venture of John Dunton, the monthly Memoirs for the Ingenious (1693), edited by J. de la Crose, ran for 12 months, and another with the same title appeared in the following year, only to enjoy a briefer career. The first periodical of merit and influence was the History of the Works of the Learned (1699–1712), largely consisting of descriptions of foreign books. The Memoirs of Literature, the first English review consisting entirely of original matter, published in London from 1710 to 1714, had for editor Michel de la Roche, a French Protestant refugee, who also edited at Amsterdam the Bibliothèque angloise (1717–1719), and subsequently Mémoires littéraires de la Grande Bretagne (1720–1724). Returning to England in 1725, he recommenced his New Memoirs of Literature (1725–1728), a monthly, and in 1730 a Literary Journal. Dr Samuel Jebb started Bibliotheca literaria (1722–1724), to appear every two months, which dealt with medals and antiquities as well as with literature, but only ten numbers appeared. The Present State of the Republick of Letters was commenced by Andrew Reid in January 1728, and completed in December 1736. It contained not only excellent reviews of English books but papers from the works of foreigners. Two volumes came out each year. It was successful, as also was the Historia literaria (1730–1734) of Archibald Bower. The Bee, or Universal Weekly Pamphlet (1733–1735) of the unfortunate Eustace Budgell, and the Literary Magazine (1735–1736), with which Ephraim Chambers had much to do, were short-lived. The last named was continued in 1737 as the History of the Works of the Learned, and was carried on without intermission until 1743, when its place was taken by A Literary Journal (Dublin, 1744–1749), the first review published in Ireland. The Museum (1746) of R. Dodsley united the character of a review of books with that of a literary magazine. It came out fortnightly to the 12th of September 1747. Although England can show nothing like the Journal des savants, which has flourished almost without a break for two and a half centuries, a nearly complete series of reviews of English literature may be made up from 1681 to the present day.
After the close of the first quarter of the 18th century the literary periodical began to assume more of the style of the modern review, and in 1749 the title and the chief features were united in the Monthly Review, established by Ralph Griffiths, who conducted it until 1803, whence it was edited by his son down to 1825. It came to an end in 1845. From its commencement the Review dealt with science and literature, as well as with literary criticism. It was Whig in politics and Nonconformist in theology. The first series ran from 1749 to December 1789, 81 vols.; the second from 1790 to 1815, 108 vols.; the third or new series from 1826 to 1830, 15 vols.; and the fourth from 1831 to 1845, 45 vols., when the magazine stopped. There is a general index (1749–1789) 3 vols., and another (1790–1816), 2 vols.
The Tory party and the established church were defended in the Critical Review (1756–1817), founded by Archibald Hamilton and supported by Smollett, Dr Johnson and Robertson. Johnson contributed to fifteen numbers of the Literary Magazine (1756–1758). The reviews rapidly increased in number towards the end of the century. Among the principal were the London Review (1775–1780), A New Review (1782–1786), the English Review (1783–1796), incorporated in 1797 with the Analytical Review (1788–1799), the Anti-Jacobin Review and Magazine (1798–1821), and the British Critic (1793–1843), the organ of the High Church party, and first edited by Archdeacon Nares and Beloe.
These periodicals had now become extremely numerous, and many of the leading London publishers found it convenient to maintain their own particular organs. It is not a matter of surprise, therefore, that the authority of the reviews should have fallen somewhat in public estimation.Quarterlies. The time was ripe for one which should be quite independent of the booksellers, and which should also aim at a higher standard of excellence. As far back as 1755 Adam Smith, Blair and others had produced an Edinburgh Review which only ran to two numbers, and in 1773 Gilbert Stuart and William Smellie issued during three years an Edinburgh Magazine and Review. To Edinburgh is also due the first high-class critical journal, the Edinburgh Review, established in October 1802 by Jeffrey, Scott, Horner, Brougham and Sydney Smith. It created a new era in periodical criticism, and assumed from the commencement a wider range and more elevated tone than any of its predecessors. The first editor was Sydney Smith, then Jeffrey for many years, and later editors were Macvey Napier, William Empson, Sir G. C. Lewis, Henry Reeve and the Hon. Arthur Elliot. Its buff and blue cover was adopted from the colours of the Whig party whose political principles it advocated. Among its more famous contributors were Lord Brougham, Sir Walter Scott, Carlyle, Hazlitt and Macaulay. Scott, being dissatisfied with the new review, persuaded John Murray, his London publisher, to start its brilliant Tory competitor, the Quarterly Review (Feb. 1809), f1rst edited by William Gifford, then by Sir J. T. Coleridge, and subsequently by J. G. Lockhart, Rev. Whitwell Elwin, W. M. Macpherson, Sir Wm. Smith, Rowland Prothero and G. W. Prothero. Among the contributors in successive years were Canning, Scott (who reviewed himself), Robert Southey, Sir John Barrow, J. Wilson Croker, Isaac Disraeli, A. W. Kinglake, Lord Salisbury and W. E. Gladstone. The Westminster Review (1824), established by the followers of Jeremy Bentham, advocated radical reforms in church, state and legislation. In 1836 it was joined to the London Review (1829), founded by Sir William Molesworth, and then bore the name of the London and Westminster Review till 1851, when it returned to the original title. Other quarterly reviews worth mentioning are the Eclectic Review (1805–1868), edited down to 1834 by Josiah Conder (1789–1355) and supported by the Dissenters; the British Review (1811–1825; the Christian Remembrancer (1819–1868); the Retrospective Review (1820–1826, 1828, 1853–1854), for old books; the Foreign Quarterly Review (1827–1846), afterwards incorporated with the Westminster; the Foreign Review (1828–1829); the Dublin Review (1836), a Roman Catholic organ; the Foreign and Colonial Quarterly Review (1843–1847), the Prospective Review (1845–1855), given up to theology and literature, previously the Christian Teacher (1835–1844); the North British Review (1844–1871); the British Quarterly Review (1845), successor to the British and Foreign Review (1835–1844); the New Quarterly Review (1852–1861), the Scottish Review (1853–1862), published at Glasgow; the Wesleyan London Quarterly Review (1853-); the National Review (1855–1864); the Diplomatic Review (1855–1881); the Irish Quarterly Review (1851–1859), brought out in Dublin; the Home and Foreign Review (1862–1864); the Fine Arts Quarterly Review (1863–1865); the New Quarterly Magazine (1873–1880); the Catholic Union Review (1863–1874); the Anglican Church Quarterly Review (1875); Mind (1876), dealing with mental philosophy; the Modern Review (1880–1884); the Scottish Review (1882); the Asiatic Quarterly Review (1886; since 1891 the Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review); and the Jewish Quarterly Review.
The monthly reviews include the Christian Observer (1802–1857), conducted by members of the established church upon evangelical Monthlies. principles, with Zachary Macaulay as the first editor; and the Monthly Repository (1806–1837), originally purely theological, but after coming into the hands of the Rev. W. J. Fox made entirely literary and political. The Fortnightly Review (1865), edited successively by G. H. Lewes, John Morley, T. H. S. Escott, Frank Harris, Oswald Crawfurd and W. L. Courtney, was intended as a kind of English Revue des deux mondes. Since 1866 it has appeared monthly. The Contemporary Review (1866), long edited by Sir Percy Bunting, and the Nineteenth Century (1877), founded and edited by Sir James Knowles (q.v.), and renamed Nineteenth Century and After in 1900, are similar in character, consisting of signed articles by men of mark of all opinions upon questions of the day. The National Review (1883), edited successively by Alfred Austin, W. Earl Hodgson, and L. J. Maxse, is alone in taking editorially a pronounced party line in politics as a Conservative organ. Modern Thought (1879–1884), for the free discussion of political, religious and social subjects, and the Modern Review (1892–1894) may also be mentioned. Other monthlies are the Indian Magazine (1871); the Irish Monthly (Dublin, 1873); the Gaelic Journal (Dublin, 1882); the African Review (1892) and the Empire Review (1900). The Monthly Review (1900–1908), edited till 1904 by Henry Newbolt, was for some years a notable addition to the high class literary monthlies.
The weekly reviews dealing generally with literature, science and art are the Literary Gazette (1817–1862), first edited by William Weeklies. Jerdan; the Athenaeum (1828), founded by James Silk Buckingham, but successfully established by C. W. Dilke, and long edited in later years by Norman MacColl (1843–1904), and afterwards by Mr Vernon Rendall; and the Academy (1869). Among those which also include political and social topics, and are more particularly dealt with under Newspapers, may be mentioned, the Examiner (1808–1881), the Spectator (1828), the Saturday Review (1855), the Scots or National Observer (1888–1897), Outlook (1898), Pilot (1900–1903), and Speaker (1890), which became the Nation.
Soon after the introduction of the literary journal in England, one of a more familiar tone was started by the eccentric John Dunton in the Athenian Gazette, or Casuistical Mercury, resolving all the most Nice and Curious Questions (1689–1690 to 1695–1696), afterwards called The Athenian Mercury, a kind of forerunner of Notes and Queries, being a penny weekly sheet, with a quarterly critical supplement. In the last part the publisher announces that it will be continued “as soon as ever the glut of news is a little over.” Dunton was assisted by Richard Sault and Samuel Wesley. Defoe's Review (1704–1713) dealt chiefly with politics and commerce, but the introduction in it of what its editor fittingly termed the “scandalous club” was another step nearer the papers of Steele and the periodical essayists, the first attempts to create an organized popular opinion in matters of taste and manners. These little papers, rapidly thrown off for a temporary purpose, were destined to form a very important part of the literature of the 18th century, and in some respects its most marked feature. Although the frequenters of the clubs and coffee-houses were the persons for whom the essay-papers were mainly written, a proof of the increasing refinement of the age is to be found in the fact that now for the first time were women Tatler, &c. specially addressed as part of the reading public. The Tatler was commenced by Richard Steele in 1709, and issued thrice a week until 1711. The idea was at once extremely popular, and a dozen similar papers were started within the year, at least one half bearing colourable imitations of the title. Addison contributed to the Tatler, and together with Steele established and carried on the Spectator (1710–1714), and subsequently the Guardian (1713). The newspaper tax enforced in 1712 dealt a hard blow at these. Before this time the daily issue of the Spectator had reached 3000 copies; it then fell to 1600; the price was raised from a penny to twopence, but the paper came to an end in 1714. Dr Drake (Essays illustr. of the Rambler, &c, ii. 490) drew up an imperfect list of the essayists, and reckoned that from the Tatler to Johnson's Rambler, during a period of forty-one years, 106 papers of this description were published. Dr Drake continued the list down to 1809, and described altogether 221 which had appeared within a hundred years. The following is a list of the most considerable, with their dates, founders and chief contributors:—
Tatler (April 12, 1709 to Jan. 2, 1710–1711), Steele, Addison, Swift, Hughes, &c.; Spectator (March 1, 1710–1711 to Dec. 20, 1714), Addison, Steele, Budgell, Hughes, Grove, Pope, Parnell, Swift, &c.; Guardian (March 12, 1713 to Oct. 1, 1713), Steele, Addison, Berkeley, Pope, Tickell, Budgell, &c.; Rambler (March 20, 1750 to March 14, 1752), Johnson; Adventurer (Nov. 7, 1752 to March 9, 1754), Hawkesworth, Johnson, Bathurst, Warton, Chapone; World (Jan. 4, 1753 to Dec. 30, 1756), E. Moore, earl of Chesterfield, R. O. Cambridge, earl of Orford, Soame Jenyns, &c.; Connoisseur (Jan. 31, 1754 to Sept. 30, 1756), Colman, Thornton, Warton, earl of Cork, &c.; Idler (April 15, 1758 to April 5, 1760), Johnson, Sir J. Reynolds and Bennet Langton; Bee (Oct. 6, 1759 to Nov. 24, 1759), O. Goldsmith; Mirror (Jan. 23, 1779 to May 27, 1780), Mackenzie, Craig, Abercromby, Home, Bannatyne, &c.; Lounger (Feb. 5, 1785 to Jan. 6, 1787), Mackenzie, Craig, Abercromby, Tytler; Observer (1785 to 1790), Cumberland; Looker-on (March 10, 1792 to Feb. 1, 1794), W. Roberts, Beresford, Chalmers.
As from the “pamphlet of news” arose the weekly paper wholly devoted to the circulation of news, so from the general newspaper Modern Magazines. was specialized the weekly or monthly review of literature, antiquities and science, which, when it included essay-papers, made up the magazine or miscellaneous repository of matter for information and amusement. Several monthly publications had come into existence since 1681, but perhaps the first germ of the magazine is to be found in the Gentleman's Journal (1691–1694) of Peter Motteux, which, besides the news of the month, contained miscellaneous prose and poetry. Dr Samuel Jebb included antiquarian notices as well as literary reviews in his Bibliotheca literaria (1722–1724), previously mentioned, but the Gentleman's Magazine, founded in 1731, fully established, through the tact and energy of the publisher Edward Cave (q.v.), the type of the magazine, from that time so marked a feature of English periodical literature. The first idea is due to Motteux, from whom the title, motto and general plan were borrowed. The chief feature in the new venture at first consisted of the analysis of the journals, which Cave undertook personally. Prizes were offered for poetry. In April 1732 the leading metropolitan publishers, jealous of the interloper Cave, started the London Magazine, or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer (1732–1784), which had a long and prosperous career. The new magazine closely copied Cave's title, plan and aspect, and bitter war was long waged between the two. The rivalry was not without benefit to the literary public, as the conductors of each used every effort to improve their own review. Cave introduced the practice of giving engravings, maps and portraits, but his greatest success was the addition of Samuel Johnson (q.v.) to the regular staff. This took place in 1738, when the latter wrote the preface to the volume for that year, observing that the magazine had “given rise to almost twenty imitations of it, which are either all dead or very little regarded.” The plan was also imitated in Denmark, Sweden and Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine was continued by Cave's brother-in-law, David Henry, afterwards by John Nichols and his son. Cave appears to have been the first to use the word magazine in the sense of a periodical of miscellaneous literature. The specially antiquarian, biographical and historical features, which make this magazine so valuable a store-house for information for the period it covers, were dropped in 1868, when an “entirely new series,” a miscellany of light literature was successively edited by Gowing, Joseph Hatton and Joseph Knight.
Many other magazines were produced in consequence of the success of these two. It will be sufficient to mention the following: The Scots Magazine (1739–1817) was the first published in Scotland, from 1817 to 1826 it was styled the Edinburgh Magazine. The Universal Magazine (1747) had a short, if brilliant, career; but the European Magazine, founded by James Perry in 1782, lasted down to 1826. Of more importance than these, or than the Royal Magazine (1759–1771) was the Monthly Magazine (1796–1843), with which Priestley and Godwin were originally connected. During thirty years the Monthly was conducted by Sir Richard Phillips, under whom it became more statistical and scientific than literary. Class magazines were represented by the Edinburgh Farmer's Magazine (1800–1825) and the Philosophical Magazine (1798), established in London by Alexander Tilloch; the latter at first consisted chiefly of translations of scientific articles from the French. The following periodicals, all of which date from the 18th century, are still published: the Gospel Magazine (1766, with which is incorporated the British Protestant), the Wesleyan Methodist Magazine (1778), Curtis's Botanical Magazine (1786), Evangelical Magazine (1793; since 1905 the Evangelical British Missionary), the Philosophical Magazine (1798), now known as the London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine.
The increased influence of this class of periodical upon public opinion was first apparent in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, founded in 1817 by the publisher of that name, and carried to a high degree of excellence by the contributions of Scott, Lockhart, Hogg, Maginn, Syme and John Wilson (“Christopher North”), John Galt and Samuel Warren. It has always remained Liberal in literature and Conservative in politics. The New Monthly Magazine is somewhat earlier in date. It was founded in 1814 by the London publisher, Colburn, and was edited in turn by Campbell, Theodore Hook, Bulwer-Lytton and Ainsworth. Many of Carlyle's and Thackeray's pieces first appeared in Fraser's Magazine (1830), long famous for its personalities and its gallery of literary portraits. The Metropolitan Magazine was started in opposition to Fraser, and was first edited by Campbell, who had left its rival. It subsequently came into the hands of Captain Marryatt, who printed in it many of his sea-tales. The British Magazine (1832–1849) included religious and ecclesiastical information. From Ireland came the Dublin University Magazine (1833). The regular price of these magazines was half a crown; the first of the cheaper ones was Tait's Edinburgh Magazine (1832–1861) at a shilling. It was Radical in politics, and had Roebuck as one of its founders. Bentley's Miscellany (1837–1868) was exclusively devoted to novels, light literature and travels. Several of Ainsworth's romances, illustrated by Cruikshank, first saw the light in Bentley. The Nautical Magazine (1832) was addressed specially to sailors, and Colburn's United Service Journal (1829) to both services. The Asiatic Journal (1816) dealt with Oriental subjects.
From 1815 to 1820 a number of low-priced and unwholesome
periodicals flourished. The Mirror (1823–1849), a two-penny
illustrated magazine, begun by John
the Mechanics Magazine (1823) were steps in a better
lications.direction. The political agitation of 1831 led to a further popular demand, and a supply of cheap and healthy serials for the reading multitude commenced with Chambers's Journal (1832), the Penny Magazine (1832–1845) of Charles Knight, and the Saturday Magazine (1832–1844), begun by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. The first was published at 1½d. and the last two at 1d. Knight secured the best authors and artists of the day to write for and illustrate his magazine, which, though at first a commercial success, may have had the reason of its subsequent discontinuance in its literary excellence. At the end of 1832 it had reached a sale of 200,000 in weekly numbers and monthly parts. It came to an end in 1845 and was succeeded by Knight's Penny Magazine (1845), which was stopped after six monthly parts. These periodicals were followed by a number of penny weeklies of a lower tone, such as the Family Herald (1843), the London Journal (1845) and Lloyd's Miscellany. In 1850 the sale of the first of them was placed at 175,000 copies, the second at 170,000, and Lloyd's at 95,000. In 1846 fourteen penny and three half-penny magazines, twelve social journals, and thirty-seven book-serials were produced every week in London. A further and permanent improvement in cheap weeklies for home reading may be traced from the foundation of Howitt's Journal (1847–1849), and more especially Household Words (1850), conducted by Charles Dickens, All the Year Round (1859), by the same editor, and afterwards by his son, Once A Week (1859), and the Leisure Hour (1852). The plan of Notes and Queries (1849), for the purpose of inter-communication among those interested in special points of literary and antiquarian character, has led to the adoption of similar departments in a great number of newspapers and periodicals, and, besides several imitators in England, there are now parallel journals in Holland, France, and Italy.
Shilling monthlies began with Macmillan (1859), the Cornhill (1860), first edited by Thackeray, and Temple Bar (1860). St James's Magazine (1861), Belgravia (1866), St Paul's (1867–1874), London Society (1862), and Tinsley's (1867) were devoted chiefly to novels and light reading. Sixpenny illustrated magazines commenced with Good Words (1860) and the Quiver (1861), both religious in tendency. In 1882 Fraser changed its name to Longman's Magazine, and was popularized and reduced to sixpence. The Cornhill followed the same example in 1883 reducing its price to sixpence and devoting its pages to light reading. The English Illustrated Magazine (1883) was brought out in competition with the American Harper's and Century. The Pall Mall Magazine followed in 1893. Of the artistic periodicals we may signalize the Art Journal (1849), Portfolio (1870), Magazine of Art (1878–1904), Studio (1893), Connoisseur (1901), and Burlington (1903). The Bookman (1886), for a combination of popular and literary qualities, and the Badminton (1895), for sport, also deserve mention. One of the most characteristic developments of later journalism was the establishment in 1890 of the Review of Reviews by W. T. Stead. Meanwhile the number of cheap periodicals increased enormously, such as the weekly Tit-bits (1881), and Answers (1888), and profusely illustrated magazines appeared, like the Strand (1891), Pearson's (1896), or Windsor (1895). Professions and trades now have not only their general class-periodicals, but a special review or magazine for every section. In 1910 the magazines and reviews published in the United Kingdom numbered 2795. Religious periodicals were 668; 338 were devoted to trade; 361 to sport; 691 represented the professional classes; 51 agriculture; and 218 were juvenile periodicals. The London monthlies were 797 and the quarterlies 155.
Indexes to English Periodicals.—A large number of periodicals do not preserve literary matter of permanent value, but the high-class reviews and the archaeological, artistic and scientific magazines contain a great mass of valuable facts, so that general and special indexes have become necessary to all literary workers. Lists of the separate indexes to particular series are given in H. B. Wheatley's What is an Index? (1879), W. P Courtney's Register of National Bibliography (1905, 2 vols.), and the List of Books forming the Reference Library in the reading room of the British Museum (4th ed. 1910, 2 vols.).
Authorities.—“Periodicals,” in the British Museum catalogue; Lowndes, Bibliographer's Manual, by Hy. G. Bohn, (1864); Cat. of Periodicals in the Bodl. Lib., pt. i., “English Periodicals” (1878); Cat. of the Hope Collection of Early Newspapers and Essayists in the Bodl. Lib. (1865); Scudder, Cat. of Scientific Serials (1879); Andrews, Hist. of Brit. Journalism (1859), Cucheval Clarigny, Hist. de la Presse en Angleterre et aux Etats Unis (1857); Madden, Hist. of Irish Period. Lit. (1867); J. Grant, The Great Metropolis, ii. 229–327; “Periodical Essays of the Age of Anne,” in N. American Rev. vol. xlvi; Drake, Essays on the “Spectator,” “Tatler,” &c. (1810–1814); Courthope, Addison (“Engl. Men of Letters,” 1884); “Forgotten Periodical Publications,” in Notes and Queries, 3rd series, vol. ix p. 53; “Account of Periodical Literary journals from 1681 to 1749,” by S. Parkes, in Quart. Journ. of Sc., Lit., &c., xiii 36, 289; see also Notes and Queries, 1st series, vol. vi. pp. 327, 435; “Last Century Magazines,” in Fraser's Mag. Sept. (1876), p. 325; “Periodicals during 1712–1732,” in Notes and Queries, 3rd series, vol. ix. p. 72, &c., x. 134; “Catholic Period. Lit.,” ib., 5th series, vol. xi. 427. 494; “Early Roman Catholic Magazines,” ib., 6th series, vol iii. p. 43, &c., iv. 211; Timperley, Ency. of Lit. Anec. (1842); C. Knight, The Old Printer and the Modern Press (1854), and Passages of a Working Life (1864–1865); Memoir of Robert Chambers (1872); the London Cat. of Periodicals, Newspapers, &c. (1844–1910); The Bookseller (February 1867, June and July 1868, August 1874, July 1879); “On the Unstamped Press,” Notes and Queries, 4th series, vol. x. and xi (1872–1873), and English Hist. Review (1897), xii. 711–726; “Contributions Towards an Index of Serial Stories,” by W. L. Fletcher, Library Journal (1881), vi. 42, 166; “Byways of Periodical Literature,” Walford's Antiq. Mag. (1887), xi. 179–186, xii. 65–74; Catalogue of Magazines &c., recd. at the Melbourne Pub. Lib. (1891); “English Periodical Literature,” by W. Robertson Nicoll, Bookman (1895), vol i.; “The Periodical Press, 1865–1895,” by T. H. S. Escott, Blackwood (1894), pp. 156, 532; “Bibliography of Periodical Literature,” by F. Campbell, The Library (1898), viii. 49; “Bibliography of the British Periodical Press,” by D. Williams in Mitchell's Newspaper Directory (1902), pp. 12–13, “English Reviews,” by A. Waugh, Critic, vol. 40; “Excursus on Periodical Criticism,” Saintsbury, History of Criticism (1904), iii. 408–428. As regards the treatment of periodicals in libraries see “Helps for Cataloguers of Serials,” by H. C. Bolton in Boston Bull. of Bibliography (1897); “Co-operative lists of periodicals,” Library Journal, (1899), xxiv. 29–32, “Union List of Periodicals in Chicago Libraries,” Public Libraries, Chicago (1900), v. 60; “Care of Periodicals in a Library,” by F. R. Jackson, Public Libraries, Chicago (1906), vol. xi. Complete lists of current British periodicals are included in Mitchell's Newspaper Press Directory, Street's Newspaper Directory, and Willing's Press Guide, and a select list and other information are given in the Literary Year Book.
The two earliest American miscellanies were produced almost simultaneously. Spurred by the success of the Gentleman's Magazine in England Benjamin Franklin founded the General Magazine (1741) at Philadelphia, but it expired after six monthly numbers had appeared. Franklin's rival, Andrew Bradford, forestalled him by three days with the American Magazine (1741) edited by John Webbe, which ran only to two numbers. Further attempts at Philadelphia in 1757 and 1769 to revive periodicals with the same name were both fruitless. The other pre-revolutionary magazines were the Boston American Magazine (1743-1747), in imitation of the London Magazine; the Boston Weekly Magazine (1743); the Christian History (1743-1744); the New York Independent Reflector (1752-1754); the Boston New England Magazine (1758-1760), a collection of fugitive pieces; the Boston Royal American Magazine (1774-1775); and the Pennsylvania Magazine (1775-1776), founded by Robert Aitken, with the help of Thomas Paine. The Columbian Magazine (1786-1790) was continued as the Universal Asylum (1790-1792). Matthew Carey brought out the American Museum in 1787, and it lasted until 1792. Among the other magazines which ran out a brief existence before the end of the century was the Philadelphia Political Censor or Monthly Review (1796-1797) edited by William Cobbett. One of the most successful was the Farmer's Weekly Museum (1790-1799), supported by perhaps the most brilliant staff of writers American periodical literature had yet been able to show, and edited by Joseph Dennie, who in 1801 began the publication of the Portfolio, carried on to 1827 at Philadelphia. For five years it was a weekly miscellany in quarto, and afterwards an octavo monthly, it was the first American serial which could boast of so long an existence. Charles Brockden Brown established the New York Monthly Magazine (1799), which, changing its title to The American Review, was continued to 1802. Brown founded at Philadelphia the Literary Magazine (1803-1808); he and Dennie may be considered as having been the first American professional men of letters. The Anthology Club was established at Boston in 1803 by Phineas Adams for the cultivation of literature and the discussion of philosophy. Ticknor, Everett and Bigelow were among the members, and were contributors to the organ of the club, the monthly Anthology and Boston Review (1803-1811), the forerunner of the North American Review. In the year 1810 Thomas (Printing in America, ii. 292) informs us that 27 periodicals were issued in the United States. The first serious rival of the Portfolio was the Analectic Magazine (1813-1820), founded at Philadelphia by Moses Thomas, with the literary assistance of W. Irving (for some time the editor) Paulding, and the ornithologist Wilson. In spite of a large subscription list it came to an end on account of the costly style of its production. The first southern serial was the Monthly Register (1805) of Charleston. New York possessed no periodical worthy of the city until 1824, when the Atlantic Magazine appeared, which changed its name shortly afterwards to the New York Monthly Review, and was supported by R. C. Sands and W. C. Bryant. N. P. Willis was one of the editors of the New York Mirror (1823-1842) Between 1840 and 1850 Graham's Magazine was the leading popular miscellany in the country, reaching at one time a circulation of about 35,000 copies. The first western periodical was the Illinois Monthly Magazine (1830-1832), published, owned, edited and almost entirely written by James Hall, who followed with his Western Monthly Magazine (1833-1836), produced in a similar manner. In 1833 the novelist C. F. Hoffman founded at New York the Knickerbocker (1833-1860), which soon passed under the control of Timothy Flint and became extremely successful, most of the leading native writers of the next twenty years having been contributors. Equally popular was Putnam's Monthly Magazine (1853-1857, 1867-1869). It was revived in 1906-1910. The Dial (1840-1844), Boston, the organ of the transcendentalists, was first edited by Margaret Fuller, and subsequently by R. W. Emerson and G. Ripley. Other magazines were the American Monthly Magazine (1833-1838), the Southern Literary Messenger (1834), Richmond, the Gentleman's Magazine (1837-1840), and the International Magazine (1850-1852), edited by R. W. Griswold. The Yale Literary Magazine dated from 1836. The Merchants' Magazine was united in 1871 with the Commercial and Financial Chronicle. First in order of date among the current monthly magazines comes the New York Harper's New Monthly Magazine (1850), the earliest existing illustrated American serial, then the Boston Atlantic Monthly (1857), with which was incorporated the Galaxy (1866) in 1878, famous for its editors Lowell, Howells and T B. Aldrich, and its contributors O. W. Holmes, Longfellow, Whittier and others. Next came Lippincott's Magazine (1868) from Philadelphia, and the Cosmopolitan (1886) and Scribner's Monthly (1870, known as the Century Illustrated Magazine since 1881) from New York. These were followed by Scribner's Magazine (1887), the New England Magazine (1889), the Illustrated Review of Reviews (1890), McClure's Magazine (1893), the Bookman (1895), the World's Work (1902), the American Magazine (1906) succeeding Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, and Munsey's Magazine (1889). All are illustrated, and three in particular, the Century, Scribner's and Harper's, carried the art of wood-engraving to a high standard of excellence.
The first attempt to carry on an American review was made by Robert Walsh in 1811 at Philadelphia with the quarterly American Review of History and Politics, which lasted only a couple of years. Still more brief was the existence of the General Repository and Review (1812), brought out at Cambridge by Andrews Norton with the help of the professors of the university, but of which only four numbers appeared. Niles's Weekly Register (1811-1848) was political, historical and literary. The North American Review, the oldest and most famous of all the American reviews, dates from 1815, and was founded by William Tudor, a member of the previously mentioned Anthology Club. After two ears' control Tudor handed over the review to the club, then styled the North American Club, whose most active members were E. T. Channing, R. H. Dana and Jared Sparks. In 1819 E. Everett became the editor; his brother Alexander acquired the property in 1829. The roll of contributors numbers almost every American writer of note. Since 1879 it has been published monthly (except in Sept. 1906-Sept. 1907, when it appeared semi-monthly). The American Quarterly Review (1827-1837), established at Philadelphia by Robert Walsh, came to an end on his departure for Europe. The Southern Quarterly Review (1828-1832), conducted by H. Legaré, S. Elliot and G. W. Simms in defence of the politics and finance of the South, enjoyed a shorter career. It was resuscitated in 1842, and lived another thirteen years. These two were followed by the Democratic Review (1838-1852) the American Review (1845-1849), afterwards the American Whig Review (1850-1852), the Massachusetts Quarterly Review (1847-1850), and a few more. The New Englander (1843-1892), the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (1825), the National Quarterly Review (1860) and the New York International Review (1874-1883), may also be mentioned. The critical weeklies of the past include the New York Literary Gazette (1834-1835, 1839), De Bow's Review (1846), the Literary World (1847-1853), the Criterion (1855-1856), the Round Table (1863-1864), the Citizen (1864-1873), and Appleton's Journal (1869). The leading current monthlies include the New York Forum (1886), Arena (1890), Current Literature (1888), and Bookman, the Chicago Dial (1880), and the Greenwich, Connecticut, Literary Collector. Foremost among the weeklies comes the New York Nation (1865).
Religious periodicals have been extremely numerous in the United States. The earliest was the Theological Magazine (1796-1798). The Christian Examiner dates from 1824 and lasted down to 1870. The Panoplist (1805) changed its name to the Missionary Herald, representing the American Board of Missions. The Methodist Magazine dates from 1818 and the Christian Disciple from 1813. The American Biblical Respository (1831-1850), a quarterly, was united with the Andover Bibliotheca Sacra (1843) and with the Theological Eclectic (1865). Brownson's Quarterly Review began as the Boston Quarterly Review in 1838, and did much to introduce to American readers the works of the modern French philosophical school. Other serials of this class are the Protestant Episcopal Quarterly Review (1854), the Presbyterian Magazine (1851-1860), the Catholic World (1865), the Southern Review (1867), the New Jerusalem Magazine (1827), American Baptist Magazine (1817), the Church Review (1848), the Christian Review (1836), the Universalist Quarterly (1844). Current religious quarterlies are the Chicago American Journal of Theology and the Oberlin Bibliotheca Sacra. The Chicago Biblical World is published monthly.
Among historical periodicals may be numbered the American Register (1806-1811), Stryker's American Register (1848-1851), Edwards's American Quarterly Register (1829-1843), the New England Historical and Genealogical Register (1847), Folsom's Historical Magazine (1857), the New York Genealogical Record (1869), and the Magazine of American History (1877). There is also the Lancaster, Pennsylvania, American Historical Review, issued quarterly.
Many serial publications have been almost entirely made up of extracts from English sources. Perhaps the earliest example is to be found in Select Views of Literature (1811-1812). The Eclectic Magazine (1844) and Littell's Living Age (1844) may be mentioned.
In 1817 America possessed only one scientific periodical, the Journal of Mineralogy. Professor Silliman established the journal known by his name in 1818. Since that time the American Journal of Science has enjoyed unceasing favour. The special periodicals of the day are very numerous. Among the most representative are: the Popular Science Monthly, New York; the monthly Boston Journal of Education; the quarterly American Journal of Mathematics, Baltimore; the monthly Cassier's Magazine (1891), New York; the monthly American Engineer (1893). New York; the monthly House and Garden, Philadelphia; the monthly Astrophysical Journal, commenced as Sidereal Messenger (1882), Chicago; the monthly American Chemical Journal, Baltimore; the monthly American Naturalist, Boston; the monthly American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Philadelphia; the monthly Outing, New York; the weekly American Agriculturist, New York; the quarterly Metaphysical Magazine (1895) New York; the bi-monthly American Journal of Sociology, Chicago; the bi-monthly American Law Review, St Louis; the monthly Banker's Magazine, New York; the quarterly American Journal of Philology (1880), Baltimore; the monthly Library Journal (1876), New York, the monthly Public Libraries, Chicago; the weekly Scientific American, New York; the quarterly American Journal of Archaeology (1885), New York.
The number of periodicals devoted to light literature and to female readers has been, and still remains, extremely large. The earliest in the latter class was the Lady's Magazine (1792) of Philadelphia. The Lowell Offering (1841) was written by factory girls of Lowell (q.v.), Mass. Godey's Lady's Book was long popular, and the Ladies Home Journal (1883) and the Woman's Home Companion (1893) are now current. Children's magazines originated with the Young Misses' Magazine (1806) of Brooklyn; the New York St Nicholas (monthly) and the Boston Youth's Companion (weekly) are prominent juveniles.
The total of American periodicals mentioned in the Guide by H. O. Severance and C. H. Walsh (1909, Ann Arbor), is 5136 for the year 1908.
Authorities—The eighth volume of the Tenth Report of the United States Census (1884) contains a statistical report on the newspaper and periodical press of America by S. N. D. North. See also Cucheval Clarigny, Histoire de la presse en Angleterre et aux États Unis (1857), H. Stevens, Catalogue of American Books in the Library of the British Museum (1866), and American Books with Tails to 'em (1873); I. Thomas, History of Printing in America (Albany, 1874), J. Nichol, American Literature (1882); “Check List of American Magazines,” in Library Journ., xiv. 373; G. P. Rowell & Co.'s American Newspaper Directory (New York); A. R. Spofford, Book for all Readers (1900); F. W. Faxon's Check list of American and English Periodicals (Boston, 1908). Many American libraries co-operate in issuing joint or union lists of periodicals. See list of these as well as lists of special indexes in A. B. Kroeger's Guide to Reference Books (2nd ed., Boston, 1908).
Indexes to Periodicals.—The contents of English and American periodicals of the last 100 years are indexed in the following publications: W. F. Poole's Index to Periodical Literature (1802-1881, revised ed. Boston, 1891); 1st supplement, 1882-1887, by W. F. Poole and W. I. Fletcher, 1888; 2nd supplement, 1887-1892, by W. I. Fletcher, 1893; 3rd supplement, 1892-1896, by W. I. Fletcher and F. O. Poole, 1898, 4th supplement, 1897-1902, 1902; 5th supplement, 1902-1907, 1908; Poole's Index, abridged edition, by W. I. Fletcher and M. Poole (Boston, 1901); 1st supplement, 1900-1904 (Boston, 1905), The Co-operative Index to Periodicals (1885-1894, ed. W. I. Fletcher, 1886-1894); The Annual Literary Index, including Periodicals, ed. by W. I. Fletcher and R. R. Bowker (New York, 10 vols., 1892-1907); “Index of Periodicals for 1890,” &c. (Review of Reviews), by Miss Hetherington (13 vols., 1891-1902); Q. P. Indexes; Cotgreave's Contents Subject Index to General and Periodical Literature (1900), Cumulative Index to a Selected list of Periodicals, begun in the Cleveland Public Library in 1896 and 1897 by W. H. Brett, merged in 1903 with the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature (8 vols., 1901-1908, ed. by A. L. Guthrie, Minneapolis, U.S.); Magazine Subject Index, by F. W. Faxon (Boston, 1908), continued quarterly in Bulletin of Bibliography, which in 1907 began a magazine subject index; Eclectic Library Catalogue (Minneapolis, 1908), issued quarterly.
Canadian periodicals have reached a higher standard than in any other British self-governing colony. Like that of South Africa, the press is bi-lingual. The first Canadian review, the Quebec Magazine (1791-1793), was published quarterly in French and English. It was followed by the British American Register (Quebec, 1803), L'Abeille canadienne (Montreal, 1818), edited by H. Mezière, the Canadian Magazine (Montreal, 1823-1825), the Canadian Review (Montreal, 1824-1826), La Bibliothèque canadienne (Montreal, 1825-1830), continued as L'Observateur (1830-1831), and the Magasin du Bas-Canada (Montreal, 1832). The three latter were edited by Michel Bibaud. The Literary Garland (Montreal, 1838-1850), edited by John Gibson, was for some time the only English magazine published in Canada. Later magazines were L'Echo du cabinet du lecture paroissial (Montreal, 1859), 15 vols.; Le Foyer canadien (Quebec, 1863-1866), one of the most interesting French-Canadian reviews, La Revue canadienne, which was started at Montreal in 1864, and contained the best writings of contemporary French-Canadian littérateurs; La Revue de Montréal (1877-1881), edited by the abbé T. A. Chandonnet; the Canadian Journal (Toronto), commenced in 1852 under Henry Youle Hind and continued by Daniel Wilson; L'Abeille (Quebec, 1848-1881), and the Canadian Monthly (Toronto, 1872-1882). The Bystander (Toronto, 1880-1883), was edited by Goldwin Smith. Le Canada français (Quebec, 1888-1891), edited by the staff of the Laval University, and Canadiana (1889-1890), were important historical and literary reviews. Contemporary magazines are the Canadian Magazine (1893), the Westminster, both produced at Toronto, La Nouvelle-France (Quebec), the Canada Monthly (London, Ontario), and the University Magazine, edited by Professor Macphail, of the McGill University.
See H. Morgan, Bibliotheca canadensis (1867), “Canadian Magazines,” by G. Stewart, Canadian Monthly, vol. xvii; “Periodical Literature in Canada,” by J. M. Oxley, North Am. Rev. (1888); P. Gagnon, Essai de bibliographie canadienne (1895), and S. E. Dawson, Prose Writers of Canada (1901).
The earliest magazine was the South African Journal, issued by the poet Pringle and John Fairbairn in 1824 'It was followed by the South African Quarterly Journal (1820-1834), the Cape of Good Hope Literary Gazette (1830-1833), edited by A. J. Jardine, the Cape of Good Hope Literary Magazine (1847-1848), edited by J. L. Fitzpatrick, and the Eastern Province Monthly Magazine, published at Grahamstown in 1857-1858. A Dutch periodical called Elpis, algemeen tijdschrift voor Zuid Afrika (1857-1861) appealed to the farming community. The Eastern Province Magazine was issued at Port Elizabeth in 1861-1862, and the South African Magazine appeared in 1867-1868. The Orange Free State Magazine, the only English magazine published at Bloemfontein, was issued in 1877-1878; and the E. P. Magazine was published at Grahamstown in 1892-1897. The Cape Monthly Magazine, the most important of the periodicals, was issued from 1857 to 1862, and was again continued under the editorship of Professor Noble from 1870 to 1881. The Cape Illustrated Magazine (1890-1899) was edited by Professor J. Gill. In Durban the Present Century was started in 1903, and the Natal Magazine was issued at Pietermaritzburg in 1877. The weekly New Era (1904-1905) was succeeded by the South African Magazine (1906-1907); both were edited by C. H. Crane. The African Monthly (Grahamstown, 1907) and the State of South Africa (Cape Town, 1909) are monthly reviews, while the South African Railway Magazine (1907) is of wider interest than its name denotes.
See S. Mendelssohn, South African Bibliography (2 vols., 1910), and P. E. Lewin, Catalogue of the Port Elizabeth Library (2 vols., 1906).
Australia and New Zealand
New South Wales.—The Australian Magazine was published monthly at Sydney in 1821-1822. This was followed by the South Asian Register (1827), the Australian Quarterly Journal (1828), edited by the Rev. P. N. Wilton, the New South Wales Magazine (1833), the New South Wales Literary, Political and Commercial Advertiser (1835), edited by the eccentric Dr Lhotsky, Tegg's Monthly Magazine (1836), the Australian Magazine (1838), the New South Wales Magazine (1843), the Australian Penny Journal (1848) and many others. The Sydney University Magazine (1855), again published in 1878-1879, and continued as the Sydney University Review, is the first magazine of a high literary standard. The Sydney Magazine of Science and Art (1857) and the Month (1857) were short-lived. Of later magazines the Australian (1878-1881), Aurora australis (1868), and the Sydney Magazine (1878), were the most noteworthy. Of contemporary magazines Dalgety's Review is mainly agricultural, the Australian Magazine (1909) and the Lone Hand (1907) are popular, and the Science of Man is an anthropological review.
See Australasian Bibliography (Sydney, 1893); G. B. Barton, Literature of N. S. W. (1866); E. A. Petherick, Catalogue of Books Relating to Australasia (1899).
Victoria.—The Port Phillip Magazine (1843) must be regarded as the first literary venture in Victoria. This was followed by the Australia Felix Magazine (1849), and the Australasian Quarterly Reprint (1850-1851) both published at Geelong, the Illustrated Australian Magazine (1850-1852), the Australian Gold-Digger's Monthly Magazine (1852-1853), edited by James Bonwick, and the Melbourne Monthly Magazine (1855-1856). The Journal of Australasia (1856-1858), the Australian Monthly Magazine (1865-1867), which contained contributions from Marcus Clarke and was continued as the Colonial Monthly (1867-1869), the Melbourne Review (1876-1885) and the Victorian Review (1879-1886) may also be mentioned. The Imperial Review, apparently the work of one pen, has been published since 1879; the Pastoralists' Review appeals more especially to the agricultural community. A Library Record of Australasia was published in 1901-1902. An Australian edition of the Review of Reviews is published at Melbourne.
See “Some Magazines of Early Victoria,” in the Library Record of Australasia, Nos. 2-4 (1901).
South Australia.—The South Australian Magazine was issued monthly in 1841-1843, the Adelaide Magazine (1845), the Adelaide Miscellany (1848-1849), and the Wanderer in 1853. The South Australian Twopenny Magazine was published at Plymouth, England, in 1839, and the South Australian Miscellany and New Zealand Review at London in the same year.
See T. Gill, Bibliography of South Australia (1886).
Tasmania.—The first magazine was Murray's Austral-Asiatic Review, published at Hobart in 1828. The Hobart Town Magazine appeared in 1833-1834, and the Van Diemen's Land Monthly Magazine in 1835.
New Zealand.—The New Zealand Magazine, a quarterly, was published at Wellington in 1850. In 1857 appeared the New Zealand Quarterly Review, of little local interest, followed by Chapman's New Zealand Monthly Magazine (1862), the Southern Monthly Magazine (1863), the Delphic Oracle (1866-1870), the Stoic (1871), the Dunedin Review (1885), the Literary Magazine (1885), the four latter being written by J. G. S. Grant, an eccentric genius, the Monthly Review (1888-1890), the New Zealand Illustrated Magazine (1899-1905), chiefly devoted to the light literature of New Zealand subjects, the Maori Record (1905-1907), and the Red Funnel, published since 1905.
See T. M. Hocken, Bibliography of New Zealand (1909).
West Indies and British Crown Colonies
In Jamaica the Columbian Magazine was founded at Kingston in 1796 and ceased publication in 1800. Two volumes were published of a New Jamaica Magazine which was started about 1798. The Jamaica Magazine (1812-1813), the Jamaica Monthly Magazine (1844-1848), and the Victoria Quarterly (1889-1892), which contained many valuable articles on the West Indies, were other magazines The West Indian Quarterly was published at Georgetown, British Guiana, from 1885 to 1888. At Georgetown was also published the well-known Timehrs (1882-1898) which contained many important historical articles. In Trinidad the Trinidad Monthly Magazine was started in 1871, and the Union Magazine in 1892.
Malta had a Malta Penny Magazine in 1839-1841, and the Revue historique et littéraire was founded in Mauritius in 1887. Many magazines dealing with the colonies have been published in England, such as the Colonial Magazine (1840-1843).
See F. Cundall, Bibliographia Jamaicensis (1902-1908).
India and Ceylon
Calcutta.—The first Indian periodical was the Asiatick Miscellany (Calcutta, 1785-1789), probably edited by F. Gladwin The Calcutta Monthly Register was published in 1790, and the Calcutta Monthly Journal from 1798 to 1841. Among other early Calcutta magazines were the Asiatic Observer (1823-1824), the Quarterly Oriental Magazine (1824-1827), and the Royal Sporting Magazine (1833-1838). The Calcutta Literary Gazette was published in 1830-1834, and the Calcutta Review, still the most important serial of the Indian Empire, first appeared in 1846 under the editorship of Sir J. W. Kaye.
Bombay.—The Bombay Magazine was started in 1811 and lasted but a short time. The Bombay Quarterly Magazine (1851-1853) gave place to the Bombay Quarterly Review, issued in 1855.
Madras.—Madras had a Journal of Literature and Science and the Oriental Magazine and Indian Hurkuru (1819). The Indian Antiquary was started at Bombay in 1872 and still continues. Of other contemporary magazines the Hindustan Review (Allahabad), the Modern Review (Calcutta), the Indian Review (Madras), the Madras Review, a quarterly first published in 1895, and the Calcutta University Magazine (1894), are important.
Ceylon.—In Ceylon the Religious and Theological Magazine was started at Colombo in 1833, the Colombo Magazine in 1839, the Ceylon Magazine in 1840, and the Investigator at Kandy in 1841. Of contemporary magazines the Tropical Agriculturist was started in 1881, the Ceylon Literary Register (1886-1896), afterwards the Monthly Literary Register and the Ceylon National Review in 1893. In Burma the quarterly Buddhism appeared in 1904. Singapore had a Journal of the Indian Archipelago from 1847 to 1859, and the Chinese Repository (1832-1851) was edited at Canton by Morrison.
See “Periodical Literature in India,” in Dark Blue (1872-1873).
We owe the literary journal to France, where it soon attained to a degree of importance unapproached in any other country. The first idea may be traced in the Bureau d'adresse (1633-1642) of Théophraste Renaudot, giving the proceedings of his conferences upon literary and scientific matters. About the year 1663 Mézeray obtained a privilege for a regular literary periodical, which came to nothing, and it was left to Denis de Sallo counsellor of the parliament of Paris and a man of rare merit and learning, to actually carry the project into effect. The first number of the Journal des savants appeared on the 5th of January 1665, under the assumed name oft he sieur d'Hédouville. The prospectus promised to give an account of the chief books published throughout Europe, obituary notices, a review of the progress of science, besides legal and ecclesiastical information and other matters of interest to cultivated persons. The criticisms, however, wounded alike authors and the clergy, and the journal was suppressed after a career of three months. Colbert, seeing the public utility of such a periodical, ordered the abbé Gallois, a contributor of De Sallo's, to re-establish it, an event which took place on the 4th of January 1666. It lingered nine years under the new editor, who was replaced in 1675 by the abbé de la Roque, and the latter in his turn by the president Cousin, in 1686. From 1701 commenced a new era for the Journal, which was then acquired by the chancellor de Pontchartrain for the state and placed under the direction of a commission of learned men lust before the Revolution it developed fresh activity, but the troubles of 1792 caused it to be discontinued until 1796, when it again failed to appear after twelve numbers had been issued. In 1816 it was definitely re-established and replaced under government patronage, remaining subject to the chancellor or garde-des-sceaux until 1857, when it was transferred to the control of the minister of public instruction. Since 1903 the organization of the publication has changed. The state subsidy having been withdrawn, the Institute voted a yearly subscription of 10,000 francs and nominated a commission of five members, one for each section, who managed the Journal. Since 1909, however, the various sections have left to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres the entire direction of the Journal, while still paying the annual subsidy. It now restricts itself to publishing contributions relating to antiquities and the middle ages and Oriental studies.
Louis Auguste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, having transferred his parliament to Trévoux, set up a printing press, and was persuaded by two Jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des sciences et des arts (1701-1767), more familiarly known as the Journal des Trévoux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France. One feature of its career was its constant appeal for the literary assistance of outsiders. It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des sciences et des beaux-arts (1768-1775) by the abbé Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon (1776-1778), and as Journal de littérature, des sciences, et des arts (1779-1782) by the abbé Grosier.
The first legal periodical was the Journal du palais (1672) of Claude Blondeau and Gabriel Guéret, and the first devoted to medicine the Nouvelles découvertes dans toutes les parties de la médecine (1679) of Nicolas de Blégny, frequently spoken of as a charlatan, a term which sometimes means simply a man of many ideas. Religious periodicals date from 1680, and the Journal ecclésiastique of the abbé de la Roque, to whom is also due the first medical journal (1683). The prototype of the historico-literary periodical may be discovered in La Clef du cabinet des princes de l'Europe (1704-1706), familiarly known as Journal de Verdun, and carried on under various titles down to 1794.
Literary criticism was no more free than political discussion, and no person was allowed to trespass either upon the domain of the Journal des savants or that of the Mercure de France (see Newspapers) without the payment of heavy subsidies. This was the origin of the clandestine press of Holland, and it was that country which for the next hundred years supplied the ablest periodical criticism from the pens of French Protestant refugees. During that period thirty-one journals of the first class proceeded from these sources. From its commencement the Journal des savants was pirated in Holland, and for ten years a kind of joint issue made up with the Journal des Trévoux appeared at Amsterdam. From 1764 to 1775 miscellaneous articles from different French and English reviews were added to this reprint. Bayle, a born journalist and the most able critic of the day, conceived the plan of the Nouvelles de la république des lettres (1684-1718), which at once became entirely successful and obtained for him during the three years of his control the dictatorship of the world of letters. He was succeeded as editor by La Roque, Barrin, Bernard and Leclerc. Bayle's method was followed in an equally meritorious periodical, the Histoire des ouvrages des Savants (1687-1704) of H. Basnage de Beauval. Another continuator of Bayle was Jean Leclerc, one of the most learned and acute critics of the 18th century, who carried on three reviews—the Bibliothèque universelle et historique (1686-1693), the Bibliothèque choisie (1703-1713), and the Bibliothèque ancienne et moderne (1714-1727). They form one series, and, besides valuable estimates of new books, include original dissertations, articles and biographies like our modern learned magazines. The Journal littéraire (1713-1722, 1729-1736) was founded by a society of young men, who made it a rule to discuss their contributions in common. Specially devoted to English literature were the Bibliothèque anglaise (1716-1728), the Mémoires littéraires de la Grande Bretagne (1720-1724). the Bibliothèque britannique (1733-1734), and the Journal britannique (1750-1757) of Maty, who took for his principle, “pour penser avec liberté il faut penser seul.” One of these Dutch-printed reviews was L'Europe savante (1718-1720), founded chiefly by Themiseul de Saint-Hyacinthe, with the intention of placing each separate department under the care of a specialist. The Bibliothèque germanique (1720-1740) was established by Jacques Lenfant to do for northern Europe what the Bibliothèque britannique did for England. It was followed by the Nouvelle bibliothèque germanique (1746-1759). The Bibliothèque raisonnée des ouvrages des savants (1728-1758) was supplementary to Leclerc, and was succeeded by the Bibliothèque des sciences et des beaux-arts (1754-1780). Nearly all of the preceding were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, although out of place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood.
Taking up the exact chronological order again, we find the success of the English essay-papers led to their prompt introduction to the Continent. An incomplete translation of the Spectator was published at Amsterdam in 1714, and many volumes of extracts from the Tatler, Spectator and Guardian were issued in France early in the 18th century. Marivaux brought out a Spectateur Français (1722), which was coldly received; it was followed by fourteen or fifteen others, under the titles of La Spectatrice (1728-1730), Le Radoteur (1775), Le Babillard (1778-1779), &c. Of a similar character was Le Pour et le contre (1723-1740) of the abbé Prévost, which contained anecdotes and criticism, with special reference to Great Britain. Throughout the 18th century, in France as in England, a favourite literary method was to write of social subjects under the assumed character of a foreigner, generally an Oriental, with the title of Turkish Spy, Lettres chinoises, &c. These productions were usually issued in periodical form, and, besides an immense amount of worthless tittle tattle, contain some valuable matter
During the first half of the century France has little of importance to show in periodical literature The Nouvelles ecclésiastiques (1728-1803) were first printed and circulated secretly by the Jansenists in opposition to the Constitution unigenitus. The Jesuits retaliated with the Supplement des nouvelles ecclésiastiques (1734-1748) The promising title may have had something to do with the temporary success of the Mémoires secrets de la république des lettres (1744-1748) of the marquis d'Argens. In the Observations sur les écrits modernes (1735-1743) Desfontaines held the gates of Philistia for eight years against the Encyclopaedists, and even the redoubtable Voltaire himself. It was continued by the Jugements sur quelques ouvrages nouveaux (1744-1745). The name of Fréron, perhaps the most vigorous enemy Voltaire ever encountered, was long connected with Lettres sur quelques écrits de ce temps (1749-1754), followed by L'Année littéraire (1754-1790). Among the contributors of Fréron was another manufacturer of criticism, the abbé de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrère, founded Observations sur la littérature moderne (1749-1752) and L'Observateur littéraire (1758-1761).
A number of special organs came into existence about this period. The first, treating of agriculture and domestic economy, was the Journal économique (1751-1772); a Journal de commerce was founded in 1759; periodical biography may be first seen in the Necrologe des hommes célèbres de France (1764-1782); the political economists established the Ephémérides du citoyen in 1765; the first Journal d'éducation was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la mode in the same year, the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des théâtres (1770), in the same year were produced a Journal de musique and the Encyclopédie militaire; the sister service was supplied with a Journal de marine in 1778. We have already noticed several journals specially devoted to one or other foreign literature. It was left to Fréron, Grimm, Prévost and others in 1754 to extend the idea to all foreign productions, and the Journal étranger (1754-1762) was founded for this purpose. The Gazette Littéraire (1764-1766), which had Voltaire, Diderot and Saint-Lambert among its editors, was intended to swamp the small fry by criticism; the Journal des dames (1759-1778) was of a light magazine class; and the Journal de monsieur (1776-1783) had three phases of existence, and died after extending to thirty volumes. The Mémoires secrets pour servir à l'histoire de la république des lettres (1762-1787), better known as Mémoires de Bachaumont, from the name of their founder, furnish a minute account of the social and literary history for a period of twenty-six years. Of a similar character was the Correspondance littéraire secrete (1774-1793), to which Métra as the chief contributor. L'Esprit des Journaux (1772-1818) forms an important literary and historical collection, which is rarely to be found complete.
The movement of ideas at the close of the century may best be traced in the Annales politiques, civiles, et littéraires (1777-1792) of Linguet. The Décade philosophique (year V., or 1796/1797), founded by Ginguené, is the first periodical of the magazine class which appeared after the storms of the Revolution. It was a kind of resurrection of good taste; under the empire it formed the sole refuge of the opposition. By a decree of the 17th of January 1800 the consulate reduced the number of Parisian journals to thirteen, of which the Décade was one; all the others, with the exception of those dealing solely with science, art, commerce and advertisements, were suppressed. A report addressed to Bonaparte by Fiévée in the year XI. (1802/1803) furnishes a list of fifty-one of these periodicals. In the year XIII. (1804/1805) only seven non-political serials were permitted to appear.
Between 1815 and 1819 there was a constant struggle between freedom of thought on the one hand and the censure, the police and the law officers on the other. This oppression led to the device of “semi-periodical” publications of which La Minerve française (1818-1820) is an instance. It was the Satire Ménippée of the Restoration, and was brought out four times a year at irregular intervals. Of the same class was the Bibltothèque historique (1818-1820), another anti-royalist organ. The censure was re-established in 1820 and abolished in 1828 with the monopoly. It has always seemed impossible to carry on successfully in France a review upon the lines of those which have become so numerous and important in England. The Revue britannique (1825-1901) had, however, a long career. The short lived Revue française (1828-1830), founded by Guizot, Rémusat, De Broglie, and the doctrinaires, was an attempt in this direction. The well-known Revue des deux mondes was established in 1829 by Ségur-Dupeyron and Mauroy, but it ceased to appear at the end of the year, and its actual existence dates from its acquisition in 1831 by François Buloz, a masterful editor, under whose energetic management it soon achieved a world-wide reputation. The most distinguished names in French literature have been among its contributors, for whom it has been styled the “vestibule of the Academy.” It was preceded by a few months by the Revue de Paris (1829-1845), founded by Veron, who introduced the novel to periodical literature. In 1834 this was purchased by Buloz, and brought out concurrently with his other Revue. While the former was exclusively literary and artistic, the latter dealt more with philosophy. The Revue independante (1811-1848) was founded by Pierre Leroux, George Sand and Viardot for the democracy. The times of the consulate and the empire were the subjects dealt with by the Revue de l'empire (1842-1848). In Le Correspondant (1843), established by Montalembert and De Falloux, the Catholics and Legitimists had a valuable supporter. The Revue contemporaine (1852), founded by the comte de Belval as a royalist organ, had joined to it in 1856 the Athenaeum française. The Revue germanique (1858) exchanged its exclusive name and character in 1865 to the Revue moderne. The Revue européenne (1859) was at first subventioned like the Revue contemporaine, from which it soon withdrew government favour. The Revue nationale (1860) appeared quarterly, and succeeded to the Magazin de librairie (1858).
The number of French periodicals, reviews and magazines has enormously increased, not only in Paris but in the provinces. In Paris the number of periodicals published in 1883 was 1379; at the end of 1908 there were more than 3500 of all kinds. The chief current periodicals may be mentioned in the following order. The list includes a few no longer published.
Archaeology.—Revue archéologique (1860), bi-monthly; Ami des monuments (1887); Bulletin de numismatique (1891); Revue biblique (1892); L'Année épigraphique (1880)—a sort of supplement to the Corpus inscriptionum latinarum; Celtica (1903)—common to France and England; Gazette numismatique française (1897); Revue sémitique d'épigraphie et d'histoire ancienne (1893); Bulletin monumental, bi-monthly; L'Intermédiaire, weekly, the French “Notes and Queries,” devoted to literary and antiquarian questions.
Astronomy.—Annuaire astronomique et météorologique (1901); Bulletin astronomique (1884), formerly published under the title Bulletin des sciences mathématiques et astronomiques.
Bibliography.—Annales de bibliographie théologique (1888); Le bibliographe moderne (1897); Bibliographie anatomique (1893); Bibliographie scientifique française (1902); Bulletin des bibliothèques et des archives (1884); Bulletin des livres relatifs à l'Amérique (1899); Courrier des bibliothèques (1910); Répertoire méthodique de l'histoire moderne et contemporaine de la France (1898); Répertoire méthodique du moyen âge français (1894); Revue bibliographique et critique des langues et littératures romanes (1889); Revue des bibliothèques (1891); Polybiblion revue bibliographique universelle, monthly; Revue générale de bibliographie française, bi-monthly.
Children's Magazines.—L'Ami de la jeunesse; Le Jeudi de la jeunesse, weekly.
Fashions.—La Mode illustrée; Les Modes, monthly.
Fine Arts.—Les Arts (1902); Gazette des beaux-arts (1859), monthly, with Chronique des arts; Revue de l'art ancien et moderne (1897) monthly; L'Art décoratif, monthly, Art et décoration, monthly; L'Art pour tous, monthly; La Décoration, monthly; L'Architecture—journal of the Soc. centrale des Architectes français, weekly; L'Art (1875) is no longer published.
Geography and Colonies.—Bulletin de géographie historique; Annales de géographie (1891), with useful quarterly bibliography; Nouvelles géographiques—supplement to the Tour du monde (1891); La Vie coloniale (1902); La Geographie, monthly, published by the Soc. de Géographie (1900); Revue de géographie, monthly; Revue géoqraphique internationale, monthly.
History.—For long the chief organs for history and archaeology were the Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes (1835), appearing every two months and dealing with the middle ages, and the Cabinet historique (1855), a monthly devoted to MSS. and unprinted documents The Revue historique (1876) appears bi-monthly; there is also the Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine.
Law and Jurisprudence.—Annales de droit commercial (1877); Revue algérienne et tunisienne de législation et de jurisprudence (1885); Revue du droit public et de la science politique (1894); Revue générale du droit international public (1894).
Literary Reviews.—The Revue des deux mondes and the Correspondant have already been mentioned. One of the first of European weekly reviews is the Revue critique (1866). The Revue politique et littéraire, successor to the Revue des cours littéraires (1863) and known as the Revue bleue, also appears weekly. Others of interest are Antée, revue mensuelle de littérature (1904); L'Art et la vie (1892); Cosmopolis (1896); L'Ermitage (1890); Le Mercure de France, série moderne (1890), a magazine greatly valued in literary circles; La Revue de Paris, fortnightly (1894), and the Nouvelle Revue (1879)—both serious rivals of the Revue des deux mondes, Revue française d'Edimbourg (1897); Revue germanique (1905); Le Livre (1880), dealing with bibliography and literary history, and La Revue latine (1902), no longer published; La Revue, monthly.
Mathematics.—Intermédiaire des mathématiciens (1894); Bulletin des sciences mathématiques (1896); Revue de mathématiques spéciales (1890); Journal de mathematiques pures et appliquées, quarterly.
Medicine.—Revue de médecine (1881); Annales de l'École de plein exercise de médicine et de pharmacie de Marseille (1891), La Chronique médecale (1893); Revue de gynécologie, bi-monthly; La Semaine médicale, weekly; Journal d'hygiene, monthly.
Military.—Revue des troupes coloniales, monthly; La Revue d'infantrie, monthly
Music.—Musica (1902); Revue d'histoire et de critique musicale (1901); Annales de la musique; Le Ménestral, weekly.
Philology.—L'Année linguistique (1901-1902); Bulletin de la société des parlers de France (1893); Bulletin des humanités français (1894); Bulletin hispanique (1899); Bulletin italien (1901); Lou-Gai-Sabé-Antoulongio prouvençalo (1905); Le Maître phonétique (1886); Le Moyen Age (1888); Revue de la renaissance (1901); Revue de métrique et de versification (1894-1895); Revue des études grecques (1888); Revue des études rabelaisiennes (1903); Revue des parlers populaires (1902); Revue des patois (1887); Revue hispanique (1894); Revue celtique, quarterly, Revue de philologie française et de littérature.
Philosophy and Psychology.—Revue philosophique (1876), monthly; Annales des sciences psychiques (1891); L'Année philosophique (1890), critical and analytical review of all philosophical works appearing during the year; L'Année psychologique (1894); Journal de psychologie normale et pathologie (1904); Bulletin de l'institut général de psychologie (1903); Revue de l'hypnotisme et de la psychologie physiologique (1900); Revue de métaphysique et de morale (1893); Revue de philosophie (1900); Revue de psychiatrie (1897).
Physics and Chemistry.—Bulletin des sciences physiques (1888); L'Éclairage électrique (1894); Le Radium (1904); Revue générale des sciences pures et appliquées (1890); Revue pratique de l'électricité (1892).
Popular and Family Reviews.—A travers le monde (1898); Femina (1901), Je sais tout (1905); La Lecture moderne (1901); La Revue hebdomadaire (1892); Les Lectures pour tous (1898); Mon bonheur (1902); La Vie heureuse (1902).
Science (General).—La Nature, weekly; Revue scientifique (1863), weekly; La Science française, monthly.—Science (Applied): Les inventions illustrées, weekly; Revue industrielle, weekly.—Science (Natural): Archives de biologie, Journal de botanique (1887); L'Année biologique (1895); Revue des sciences naturelles de l'ouest (1891); Revue générale de botanique (1889); La Pisciculture pratique (1895).—Science (Political, Sociological and Statistical): Annales économiques (founded as La France commerciale in 1885); L'Année sociologique (1896-1897); Bulletin de l'office du travail (1894); Bulletin de l'office international du travail (1902); Le Mouvement socialiste—international bi-monthly (1899); Notices et comptes rendus de l'office du travail (1892); L'Orient et l'abeille du Bosphore (1889); Revue politique et parlementaire (1894); Revue international de sociologie, monthly.
Sports.—L'Aérophile (1893); L'Aéronautique (1902); L'Aérostation (1904); La Vie au grand air (1898); La Vie automobile (1901); Revue de l'aéronautique (1888).
Authorities.—The subject of French periodicals has been exhaustively treated in the valuable works of Eugène Hatin—Histoire de la presse en France (8 vols., 1859-1861), Les Gazettes de Hollande et la presse clandestine aux 17e et 18e siècles (1865), and Bibliographie de la presse périodique française (1866). See also Catalogue de l'histoire de France (11 vols., 1855-1879), V. Gébé, Catalogue des Journaux, &c., publiés à Paris (1879); Brunet, Manuel du libraire, avec supplément (8 vols., 1860-1880); F. Mège, Les Journaux et écrits périodiques de la Basse Auvergne (1869); Bulletin des sommaires des journaux (1888); D. Jordell, Répertoire bibliographique des principales revues françaises (3 vols., 1897-1899, 1898-1900), indexes about 350 periodicals; Annuaire de la presse française et du monde politique (1909-1910); Le Soudier, Annuaire des journaux, revues et publications périodiques parus à Paris jusqu'en 1909 (1910) For lists of general indexes consult Stein, Manuel de bibliographie générale (1897), pp. 637-710.
The earliest trace of the literary journal in German is to be found in the Erbauliche Monatsunterredungen (1663) of the poet Johann Rist and in the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (1670-1704) of the Academia naturae curiosorum Leopodina-Carolina, the first scientific annual, uniting the features of the Journal des savants and of the Philosophical Transactions. D. G. Morhof, the author of the well-known Polyhistor, conceived the idea of a monthly serial to be devoted to the history of modern books and learning, which came to nothing. While professor of morals at Leipzig, Otto Mencke planned the Acta eruditorum, with a view to make known, by means of analyses, extracts and reviews, the new works produced throughout Europe. In 1680 he travelled in England and Holland in order to obtain literary assistance, and the first number appeared in 1682, under the title of Acta eruditorum lipsiensium, and, like its successors, was written in Latin. Among the contributors to subsequent numbers were Leibnitz, Seckendorf and Cellarius. A volume came out each year, with supplements. After editing about thirty volumes Mencke died, leaving the publication to his son, and the Acta remained in the possession of the family down to 1745, when they extended to 117 volumes, which form an extremely valuable history of the learning of the period. A selection of the dissertations and articles was published at Venice in 7 vols. 4t0 (1740). The Acta soon had imitators. The Ephemerides litterariae (1686) came out at Hamburg in Latin and French. The Nova litteraria maris Balthici et Septentrionis (1698-1708) was more especially devoted to north Germany and the universities of Kiel, Rostock and Dorpat. Supplementary to the preceding was the Nova litteraria Germaniae collecta Hamburgi (1703-1709), which from 1707 widened its field of view to the whole of Europe. At Leipzig was produced the Teutsche acta eruditorum (1712), an excellent periodical, edited by J. G. Rabener and C. G. Jocher, and continued from 1740 to 1758 as Zuverlässige Nachrichten. It included portraits.
The brilliant and enterprising Christian Thomasius brought out periodically, in dialogue form, his Monatsgespräche (1688-1690), written by himself in the vernacular, to defend his novel theories against the alarmed pedantry of Germany, and, together with Strahl, Buddeus and others, Observationes selectae ad rem litterariam spectantes (1700), written in Latin. W. E. Tenzel also published Monatliche Unterredungen (1689-1698), continued from 1704 as Curieuse Bibliothek, and treating various subjects in dialogue form. After the death of Tenzel the Bibliothek was carried on under different titles by C. Woltereck, J. G. Krause and others, down to 1721. Of much greater importance than these was the Monatlicher Auszug (1701), supported by J. G. Eccard and Leibnitz. Another periodical on Thomasius's plan was Neue Unterredungen (1702), edited by N. H. Gundling. The Gundlingiana of the latter person, published at Halle (1715-1732), and written partly in Latin and partly in German by the editor, contained a miscellaneous collection of juridical, historical and theological observations and dissertations.
Nearly all departments of learning possessed their several special periodical organs about the close of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The Anni franciscanorum (1680) was edited by the Jesuit Stiller; and J. S. Adami published, between 1690 and 1713, certain theological repertories under the name of Deliciae. Historical journalism was first represented by Electa juris publici (1709), philology by Neue acerra philologica (1715-1723), philosophy by the Acta philosophorum (1715-1727), medicine by Der patriotische Medikus (1725), music by Der musikalische Patriot (1725), and education by Die Matrone (1728). Reference has already been made to the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (1670-1704); the Monatliche Erzählungen (1689) was also devoted to natural science.
Down to the early part of the 18th century Halle and Leipzig were the headquarters of literary journalism in Germany. Other centres began to feel the need of similar organs of opinion. Hamburg had its Niedersächsische neue Zeitungen, styled from 1731 Niedersächsische Nachrichten, which came to an end in 1736, and Mecklenburg owned in 1710 its Neuer Vorrath, besides others brought out at Rostock. Prussia owes the foundation of its literary periodicals to G. P. Schulze and M. Lilienthal, the former of whom began with Gelehrtes Preussen (1722), continued under different titles down to 1729; the latter helped with the Erläutertes Preussen (1724), and was the sole editor of the Acta borussica (1730-1732). Pomerania and Silesia also had their special periodicals in the first quarter of the 18th century. Franconia commenced with Nova litteraria, and Hesse with the Kurze Historie, both in 1725. In south Germany appeared the Württembergische Nebenstunden (1718), and the Parnassus boicus, first published at Munich in 1722. The Frankfürter gelehrte Zeitungen was founded in 1736 by S. T. Hocker, and existed down to 1790. Austria owned Das merkwürdige Wien.
In 1715 the Neue Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen was founded by J. G. Krause at Leipzig and carried on by various editors down to 1797. It was the first attempt to apply the form of the weekly political journal to learned subjects, and was imitated in the Vermischte Bibliothek (1718-1720) and the Bibltotheca novissima (1718-1721), both founded by J. G. Francke in Halle. Shortly after the foundation of the university of Göttingen appeared Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachsen (1739), still famous as the Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, which during its long and influential career has been conducted by professors of that university, and among others by Haller, Heyne and Eichhorn.
Influenced by a close study of English writers, the two Swiss, Bodmer and Breitinger, established Die Discurse der Maler (1721), and by paying more attention to the matter of works reviewed than to their manner, commenced a critical method new to Germany. The system was attacked by Gottsched, who, educated in the French school, erred in the opposite direction. The struggle between the two parties gave fresh life to the literature of the country but German criticism of the higher sort can only be said really to begin with Lessing. The Berlin publisher Nicolai founded the Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften, and afterwards handed it over to C. F. Weisse in order to give his whole energy to the Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend (1759-1765), carried on by the help of Lessing, Mendelssohn and Abbt. To Nicolai is also due the Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek (1765-1806), which embraced a much wider field and soon became extremely influential. Herder founded the Kritische Wälder in 1766. Der deutsche Merkur (1773-1789, revived 1790-1810) of Wieland was the solitary representative of the French school of criticism. A new era in German periodical literature began when Bertuch brought out at Jena in 1785 the Allgemeine Literaturzeitung, to which the leading writers of the country were contributors. On being transferred to Halle in 1804 it was replaced by the Jenaische allgemeine Literaturzeitung, founded by Eichstadt. Both reviews enjoyed a prosperous career down to the year 1848.
At the beginning of the 19th century we find the Erlanger Literaturzeitung (1799-1810), which had replaced a Gelehrte Zeitung (1746); the Leipziger Literaturzeitung (1800-1834); the Heidelbergische Jahrbücher der Literatur (1808-1872); and the Wiener Literaturzeitung (1813-1816), followed by the Wiener Jahrbücher der Literatur (1818-1848), both of which received government support and resemble the English Quarterly Review in their conservative politics and high literary tone. Hermes, founded at Leipzig in 1819 by W. T. Krug, was distinguished for its erudition, and came out down to 1831. One of the most remarkable periodicals of this class was the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik (1827-1846), first published by Cotta. The Hallische Jahrbücher (1838-1842) was founded by Ruge and Echtermeyer, and supported by the government. The Repertorium der gesammten deutschen Literatur, established by Gersdorf in 1834, and known after 1843 as the Leipziger Repertorium der deutschen und ausländischen Literatur, existed to 1860. Buchner founded the Literarische Zeitung at Berlin in 1834. It was continued by Brandes down to 1849. The political troubles of 1848 and 1849 were most disastrous to the welfare of the literary and miscellaneous periodicals. Gersdorf's Repertorium, the Gelehrte Anzeigen of Göttingen and of Munich, and the Heidelbergische Jahrbücher were the sole survivors. The Allgemeine Monatschrift für Literatur (1850), conducted after 1851 by Droysen, Nitzsch and others, continued only down to 1854; the Literarisches Centralblatt (1850) is still published. The Blätter für literarische Unterhaltung sprang out of the Literarisches Wochenblatt (1818), founded by Kotzebue; after 1865 it was edited by R. Gottschall with considerable success. Many of the literary journals did not disdain to occupy themselves with the fashions, but the first periodical of any merit specially devoted to the subject was the Bazar (1855). The first to popularize science was Natur (1852). The Hausblätter (1855), a bi-monthly magazine, was extremely successful. The Salon (1868) followed more closely the type of the English magazine. About this period arose a great number of weekly serials for popular reading, known as “Sonntagsblätter,” of which the Gartenlaube (1858) and Daheim (1864) are surviving examples.
In course of time a large number of similar publications were issued, some illustrated, for instance: Illustrierte Zeitung (Leipzig, 1843), Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung (1892), Die Woche (1899) the last the most widely circulated of the kind, 500,000 being printed.
At a somewhat earlier date commenced a long series of weekly and monthly periodicals of a more solid character, of which the following list indicates the more important in chronological order: Die Grenzboten (1862), weekly; the Deutsches Museum (1851-1857), of Prutz and Frenzel; Berliner Revue (1855-1873); Westermanns Monatshefte (1856), monthly; Unsere Zeit (1857-1891), beginning as a kind of supplement to Brockhaus's Conversationslexikon; Preussische Jahrbücher (1858), monthly; Deutsches Magazin (1861-1863), Die Gegenwart (1873), weekly; Konservative Monatsschrift (1873), preceded by the Volksblatt für Stadt und Land (1843); Deutsche Rundschau (1874), fortnightly, conducted upon the method of the Revue des deux mondes; Deutsche Revue (1876), monthly; Nord und Süd (1877), monthly; Das Echo (1882), weekly; Die Zukunft (1882), weekly; Die neue Zeit (1883), weekly; Reclams Universum (1884), weekly; Velhagen und Klasings Monatshefte (1889), monthly, Die deutsche Rundschau (1890), monthly; Die Wahrheit (1893-1897); Kritik (1894-1902); Die Umschau (1897), weekly; Das literarische Echo (1898), fortnightly; Kynast (1898-1899), known later as Deutsche Zeitschrift (1899-1903) and Iduna (1903-1906); Der Turmer (1898), monthly; Die Warte (1900), weekly; Deutschland (1902-1907); Deutsche Monatsschrift (1902-1907); Hochland (1903), monthly; Charon (1904), monthly; Süddeutsche Monatshefte (1904); Der Deutsche (1905-1908); Deutsche Kultur (1905-1908); Arena (1906), monthly; Das Blaubuch (1906), weekly; Eckart (1906), monthly; Die Standarte (1906), weekly; März (1907), fortnightly, Morgen (1907), weekly; Neue Revue (1907), weekly; Internationale Wochenschrift für Wissenschaft, Kunst, und Technik (1907), weekly supplement to the Münchener allgemeine Zeitung; Wissen (1907), weekly; Unsere Zeit (1907), monthly; Hyperion (1908), bi-monthly; Xenien (1908), monthly; Das neue Jahrhundert (1909), monthly; Die Tal (1909), monthly.
Periodicals have been specialized in Germany to an extent perhaps unequalled in any other country. No subject of human interest is now without one or indeed several organs. Full details of these serials are supplied by a special class of periodical with which every department of science, art and literature in German-speaking countries is equipped, the Jahresberichte and Bibliographien, which give each year a full account of the literature of the subject with which they are concerned. The chief of these are:—
Bibliography and Librarianship: Bibliographie des Buch- und Bibliothekswesens (1905); Chemistry: Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der Chemie (1847); Classical Archaeology and Philology: Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft (1873); Education: Jahrbuch der pädagogischen Literatur (1901); Geography: Geographisches Jahrbuch (1874), Bibliotheca geographica (1891); History: Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft (1878); Fine Arts: Internationale Bibliographie der Kunstwissenschaft (1902); Law and Political Economy: Uebersicht der gesamten staats- und rechtswissenschaftlichen Literatur (1868); Jurisprudentia Germaniae (1905); Bibliographie des bürgerlichen Rechts (1888); Bibliographie der Sozialwissenschaften (1905); Bibliographie für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1903); Bibliographie für Volkswirtschaftslehre und Rechtswissenschaft (1906); Literature and Languages: Bibliographie der vergleichenden Literaturgeschichte (1903); Jahresberichte für neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte (1890); Jahresbericht über die Erscheinungen auf dem Gebiete der germanischen Philologie (1879); Uebersicht über die auf dem Gebiete der englischen Philologie erschienenen Bücher, Schriften, und Aufsätze (1878); Kritischer Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der romanischen Philologie (1875); Bibliographie für romanische Philologie—Supl. zur Zeitschr. roman. Philologie (1875); Orientalische Bibliographie (1888); Mathematics: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik (1869); Medicine and Surgery: Jahresbericht über die Leistungen und Fortschritte der gesamten Medizin (1866); Jahresbericht über die Leistungen auf dem Gebiete der Veterinärmedizin (1881); Military: Jahresbericht über Veränderungen und Fortschritte im Militärwesen (1874); Jahresbericht über die Leistungen und Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete des Militärsanitätswesens (1873); Natural Science: Naturae novitates (1879), fortnightly; Bibliographie der deutschen naturwissenschaftlichen Literatur (1901); Bibliographia zoologica (1896); Zoologischer Jahresbericht (1879); Justs botanischer Jahresbericht (1873); Die Fortschritte der Physik (1847); Technicology: Repertorium der technischen Journalliteratur (1874); Theology: Theologischer Jahreisbericht (1881); Bibliographie der Kirchengeschichtlichen Literatur (1877).
The most notable periodicals of a general character have been the Wiener Jahrbücher der Literatur (1818-1848) and the Oesterreichische Revue (1863-1867). Among current examples the following may be mentioned: Heimgarten (1877), monthly; Oesterreichisch-Ungarische Revue (1886), monthly; Allgemeines Literaturblatt (1892), fortnightly; Die Kultur (1899), quarterly; Deutsche Arbeit (1900), monthly; Oesterreichische Rundschau (1904), fortnightly; Die Karpathen (1907); fortnightly.
There were in Austria 22 literary and 41 special periodicals in 1848, and 110 literary and 413 special periodicals in 1873 (see the statistical inquiry of Dr Johann Winckler, Die period. Presse Oesterreichs, 1875). In 1905 the total number had increased to 806, of which 564 were published in Vienna.
According to the Deutscher Zeitschriften-Katalog (1874), 2219 periodicals were published in Austria, Germany and Switzerland in 1874 in the German language. In 1905 the number of periodicals in German-speaking countries was 5066, of which 3019 appeared in Germany (in Berlin alone 1107) 806 in Austria and 218 in Switzerland (Börsenblatt für den deutschen Buchhandel, 1909, No. 124).
Authorities.—C. Juncker, Schediasma de ephemeridibus eruditorum
(Leipzig, 1692); H. Kurz, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur
(Leipzig, 1852); R. Prutz, Geschichte des deutschen Journalismus
(1845) vol. i.,—unfortunately it does not go beyond 1713
); H. Wuttke,
Die deutschen Zeitschriften (1875); P. E. Richter, Verzeichnis der
Periodica im Besitze der k. off. Bibl. zu Dresden (1880); Generalkatalog
der laufenden periodischen Druckschriften an den oesterr. Universitäts-
und Studienbibliotheken hrsg. von F. Grassauer (Vienna,
1898); Königliche Bibliothek zu Berlin, Alphabetisches Verzeichnis der
laufenden Zeitschriften (1908); Systematisches Verzeichnis der laufenden
Zeitschriften (1908); Alphabetisches Verzeichnis der laufenden
Zeitschriften, welche von der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek München
und einer Anzahl anderer Bibliotheken Bayern gehalten werden
(München, 1909); Kürschner, Jahrbuch der Presse (1902); Sperlings
Zeitschriften Adressbuch (Stuttgart, 1910); Bibliographisches Repertorium,
Berlin: Walzel-Houben, Zeitschriften der Romantik (1904);
Houben, Zeitschriften des jungen Deutschlands (1906); Luck, Die
deutsche Fachpresse (Tübingen, 1908). The Bibliographie der
deutschen Zeitschriftenliteratur, edited by F. Dieterich, which has
appeared annually since 1896, describes about 1300 periodicals
(mostly scientific) by subjects and titles; from 1900 it has been
supplemented by Bibliographie der deutschen Recensionen, which
indexes notices and reviews in over 1000 serials each year, chiefly
scientific and technical.
The Nova litteraria helvetica (1703-1715) of Zurich is the earliest literary periodical which Switzerland can show. From 1728 to 1734 a Bibliothèque italique, and towards the end of the century the Bibliothèque britannique (1796-1815), dealing with agriculture, literature, and science, in three separate series, were published at Geneva. The latter was followed by the leading periodical of French-speaking Switzerland, the Bibliothèque universelle (1816), which has also had a scientific and a literary series. The Revue suisse (1838) was produced at Neuchâtel. These two have been amalgamated and appear as the Bibliothèque universelle et revue suisse. La Suisse romande (1885) only lasted twelve months. Théologie et philosophie (1868-1872), an account of foreign literature on those subjects, was continued as Revue de théologie et de philosophie (1873) at Lausanne. Among current serials may be mentioned Archives de psychologie de la Suisse romande (1901) edited by Flournoy and Claparède; Jahresverzeichnis der schweizerischen Universitätsschriften (1897-1898); Untersuchungen zur neueren Sprach- und Literaturgeschichte (1903); Zwingliana: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte Zwingli und der Reformation (1897).
Prompted by M. A. Ricci, Francesco Nazzari, the future cardinal, established in 1668 the Giornale de' letterati upon the plan of the French Journal des savants. His collaborateurs each agreed to undertake the criticism of a separate literature while Nazzari retained the general editorship and the analysis of the French books. The journal was continued to 1675, and another series was carried on to 1769. Bacchini brought out at Parma (1688-1690) and at Modena (1692-1697) a periodical with a similar title. A much better known Giornale was that of Apostolo Zeno, founded with the help of Maffei and Muratori (1710), continued after 1718 by Pietro Zeno, and after 1728 by Mastraca and Paitoni. Another Giornale, to which Fabroni contributed, was published at Pisa from 1771 onwards. The Galleria di Minerva was first published at Venice in 1696. One of the many merits of the antiquary Lami was his connexion with the Novelle letterarie (1740-1770), founded by him, and after the first two years almost entirely written by him. Its learning and impartiality gave it much authority. The Frusta letteraria (1763-1765) was brought out at Venice by Giuseppe Baretti under the pseudonym of Aristarco Scannabue. The next that deserve mention are the Giornale enciclopedico (1806) of Naples, followed by the Progresso delle scienze (1833-1848) and the Museo di sczenze e letteratura of the same city, and the Giornale arcadico (1819) of Rome. Among the contributors to the Poligrafo (1811) of Milan were Monti, Perticari, and some of the first names in Italian literature. The Biblioteca italiana (1816-1840) was founded at Milan by the favour of the Austrian government, and the editorship was offered to and declined by Ugo Foscolo. It rendered service to Italian literature by its opposition to the Della-Cruscan tyranny Another Milanese serial was the Conciliatore (1818-1820), which although it only lived two years, will be remembered for the endeavours made by Silvio Pellico, Camillo Ugoni and its other contributors to introduce a more dignified and courageous method of criticism. After its suppression and the falling off in interest of the Biblioteca italiana the next of an merit to appear was the Antologia, a monthly periodical brought out at Florence in 1820 by Gino Capponi and Giampetro Vieusseux, but suppressed in 1833 on account of an epigram of Tommaseo, a principal writer. Some striking papers were contributed by Giuseppe Mazzini. Naples had in 1832 Il Progresso of Carlo Troya, helped by Tommaseo and Centofanti, and Palermo owned the Giornale di statistica (1834), suppressed eight years later. The Archivio storico, consisting of reprints of documents with historical dissertations, dates from 1842, and was founded by Vieusseux and Gino Capponi. The Civiltà cattolica (1850), fortnightly, is still the organ of the Jesuits. The Rivista contemporanea (1852) was founded at Turin in emulation of the French Revue des deux mondes, which has been the type followed by so many continental periodicals. The Politecnico (1839) of Milan was suppressed in 1844 and revived in 1859. The Nuova antologia (1866) soon acquired a well-deserved reputation as a high-class review and magazine; its rival, the Rivista europea, being the special organ of the Florentine men of letters. The Rassegna settimanale was a weekly political and literary review, which after eight years of existence gave place to a daily newspaper, the Rassegna. The Archivio trentino (1882) was the organ of “Italia Irredenta.” The Rassegna nazionale, conducted by the marchese Manfredo di Passano, a chief of the moderate clerical party, the Nuova rivista of Turin, the Fanfulla della Domenica, and the Gazzetta letteraria may also be mentioned.
Some of the following are still published: Annali di matematica (1867); Annuario di giurizsprudenza (1883); Archivio dz statistica (1876); Archivio storico lombardo (1874); Archivio veneto (1871); Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari; Archivio per la zoologia; Il Bibliofilo; Il Filangieri (1876); La Natura (1884); Nuovo giornale botanico (1869); Giornale degli eruditi (1883); Giornale di filologia romanza; Nuova rivista Internazionale (1879); La Rassegna italiana (1881), Revue internationale (1883). In more recent years a great expansion has been witnessed. Local reviews have largely increased, as well as those devoted to history, science and university undertakings. Among representative serials are the following—Archaeology: Museo italiano di antichita classica (1885) with atlas in folio; Oriens christianus (1901); Nuovo bollettino di archeologia cristiana, quarterly at Rome (1895). Bibliography: Rivista delle biblioteche e degli archivi (1888), published monthly at Rome and Florence, the official organ of librarians and archivists; Giornale della libreria della tipografia (1888), supplement to the Bibliografia italiana; Bollettino di bibliografa e storia delle scienze matematiche (1898); La Bibliofilia (1899), Florence, monthly; Raccolta Vinciana (1904). Philology: Bollettino di filologia classica (1894); Giornale italiano di filologia e linguistica classica (1886); Studi di filologia romanza (1835); Studi italiani di filologia classica (1893); Bessarione, bi-monthly. No class has developed more usefully than the historical, among them being: Bollettino dell' instituto storico italiano (1886); Nuovo archivio veneto (1890); Rivista di storia antica e scienze affini (1895); Rivista storica italiana (1884). New literary and scientific reviews are: L'Alighieri, rivista di cose dantesche (1889); Giornale dantesco (1894); Giornale storico della letteratura italiana (1883); Studi di letteratura italiana (1899), Studi medievali (1904); L'Arcadia, periodico mensile di scienze, lettere, ed arti (1889); Periodico di matematica per l'insegnamento secondario (1885); Rivista di matematica (1891); Rivista philosofica (1899); Rivista d'Italia, monthly at Rome. Fine Arts: L'Arte, monthly; Arte italiana, monthly; Rassegna d'arte, monthly.
Authorities.—See G. Ottino, La Stampa periodica in Italia (Milan, 1875); Raccolta dei periodici presentata all' esposizione in Milano (1881); A. Roux, La Littérature contemporaine en Italie (1871-1883), Paris, 1883.
The Journal encyclopédique (1756-1793) founded by P. Rousseau, made Liége a propagandist centre for the philosophical party. In the same city was also first established L'Esprit des journaux (1772-1818), styled by Sainte-Beuve “cette considérable et excellente collection,” but “journal voleur et compilateur.” The Journal historique et littéraire (1788-1790) was founded at Luxemburg by the Jesuit De Feller; having been suppressed there, it was transferred to Liége, and subsequently to Maestricht. It is one of the most curious of the Belgian periodicals of the 18th century, and contains most precious materials for the national history. A complete set is very rare and much sought after. The Revue belge (1835-1843), in spite of the support of the best writers of the kingdom, as well as its successor the Revue de Liége (1844-1847), the Trésor national (1842-1843), published at Brussells, and the Revue de Belgique (1846-1851) were all short-lived. The Revue de Bruxelles (1837-1848), supported by the nobility and the clergy, had a longer career. The Revue nationale was the champicn of Liberalism, and came to an end in 1847. The Messager des sciences historiques (1833), at Ghent, was in repute on account of its historical and antiquarian character. The Revue catholique, the organ of the professors of the university of Louvain, began in 1846 a controversy with the Journal historique et littéraire of Kersten (1834) upon the origin of human knowledge, which lasted for many years and excited great attention. The Annales des travaux publics (1843), the Bulletin de l'industrie (1842), the Journal des beaux-arts (1858), and the Catholic Précis historiques (1852), the Protestant Chrétien belge (1850), are other examples. The Revue trimestrielle was founded at Brussels by Van Bemmel in 1854. The Athenaeum belge (1868) did not last long.
Among current periodicals in French are the following—Bibliography: Bulletin bibliographique et pédagogique du musée belge (1897); La Revue des bibliothèques et archives de Belgique (1903); Le Glaneur littéraire, musical et bibliographie (1901); Archives des arts et de la bibliographie de Belgique (Tables 1833-1853 and 1875-1894). Philosophy and ecclesiastic history: Revue neo-scholastique publiée par la société philosophique de Louvain (1894); Revue d'histoiree ecclésiastique (1900), the organ of the Catholic university of Louvain; Revue bénédictine (1884); Analectes pour servir à l'histoire ecclésiastique de la Belgique, 2e série (1881-1904) and 3e série 1905), with an Annexe for Cartularies. Science: Archives internationales de physiologie (1902), published by Léon Fredericq; La Cellule, recueil de cytologie et d'histologie générale (1884); Le Muséon (1882); Le Mouvement géographique (1884); Le Musée belge (1897); Revue chirurgicale belge et du nord de la France (1901). Annales des mines belgiques appears quarterly, and L'Art moderne weekly at Brussels.
Among Flemish serials may be mentioned the Nederduitsche Letteroefeningen (1834); the Belgisch Museum (1836-1846), edited by Willems; the Broederhand, which did not appear after 1846; the Taalverbund of Antwerp; the Kunst- en Letterblad (1840-1843); and the Vlaemsche Rederyker (1844). Current Flemih periodicals include: Onze kunst geïllustreed maandschrift voor beeldende kunst (1900); Averbode's weekblad Godsdienst huisgezin moedertaal (1907); De Raadselbode tolk van den vlamschen raadselliefhebber (1901); Rechtskundig tijdschrift voor vlamsch Belgie (1901).
It has been calculated that in 1860 there were 51 periodicals published in Belgium. In 1884 the number had increased to 412, and in 1908 to 1701.
See U. Capitaine, Recherches sur les journaux et les écrits périodiques liégeois (1850), Relevé de tous les écrits périodiques qui se publient dans le royaume de Belgique (1875), Catalogue des journaux, revues, et publications périodiques de la Belgique (1910), Revue bibliographique belge.
The first serial written in Dutch was the Boekzaal van Europa (1692-1708, and 1715-1748), which had several changes of name during its long life. The next of any note was the Republijk der Geleerden (1710-1748). The English Spectator was imitated by J. van Effen in his Misanthrope (1711-1712), written in French, and in the Hollandsche Spectator (1731-1735), in Dutch. An important serial was the long-lived Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen (1761). The Algemeene Kunst en Letterbode (1788) was long the leading review of Holland, in 1860 it was joined to the Nederlandsch Spectator (1855). Of those founded in the 19th century may be mentioned the Recensent (1803), and Nieuwe Recensent; the Nederlandsch Museum (1835); the Tijdstroom (1857); the Tijdspiegel, a literary journal of Protestant tendency; the Theologisch Tijdschrift (1867), the organ of the Leiden school of theology; and the Dietsche Warande, a Roman Catholic review devoted to the national antiquities. Colonial interests have been cared for by the Tijdschrift voor nederlandsch Indie (1848). Current periodicals are Hollandsche revue, monthly; De Gids (1837), monthly; De nieuwe Gids (1886), monthly; De Architect, bi-monthly; Caecilia (for music); Tijdschrift voor Strafrecht; Museum, for philology (1893), monthly; Tijdschrift voor nederlandsche taal en letterkunde; Nederlandsch Archievenblad; De Paleograaf; Elseviers geillustreerd Maandschrift, monthly; Groot Nederland, monthly.
Early in the 18th century Denmark had the Nye Tidender (1720), continued down to 1836 under the name of Danskliteraturtidende. The Minerva (1785) of Rahbek was carried on to 1819, and the Skandinavisk Museum (1798-1803) was revived by the Litteratur-Selskabs Skrifter (1805). These were followed by the Laerde Efterretninger (1799-1810), afterwards styled Litteratur-Tidende (1811-1836), the Athene (1813-1817), and Historisk Tidsskrift (1840). In more modern times appeared Tidsskrift for Litteratur og Kritik (1832-1842, 1843); Maanedsskrift for Litteratur (1829-1838); Nord og Syd (1848-1849) of Goldschmidt, succeeded by Ude og Hjemme, and the Dansk Maanedsskrift (1858) of Steenstrup, with signed historical and literary articles. One of the most noteworthy Scandinavian periodicals has been the Nordisk Universitets Tidsskrift (1854-1864), a bond of union between the universities of Christiania, Upsala, Lund and Copenhagen. Current periodicals are: Studier fra Sprog- og Oldtidsforskning (1891), quarterly; Danske Magazin, yearly; Nyt Tidsskrift for Mathematik, monthly; Theologisk Tidsskrift, monthly; Nationalökonomisk Tidsskrift, bi-monthly; Dansk bogfortegnelse, bi-monthly for bibliography; Athenaeum finsk; Tilskueren, monthly; Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed (archaeology) quarterly.
Iceland has had the Islenzk Sagnablöd (1817-1826), Ný Fjelagsrit (1841-1873), and Gefn (1870-1873). Skirnir (1831), which absorbed in 1905 Timarit hins islenska Bokmentafélags (1880-1904), is still published.
The first trace of the serial form of publication to be found in Norway is in the Ugentlige korte Afhandlinger (1760-1761), “Weekly Short Treatises,” of Bishop Fr. Nannestad, consisting of moral and theological essays. The Maanedlige Afhandlinger (1762), “Monthly Treatises,” was supported by several writers and devoted chiefly to rural economy. These two were followed by Politik og Historie (1807-1810); Saga (1816-1820), a quarterly review edited by J. S. Munch; Den norske Tilskuer (1817-1821), a miscellany brought out at Bergen; Hermoder (1821-1827), a weekly aesthetic journal; Iduna, (1822-1823), of the same kind but of less value; Vidar (1832-1834), a weekly scientific and literary review; Nor (1840-1846), of the same type; Norsk Tidsskrift for Videnskab og Litteratur (1847-1855); Illustreret Nyhedsblad (1851-1866), “Illustrated News”; Norsk Maanedsskrift (1856-1860), “Monthly Review for Norway,” devoted to history and philology, and Norden (1866), a literary and scientific renew. Popular serials date from the Skilling Magazin (1835), which first introduced wood-engraving. Representative current periodicals are: Samtiden, monthly; Elektroteknisk tidsskrift; nordisk musik-revue, fortnightly; Naturen; Norsk havetidende, monthly; Urd; Norvegia.
The Suenska Argus (1733-1734) of Olof Dalin is the first contribution of Sweden to periodical literature. The next were the Tidningar om den Lärdas Arbeten (1742) and the Lärda Tidningar. The patriotic journalist C. C. Gjörwell established about twenty literary periodicals of which the most important was the Swenska Mercurius (1755-1789). Atterbom and some fellow-students founded about 1810 a society for the deliverance of the country from French pedantry, which with this end carried on a periodical entitled Phosphoros (1810-1813), to propagate the opinions of Schlegel and Schelling. The Svensk Literatur-Tidning (1813-1825) of Palmblad and the Polyfem (1810-1812) had the same objects. Among later periodicals we may mention Skandia (1833-1837); Literaturbladet (1838-1840); Stallningar och Forhallanden (1838) of Crusenstolpe, a monthly review of Scandinavian history; Tidskrift for Litteratur (1850); Norsk Tidsskrift (1852), weekly; Forr och Nu; and the Revue suedoise (1858) of Kramer, written in French. Among the monthlies which now appear are the following: Social Tidskrift, Nordisk Tidskrift and Ord och Bild.
Spain owes her intellectual emancipation to the monk Benito Feyjóo, who in 1726 produced a volume of dissertations somewhat after the fashion of the Spectator, but on graver subjects, entitled Teatro critico, which was continued down to 1739. His Cartas eruditas (1712-1760) were also issued periodically. The earliest critical serial, the Diario de los literatos (1737-1742), kept up at the expense of Philip V., did not long survive court favour. Other periodicals which appeared in the 18th century were Mañer's Mercurio (1738); the Diario noticioso (1758-1781); El Pensador (1762-1767) of Joseph Clavijo y Fajardo; El Belianis literario (1765), satirical in character; the Semanario erudito (1778-1791), a clumsy collection of documents; El Correo literario de la Europa (1781-1782); El Censor (1781); the valuable Memorial literario (1784-1808); El Correo literario (1786-1791), devoted to literature and science; and the special organs El Correo mercantil (1792-1798) and El Semanario de agricultura (1797-1805). In the 19th century were Variedades de ciencias, literatura, y artes (1803-1805), among whose contributors have been the distinguished names of Quintana, Moratin and Antillon; Miscelánea de comercio (1819); and Diario general de las ciencias medicas. The Spanish refugees in London published Ocios de españoles refugiados (1823-1826) and Miscelánea hispanoamericana (1824-1828), and at Paris Miscelánea escojida americana (1826). The Crónica científica y literaria (1817-1820) was afterwards transformed into a daily newspaper. Subsequently to the extinction of El Censor (1820-1823) there was nothing of any value until the Cartas españolas (1832), since known as the Revista española (1832-1836) and as the Revista de Madrid (1838). Upon the death of Ferdinand VII. periodicals had a new opening; in 1836 there were published sixteen journals devoted to science and art. The fashion of illustrated serials was introduced in the Semanario pintoresco español (1836-1857), noticeable for its biographies and descriptions of Spanish monuments. El Panorama (1839-1841) was another literary periodical with engravings. Of later date have been the Revista ibérica (1861-1863), conducted by Sanz del Rio; La America (1857-1870), specially devoted to American subjects and edited by the brothers Asquerino; Revista de Cataluña, published at Barcelona; Revista de España; Revista contemporánea; España moderna (1889), and Revista critica (1895). Current special periodicals are: Euskal-erria, revista bascongada (1880, San Sebastian); Monumenta historica societatis Jesu (1894); El Progreso matematico, afterwards Revista de matematicas puras y aplicadas (1891); Revista de bibliografia Catalano (Catalunya, Baleares, Rosselò, Valencia, 1901); La Naturaleza, fortnightly; La Energia eléctrica, fortnightly; Revista minera, weekly, Revista de medicina, weekly; Bibliografia española, fortnightly; La Lectura; España y America, monthly.
See E. Hartzenbusch, Periódicos de Madrid (1876); Lapeyre, Catalogo-tarifa de los periódicos, revistas, y ilustraciones en España (1882); Georges le Gentil, Les Revues littéraires de l'Espagne pendant la première moitié du XIXe siècle (Paris, 1909).
Portugal could long boast of only one review, the Jornal enciclopedico (1779-1806), which had many interruptions, then came the Jornal de Coimbra (1812-1820); the Panorama (1836-1857), founded by Herculano; the Revista universal lisbonense (1841-1853), established by Castilho; the Instituto (1853) of Coimbra; the Archivo pittoresco (1857) of Lisbon; and the Jornal do sociedade dos amigos das letteras. In 1868 a review called Vox femenina, and conducted by women, was established at Lisbon. Current periodicals include: O Archeologo portuguès (1895); Jornal de sciencias mathematicas et astronomicas (1877); Revista lusitana, Archivo de estudos philologicos e ethnologicos relativos á Portugal (1887); Ta-ssi-Yang-Kuo, Archivos e annaes de extremo oriente portuguez (1899); Portugal artistico, fortnightly; Revista militar; Arte musical, fortnightly; Boletim do agricultor, monthly; Archivo historico portuguez, monthly.
The periodical literature of modern Greece commences with Ὁ Λόγιος Ἑρμῆς, brought out at Vienna in 1811 by Anthimos Gazi and continued to 1821. In Aegina the Αἰγιναῖα appeared in 1831, edited by Mustoxidis; and at Corfu, in Greek, Italian and English, the Ἀνθολογία (1834). After the return of King Otho in 1833 a literary review called Ἰρις was commenced. Le Spectateur de l'Orient, in French, pleaded the national cause before Europe for three years from 1853. A military journal was published at Athens in 1855, and two years later the archaeological periodical conducted by Pittakis and Rangabes. For many years Πανδώρα (1850-1872), edited by Rangabes and Paparrigopoulos, was the leading serial. Φύρις dealt with natural science, the Γεωπονικά with agriculture, and Ἱερομνήμων with theology. Ἐθνικὸν πανεπιστήμιον (1831) and Φιλολογικὸς σύλλογος Παρνασσός (1863) appear annually, and Ἀθηνᾶ (1899) quarterly.
See A. R. Rangabé, Hist. littéraire de la Grèce moderne (Paris, 1879), R. Nicolai, Geschichte der neugriechischen Literatur (1876).
The historian Gerhard Friedrich Müller made the first attempt to establish periodical literature in Russia in his Yejem’yesyatchniya Sotchineniya (1755-1764), or “Monthly Works.” In 1759 Sumarakov founded the Trudolyubivaya Ptchelá, or “Industrious Bee,” giving translations from the Spectator, and, for the first time, critical essays. Karamsin brought out in 1802 the V’yestnik Evropi, an important review with Liberal tendencies. The Conservative Russkoi V’yestnik (1808) was revived at Moscow in 1856 by Kattkov. The two last named are still published each month. The romantic school was supported by Sin Otetchestva (1812), “Son of the Fatherland,” united in 1825 to the Severnoi Arkhiv (1822), which dwindled and came to an end soon after 1839. One of the most successful Russian reviews has been the Biblioteka dl’ya Tchtenia (1834) or “Library of Reading.” The Russkaya Missl, “Russian Thought,” published in Moscow, represented the Slavophil party. The following are some representative periodicals of the day: Zurnal ministersva narodnago prosvescenija, monthly; Baltische Monatsschrift (1860), monthly; V’yestnik vospitania (for education); Mir iskusstra (for fine art); Russkoie bogatstvo (for literature); Russki arkhiv (archives); Mir Boji, monthly; Istorichesky v’yestnik (history); Russkaia starina (archaeology). In Finland Suomi (1841), written in Swedish, is still published.
Bohemia has the Časopis musea království českého (1827), quarterly, founded by Palacky; Naše doba, monthly; Čechische Revue (1907) quarterly. Hungary can show the Ungarisches Magazin (1781-1787, 1791), published at Pressburg, and the Magyar Muzeum (1788). The Tudományos gyüjetémény (1817-1841) and the Figyelmezö (1837-1843) deserve mention. Uj Magyar Muzeum was a scientific magazine, and the Budapesti Szemle (1857) of a more general character. Among current Hungarian periodicals are: Magyar Könyvszemle (1876), and Magyar Nyomdászat. Before the revolution of 1830 Poland had the Pamietnik Warszawska of Lach Szyrma. Among other Polish reviews may be mentioned the Dziennik Literacki of Lemberg; the Biblioteka Warszawska (1841), monthly; Przeglad Polski (1866), monthly; Przewodnik naukowy i literacki (1873), monthly; Przewodnik bibliograficzny (1878), monthly; Przeglad powzechny (1884), monthly. Rumania commenced with the Magasinal istorica pentru Dacia (1845), containing valuable historical documents; and Moldavia with Dacia Literaria (1840) and Archiva Romanesca (1841). Rumania now has the Convorbiri literare (1868), monthly, and Romanul, revistǎ literarǎ illustrata septemânalǎ. The best literary review Servia has had was the Wila, edited by Novakovic.
Japan now possesses native periodicals of the European type, of which the following are representative examples: Fudzoku-Gaho (native customs); The Kokka (art); Toyo-Gakugei-Zasshi (science), Jogaku-Zasshi (domestic economy); Tetsugaku-Zasshi (philosophy), Keizai-Zasshi (political economy); Taiyo (literature).
General Indexes to Periodicals.—The most complete collection of periodicals in all languages ever brought together is that preserved in the British Museum, and the excerpt from the printed catalogue of the library, entitled Periodical Publications (London, 1899-1900, 2nd ed. 6 parts folio, with index), includes journals, reviews, magazines and other works issued periodically, with the exception of transactions and proceedings of learned societies and of British and Colonial newspapers later than 1700. The titles of these periodicals, which number about 23,000, are arranged under the town or place of their publication.
The Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews, the Revue des deux mondes, the Revue historique, Deutsche Rundschau and others issue from time to time general indexes of their contents, while the periodical literature of special departments of study and research are noted in the various Jahresberichte published in Germany, and indexed monthly in such English and American magazines as the Engineering Magazine, the Geographical Journal, English Historical Review, American Historical Review, Economic Journal (for political economy), Library Journal and Library Association Record (for bibliography) and the Educational Review. The Cat. of Scientific Papers (1800-1900) of the Royal Society (1867-1908), and the Repertorium der techn. Journ. Literatur (1879-1899) of the German Patent Office, are specimens of indexes of special periodicals. There are also annual indexes such as those in the Zoological Record and Annales de géographie. Complete lists are given by A. B. Kroeger (Guide to Reference Books, 1908) and Stein (Manuel de bibliographie générale, 1897). See also Bibliography of Books reviewed in American Periodicals, by G. F. Danforth 1902-1903); Book Review Digest (1906), &c.; H. C. Bolton's Cat. of Scientific and Technical Periodicals 1665-1895, Smithsonian Inst. (2nd ed., 1897); Harrison's Int. Cat. of Scientific Lit. (1903-1904); S. H. Scudder's Cat. of Scientific Serials, 1633-1876 (Camb. [Harvard Univ.] 1876); Cat. of Periodicals (English and Foreign) in Bod. Lib., 1878-1880; Bibliothèque Nationale, Liste des périodiques étrangers (1896). A useful select list, including all languages, is J. D. Brown's Classified List of Current Periodicals (1904). (H. R. T.)
- Archibald Bower (1686–1766) was educated at Douai, and became a Jesuit. He subsequently professed himself a convert to the Anglican Church, and published a number of works, but was more esteemed for his ability than for his moral character.
- The biographers of Goldsmith have made us familiar with the name of Griffiths (1720–1803), the prosperous publisher, with his diploma of LL.D. granted by an American university, and with the quarrels between him and the poet.
- The centenary of the Edinburgh Review was celebrated in an article in October 1902, and that of the Quarterly Review in two articles April and July 1909. See also On the Authorship of the First Hundred Numbers of the Edinburgh Review (1895), by W. A. Copinger, and The First Edinburgh Reviewers in Literary Studies (1879), vol. i, by W. Bagehot.
- The first series of the Gentleman's Magazine or Trader's Monthly Intelligencer, extended from January 1731 to December 1735, 5 vols.; the Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Chronicle from January 1736 to December 1807, vols. 6–77; new series, January 1808 to December 1833, vols. 78–103; new series, 1834–1856, 45 vols; new (third) series, 1856–1865, 19 vols.; new (fourth) series, 1866–1868, 5 vols. A general index to the first twenty vols. appeared in 1753. S. Ayscough brought out an index to the first fifty-six vols, 1751–1786 (1789), 2 vols., and one by J. Nichols, 1787–1818 (1821), 2 vols. A complete list of the plates and woodcuts (1731–1813) was published in 1814, and another list (1731–1818), in 1821. The Gentleman's Magazine Library, being a classified collection of the chief contents of the Gentleman's Magazine, from 1731 to 1868, is now being edited by Mr G. L. Gomme (1883, &c., vols. 1–17).
- John Limbird, to whom even before Chambers or Knight is due the carrying out the idea of a cheap and good periodical for the people, died on the 31st of October 1883, without having achieved the worldly prosperity of his two followers.
- Matthew Maty, M.D., born in Holland, 1718, died principal librarian of the British Museum, 1776. He settled in England in 1740, published several books, and wrote the preface to Gibbon's first work, Étude de la littérature.
- The novelist and publicist Joseph Fiévée (1767-1839), known for his relations with Napoleon I, has been made the subject for a study by Sainte-Beuve (Causeries, v. 172).
- This remarkable man (1804-1877) began life as a shepherd. Educated through the charity of M. Naville, he came to Paris as a compositor, and by translating from the English earned sufficient to purchase the moribund Revue des deux mondes, which acquired its subsequent position in spite of the tyrannical editorial behaviour of the proprietor. Buloz is said to have eventually enjoyed an income of 365,000 francs from the Revue.