1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Predicables
PREDICABLES (Lat. praedicabilis, that which may be stated or affirmed), in scholastic logic, a term applied to a classification of the possible relations in which a predicate may stand to its subject. The list given by the schoolmen and generally adopted by modern logicians is based on the original fivefold classification given by Aristotle (Topics, α iv. 101 b. 17-25): definition (ὅρος), genus (γένος), differentia (διαφορά), property (ἴδιον), accident (συμβεβηκός). The scholastic classification, obtained from Böetius's Latin version of Porphyry's Eisagoge, modified Aristotle's by substituting species (εἶδος) for definition. Both classifications are of universals, concepts or general terms, proper names of course being excluded. There is, however, a radical difference between the two systems. The standpoint of the Aristotelian classification is the predication of one universal concerning another. The Porphyrian, by introducing species, deals with the predication of universals concerning individuals (for species is necessarily predicated of the individual), and thus created difficulties from which the Aristotelian is free (see below).
The Aristotelian classification may be briefly explained: (1) The Definition of anything is the statement of its essence (Arist. τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι), i.e. that which makes it what it is: e.g. " a triangle is a three-sided rectilineal figure." (2) Genus is that part of the essence which is also predicable of other things different from them in kind. A triangle is a rectilineal figure; i.e. in fixing the genus of a thing, we subsume it under a higher universal, of which it is a species. (3) Differentia is that part of the essence which distinguishes one species from another. As compared with. quadrilaterals, hexagons, &c., all of which are rectilineal figures, a triangle is "differentiated" as having three sides. (4) A Property is an attribute which is common to all the members of a class, but is not part of its essence (i.e. need not be given in its definition). The fact that the interior angles of all triangles are equal to two right angles is not part of the definition, but is universally true. (5) An Accident is an attribute which may or may not belong to a subject. The colour of the human hair is an accident, for it belongs in no way to the essence of humanity.
This classification, though it is of high value in the clearing up of our conceptions of the essential contrasted with the accidental, the relation of genus, differentia and definition and so forth, is of more significance in connexion with abstract sciences, especially mathematics, than for the physical sciences. It is superior on the whole to the Porphyrian scheme, which has grave defects. As has been said it classifies universals as predicates of individuals and thus involves the difficulties which gave rise to the controversy between realism and nominalism (q.v.). How are we to distinguish species from genus ? Napoleon was a Frenchman, a man, an animal. In the second place how do we distinguish property and accident? Many so-called accidents are predicable necessarily of any particular persons. This difficulty gave rise to the distinction of separable and inseparable accidents, which is one of considerable difficulty.
See the modern logic textbooks.
- Strictly Aristotle's classification is into four as διαφορά really belongs to γένος.